Mahayaha Buddhism #15 Buddhism in Tokugawa Era Masayo Urasaki 26 September 2012

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  • Slide 1
  • Mahayaha Buddhism #15 Buddhism in Tokugawa Era Masayo Urasaki 26 September 2012
  • Slide 2
  • Today s schedule 1) To understand Japanese pre-Modern society (Tokugawa Era) and transformation of Buddhism. 2) To understand that influences of Kamakura Revolution in Tokugawa Era
  • Slide 3
  • Keywords Pre Modern (Tokugawa Era ) System of family which supports a temple Subsidiary system of temple Investigating of Religion affiliation Myo-ko-nin/ Ideal person of Shin Pure land Hakuin Ryoukan
  • Slide 4
  • Kamakura Era s Buddhist Revolution Essence of the Revolution Buddhism for the Public (local people) Everybody can become Buddha Easy practices Prefer faith to practices Spread to Local People, built many Temples. There are monks who engaged in Arts, financier. (Power of Buddhist become strong)
  • Slide 5
  • Influences of Christianity Francisco de Xavier/ Born 1506 at Spain.Catholic missionary. First Propagate at Japan in 1549 He wanted to go to Kyoto for propagate, but Shogun and Monk not permitted propagate at Kyuryu or Shikoku 2 years. Some Japanese Feudal Lord daimyo convert to Christian expecting not only faith but also profit of trading.
  • Slide 6
  • From Middle Age to Pre Modern Era of Civil War Unification of all Japan 1) Oda Nobunaga Set fire to the temple for weaken power of monk (Mt.Hiei, Mt.Koya, Kofuku-ji at Nara) Permit to propagate Christian Missionary, use them to oppress Buddhism 2) Toyotomi Hideyoshi Strong Control of Buddhist Temples At first, Protect Christian, spreaded too much, so he prohibited to propagate at 1587.
  • Slide 7
  • Tokugawa Era Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu Tokugawa Era ( 1603-1867) Conquer all Japan almost 300 years Toward Christianity prohibit But local people still faith secretly Toward Buddhism Using the power of Buddhism to control local people
  • Slide 8
  • Tokugawa Era s Policy toward Religion Strong Control and Umbrella of the Politics 1) System of family which supports a temple All people had to belong the temple. Government easy to grasp the information Aim of prohibiting Christianity completely Temple didn t need to propagate so hard
  • Slide 9
  • 2) Subsidiary system of temple Control to use head and branch temple relations 3) Investigating of Religion affiliation People should submit their faith, address, family information It was also benefit to guarantee the relationship between local people and temple Main Temple
  • Slide 10
  • What happened to each schools? Tendai / Shingon After destroyed by Shogun Oda, obey the Gov s policy. Nichiren Fuju Fuse movement protest Gov. / Underground movement Pure-Land Tokugawa family s temple/Gov. treat Zojo-ji well Shin Pure-Land Ikko- ikki Poor people protest Gov. Myoko-nin Ideal person of Shin Pure land Zen Protect from Gov. Rich monk-Artist, Tea ceremony
  • Slide 11
  • Outstanding Monks at Tokugawa Era Hakuin(1685-1768) Rinzai Zen Born at Shizuoka Province. Revival of Rinzai Zen. Became monk 15 years. Zen Artist. Teaching of Health Care. (Ex.Breath Meditation before sleep) Ryokan (1757-1831) Soto Zen Born at Niigata-Province. Became Monk 18 years old. Poet and Calligrapher. He likes to play children. Intimate Character.
  • Slide 12
  • Prepare for Final Examination Range of test >> All (China, Nara, Heian, Kamakura, Tokugawa) Full score >> 50 points 20 points >> Question True or False (10 questions) 30 points >> Writings short essay (3 questions)