Maidan Summit 2011 - Arjun J Chaudhuri, University of Delhi
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DESCRIPTIONMr Arjun J Chaudhuri took the audience through a brief history of development of sport in his presentation at Maidan Summit 2011. He said that the state of affairs in India is slowly moving from amateur to professional sporting, which is why we can build upon a lot of new developments from within and around the world to craft out sport-based programmes. He also talked about the economics related to using sport for development in the Indian context, citing a small reference to the example of the industrial revolution of Europe. Arjun said that development can only happen if the methods and processes are in place.
- 1. SPORTS SCIENCES ANDPHYSICAL EDUCATION INCOLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES ARJUN J CHAUDHURI VISITING FACULTY, SGTB KHALSA COLLEGE, DELHI UNIVERSITY SPORTS ECONOMICS & MARKETING CERTIFICATE COURSE
2. PHYSICAL EDUCATION[PRE-776 BC-TILL DATE]PHYSICAL EDUCATION comprises FORMS of PHYSCIALEXERCISE TAUGHT in SCHOOLS and COLLEGES.INTRODUCTIONPhysical Education is instruction in various kinds ofphysical activities to PROMOTE the PHYSICALDEVELOPMENT and WELL-BEING of the INDIVIDUAL.Games that foster COMPETITION and stimulate playBEHAVIOUR are often used as a means of enablingstudents to understand and practice specific physicalskills so that a high level of FITNESS can beMAINTAINED.HISTORYOriginally, in ANCIENT GREECE [PRE-776 BC],PHYSICAL EDUCATION consisted of GYMNASTICS toIMPROVE STRENGTH, AGILITY, FLEXIBILITY, andENDURANCE. The Greeks considered the HUMANBODY a TEMPLE that housed the MIND and the SOUL,and gymnastics kept that temple HEALTHY andFUNCTIONAL. Eventually, STRUCTURED GYMNASTICSand CALISTHENIC EXERCISE were ABANDONED infavor of SPORTS [ANCIENT OLYMPIC GAMES 776 BC-AD 393; MODERN OLYMPIC GAMES 1896-TILL DATE].IMAGE ABOVE, WRESTLING 3. PHYSICAL EDUCATION[PRE-776 BC-TILL DATE]IMAGE 1, EXEDRA [SITTING AREA] RUINS AT OLYMPIA,GREECEThe SITE of the ANCIENT OLYMPIC GAMES was asanctuary consisting of TEMPLES and buildings toHONOUR the MYTHOLOGICAL GODS of ANCIENTGREECE. The ANCIENT OLYMPIC GAMES, which dateback to 776 BC, BEGAN with a CEREMONY andSACRIFICE to the GODS. The EXEDRA, or SITTINGAREA, pictured here is among the ruins at Olympia.IMAGE 2, FOOT RACEThe figures on this amphora represent participants ina FOOT RACE at the Panathenaic Games. CITY-STATEFESTIVALS provided the most excitingENTERTAINMENT in ANCIENT GREECE. At thesegatherings GREEKS HONOURED the GODS withCOMPETITIONS in SPORTS, MUSIC, DRAMA, andPOETRY.IMAGE 3, CHARIOT RACEA CHARIOT DRIVER CRACKS his WHIP to ENCOURAGEhis HORSES. Chariot racing was a POPULAR PASTIMEin ANCIENT GREECE and ANCIENT ROME and wasRECORDED as an EVENT in the ANCIENT OLYMPICGAMES. 4. PHYSICAL EDUCATION [POST-1896-TILL DATE]In modern times, PHYSICAL EDUCATION is the onlysubject that is directly concerned with MOTORBEHAVIOUR. Emphasis on the MEANING of HUMANMOVEMENT, PHYSIOLOGY of EXERCISE, SPORTSOCIOLOGY, and AESTHETIC APPRECIATION ofMOVEMENT, as well as the ACQUISITION of SKILLS, areincluded in todays CURRICULUM.IMAGE 1, BARON DE COUBERTIN, IOC PRESIDENT [1896-1925]BARON PIERRE DE COUVERTIN of FRANCE is known asthe man who REVIVED the OLYMPIC GAMES. In 1894 heworked with representatives of 14 other NATIONS toFORM the INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE [IOC],over which he PRESIDED from the FIRST MODERN GAMESin 1896 until his RETIREMENT in 1925.IMAGE 2, LIGHTING THE OLYMPIC FLAME, 1988 OLYMPICGAMES IN SEOUL, SOUTH KOREATEACHINGTeachers of physical education must have at least abaccalaureate degree. Required study includes courses inHUMAN BIOLOGY and HUMAN BEHAVIOUR. 5. TRANSITION FROMPHYSICAL EDUCATION TOSPORTS SCIENCESSPORT is COMPETITIVE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. It is anINDIVIDUAL or GROUP COMPETITIVE ACTIVITYinvolving PHYSICAL EXERTION or SKILL,GOVERNED by RULES, and ENGAGED inPROFESSIONALLY for COMMERCIAL GAIN.SPORTS SCIENCE is a SYSTEMATICALLYORGANIZED BODY of KNOWLEDGE about SPORTS.It is an ACTIVITY that is the OBJECT of CAREFULSYUDY or that is CARRIED OUT ACCORDING to aDEVELOPED METHOD. It is KNOWLEDGE GAINEDfrom the STUDY of SPORTS.IMAGE 1, HOPKINS VELODROME, UKIMAGE 2, F1 STARTFormula One racers feature front and rear wingsthat press the cars to the pavement. These carscan consistently reach speeds of over 320 km/h(200 mph). Seen here is the start of the 2004Australian Grand Prix, part of the Formula OneWorld Championship. 6. SCIENTIFIC METHODDEDUCTIVE REASONINGRENE DESCARTES [1596-1650]FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN andPHILOSOPHER RENE DESCARTESwas attempting to account for observedphenomena on the basis of what hecalled clear and distinct ideastheMETHOD of DEDUCTIVEREASONING.The first modern philosopher, RenDescartes believed science andmathematics could explain and predictevents in the physical world. Descartesdeveloped the CARTESIANCOORDINATE SYSTEM for graphingequations and geometric shapes.Modern MAPS use a grid system thatcan be traced back to Cartesiangraphing techniques. 7. SCIENTIFIC METHODINDUCTIVE REASONINGFRANCIS BACON [1561-1626]FRANCIS BACON was an ENGLISHPHILOSOPHER and STATESMAN,and one of the PIONEERS ofMODERN SCIENTIFIC THOUGHT.Francis Bacon, wrote in the early 17thcentury that a TABULATION of asufficiently large number ofOBSERVATIONS of NATURE wouldlead to THEORIES accounting forthose operationsthe METHOD ofINDUCTIVE REASONING.The best of his PHILOSOPHICALWORKS are THE ADVANCEMENTOF LEARNING (1605), a review inEnglish of the state of knowledge in hisown time, and NOVUM ORGANUM;or, INDICATIONS RESPECTINGTHE INTERPRETATION OFNATURE (1620). 8. INVENTIONTECHNOLOGY TRANSFERINVENTION (DEVICE or PROCESS) isCREATION of new DEVICES, OBJECTS,IDEAS, or PROCESURES, USEFUL inaccomplishing HUMAN OBJECTIVES.The process of invention is invariablypreceded by one or more discoveriesthat help the inventor solve theproblem at hand.TECHNOLOGY is a general term for thePROCESSES by which human beingsfashion TOOLS and MACHINES toincrease their CONTROL andUNDERSTANDING of the MATERIALENVIRONMENT. The term is derivedfrom the GREEK WORDS TEKHNE,which refers to an ART or CRAFT, andLOGIA, meaning an AREA OF STUDY;thus, TECHNOLOGY means, literally,the STUDY, or SCIENCE, OF CRAFTING. 9. PROJECT MANAGEMENT,WORLD WAR I [1914-1918]PROJECT MANAGEMENT is a TECHNIQUEfor MATCHING AVAILABLE RESOURCES(TIME, MONEY, and PEOPLE) againstBUSINESS PROJECT AIMS (earlyCOMPLETION DATE and FINAL COST).The technique of Project ManagementORIGINATED in the SHIP BUILDINGINDUSTRY during WORLD WAR I (1914-1918), when AMERICAN ENGINEER HENRYLAURENCE GANTT DEVELOPED what is nowknown as the GANTT CHART, a BAR CHARTDEPLOYING USE of RESOURCES over TIME.TOP IMAGESHIP BUILDING INDUSTRY, NOANK,CONNECTICUT, USA BELOW IMAGEBuilding 100-foot concrete water tankboats for the Government. Inside of sternshowing progress of construction.Manufactured by Great Northern ConcreteShipbuilding Co., Vancouver, Wash. Ca.1918. 10. PHYSICAL EDUCATION & SPORTSSCIENCES [POST-1896-TILL DATE]IMAGE 1, JUAN ANTONIO SAMARANCH, IOCPRESIDENT SPAINs JUAN ANTONIO SAMARANCH, appointedINTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEEPRESIDENT in 1980, brought many INNOVATIONSto the OLYMPIC GAMES. Among these wereCORPORATE SPONSORSHIP, MOVING theWINTER GAMES and SUMMER GAMES to aROTATING TWO-YEAR SCHEDULE, and acceptingmore PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES.IMAGE 2, HOSTING THE OLYMPICS, 2000OLYMPIC GAMES, SYDNEY, AUSTRALIACITIES that HOST the OLYMPIC GAMES must havean adequate number of large, MODERNATHLETIC FACILITIES. Host cities SPEND to BUILDnew STADIUMS and VENUES to hold all theOLYMPIC SPORTING EVENTS and CEREMONIES.Shown here are some of the FACILITIES used inthe 2000 OLYMPIC GAMES in SYDNEY,AUSTRALIA. 11. SPORTS FORDEVELOPMENT [S4D]IMAGE 1, JIM THORPE AT 1912 OLYMPIC GAMESIN STOCKHOLM, SEDENUS ATHLETE JIM THORPE was considered theworlds best all-around athlete after WINNINGboth the PENTATHLON and DECATHLON duringthe 1912 OLYMPIC GAMES in STOCKHOLM,SWEDEN. He is shown here throwing the discusin the 1912 OLYMPIC GAMES.IMAGE 2, JESSE OWENS AT 1936 OLYMPICGAMES IN BERLIN, GERMANYUS ATHLETE JESSE OWENS, in the far inside lane,WON the 100-meter dash at the 1936 OLYMPICGAMES in BERLIN, GERMANY. JESSE OWENSdominated TRACK-AND-FIELD COMPETITION atthe OLYMPIC GAMES, also WINNING GOLDMEDALS in the 200-meter dash, the LONG JUMP,and the 4 x 100-meter RELAY.IMAGE 3, BLACK POWER SALUTE AT 1968OLYMPIC GAMES IN MEXICO CITY, MEXICOAFRICAN AMERICAN ATHLETES, 200-METERS,TOMMIE SMITH [GOLD] and JOHN CARLOS[BRONZE] 12. SPORTS FORDEVELOPMENT [S4D]IMAGE 1, BEN JOHNSON AT 1988 OLYMPIC GAMES INSEOUL, SOUTH KOREASPRINTER BEN JOHNSON began a successful career intrack and field in 1980 and went on to set severalworld records. The REVELATION at the 1988 OLYMPICGAMES in SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA, of his LONG-TERMSTEROID USE resulted in his having to FORFEIT theGOLD MEDAL he won there. BEN JOHNSON wasbanned from many major sporting events, butRETURNED to the track in 1991. He struggled toregain his world-class form and was PERMANENTLYBANNED from COMPETITION in 1993 afterCONTINUED STERIOD USE was DISCOVERED.IMAGE 2, TONY VOLPENTEST AT 1996 PARALYMPICGAMES IN ATLANTA, GEORGIAUS athlete Tony Volpentest is pictured here at the1996 PARLYMPIC GAMES in ATLANTA, GEORGIA,where he won gold medals in the 100-meter and200-meter dashes.The PARALYMPICS are an ATHLETIC COMPETITION forpeople with PHYSICAL DISABILITIES. Volpentest, whowas born without hands or feet, uses HIGH-TECHPROSTHETIC feet for his sprinting races. 13. SPORTS FORDEVELOPMENT [S4D]IMAGE, MARLA RUNYUN AT 2000OLYMPIC GAMES IN SYDNEY,AUSTRALIAIn 2000 MARLA RUNYUN, wearingnumber 3375, became the firstLEGALLY BLIND US OLYMPIC ATHLETEby QUALIFYING for the US TEAM in theWOMENs 1,500-meter RACE. At the2000 OLYMPIC GAMES in SYDNEY,AUSTRALIA, MARLA RUNYUNADVANCED to the FINALS, where shePLACED EIGHTH. Here she competes inthe Olympic semifinal heat withAmerican Suzy Favor Hamilton, left,and Russian Lyudmila Rogachova,center. 14. THANK YOUWrite to me at:firstname.lastname@example.org