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  1. 1. PRESENTED BY: S . MADHURI 1 ST YEAR PG
  2. 2. REFERENCES: GRAYS ANATOMY KING & NICOL V.K SHARMA INDERBIR SINGH HISTOLOGY INDERBIR SINGH EMBRYOLOGY
  3. 3. MALE URETHRA IS A FIBROMUSCULAR CANAL EXTENDING FROM BLADDER NECK TO EXTERNAL URINARY MEATUS ITS LENGTH IS APPROXIMATELY 20 CM
  4. 4. IT IS BROADLY DIVIDED INTO THREE PARTS PROSTATIC MEMBRANOUS SPONGY OR PENILE PROSTATIC AND MEMBRANOUS TOGETHER FORM POSTERIOR URETHRA SPONGY PORTION FORMS ANTERIOR URETHRA
  5. 5. pars prostatica 3 CM IS LENGTH LINED BY TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM IT IS THE WIDEST AND MOST DILATABLE PART OF MALE URETHRA
  6. 6. COURSE:BEGINS AT THE NECK OF THE BLADDER ,RUNS DOWNWARDS AND SLIGHTLY FORWARDS TO END AT THE POSTERIOR LAYER OF TRIANGULAR LIGAMENT(UROGENITAL DIAPHRAGM)
  7. 7. Upon the posterior wall or floor is a narrow longitudinal ridge, the urethral crest (verumontanum), formed by an elevation of the mucous membrane and its subjacent tissue.it is 15- 17 mm in length&3mm in height
  8. 8. On either side of the crest is a slightly depressed fossa, the prostatic sinus, the floor of which is perforated by numerous apertures, the orifices of the prostatic ducts from the lateral lobes of the prostate; the ducts of the middle lobe open behind the crest.
  9. 9. At the forepart of the urethral crest, below its summit, is a median elevation, the colliculus seminalis, upon or within the margins of which are the orifices of the prostatic utricle and the slit-like openings of the ejaculatory ducts.
  10. 10. The prostatic utricle (sinus pocularis ) is also called as the uterus masculinus, as it is developed from the united lower ends of the atrophied Mllerian ducts, and therefore homologous with the uterus and vagina in the female
  11. 11. (pars membranacea) 1.5 2 CM IN LENGTH LINED BY PSEUDO STRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM IS THE SHORTEST, LEAST DILATABLE, AND, WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THE EXTERNAL ORIFICE, THE NARROWEST PART OF THE CANAL
  12. 12. COURSE:It extends downward and forward, with a slight anterior concavity, between the apex of the prostate and the bulb of the urethra, perforating the urogenital diaphragm about 2.5 cm. below and behind the pubic symphysis.
  13. 13. the membranous urethra is completely surrounded by the fibers of the Sphincter urethrae. In front of it the deep dorsal vein of the penis enters the pelvis between the transverse ligament of the pelvis and the arcuate pubic ligament The glands of cowper ( bulbo urethral glands) lie on either side of its posterior surface
  14. 14. PARS CAVERNOSA; PENILE URETHRA 15 CM IN LENGTH LINED BY PSEUDO STRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM EXCEPT FOR TERMINAL 12MM , THE FOSSA NAVICULARIS , WHICH IS LINED BY STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
  15. 15. COURSE:extends from the termination of the membranous portion to the external urethral orifice. Commencing below the inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm it passes forward and upward to the front of the symphysis pubis; and then, in the flaccid condition of the penis, it bends downward and forward.
  16. 16. it is dilated behind, within the bulb, and again anteriorly within the glans penis, where it forms the fossa navicularis urethr. The external urethral orifice (orificium urethr externum; meatus urinarius) is the most contracted part of the urethra; it is a vertical slit, about 6 mm. long.
  17. 17. The lining membrane of the urethra, especially on the floor of the cavernous portion, presents the orifices of numerous mucous glands and follicles situated in the submucous tissue, and named the urethral glands (Littr). Besides these there are a number of small pit-like recesses, or lacun, of varying sizes.
  18. 18. One of these lacun, larger than the rest, is situated on the upper surface of the fossa navicularis; it is called the lacuna magna or sinus of guerin The bulbo-urethral glands open into the cavernous portion about 2.5 cm. in front of the inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm.
  19. 19. INTERNAL URETHRAL SPCHINTER: Also known as sphincter vesicae Involuntary in nature Supplied by sympathetic nerves from lower thoracic and upper lumbar segments It controls the neck of bladder and prostatic urethra above openings of ejaculatory ducts
  20. 20. EXTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER: Also known as SPHINCTER URETHRAE Voluntary in nature Supplied by perineal branch of pudendal nerve(S2 S3 S4) It controls membranous urethra and is responsible for the voluntary holding of urine
  21. 21. The prostatic urethra is supplied by the inferior vesical artery. The bulbourethral artery supplies the membranous and bulbar urethra penile urethra is supplied by the deep penile artery, a branch of the internal pudendal artery. In general, venous drainage mirrors the arterial supply
  22. 22. Lymphatics from prostatic and membranous parts pass mostly to the internal iliac nodes and partly to the external iliac nodes Lymphatics from spongy part pass mostly to deep inguinal nodes but some may end in superficial inguinal and external iliac
  23. 23. Wall of urethra composed of mucous , submucous and muscular layers Mucuous membrane consists of lining epithelium that rests on connective tissue Mucosa shows invaginations into which mucus glands open
  24. 24. The sub mucosa consists of loose connective tissue. the muscle coat consists of inner longitudinal and outer circular layer of smooth muscle.it is well defined only in prostatic and membranous urethra,the penile part is surrounded by ocassional fibres only
  25. 25. The part of urethra extending from urinary bladder upto the openings of ejaculatory ducts, is derived from caudal part of vesico urethral canal(endoderm).the posterior wall of this part is derived from the absorbed mesonephric ducts(mesoderm)
  26. 26. The rest of prostatic urethra and the membranous urethra,are derived from the pelvic part of definitive urogenital sinus The penile part of urethra except the terminal part is derived from the epithelium of the phallic part of the definitive urogenital sinus The terminal part that lies in the glans is derived from ectoderm
  27. 27. RUPTURE OF URETHRA:the urethra is commonly ruptured beneath the pubis by a fall astride a sharp object.this causes extravasation of urine HYPOSPADIAS:common anamoly in which urethra opens on the undersurface of penis
  28. 28. EPISPADIAS: rare condition in which urethra opens on the dorsum of penis.this condition is associated with ectopia vesicae
  29. 29. URETHRITIS:inflammation of urethra Presents with Discharge Discomfort during micturition and burning micturition Confirmatory test is finding of increased number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the urethral smear or in sediment of first vioded urine
  30. 30. CAUSES:BROADLY GONOCOCCAL NON-GONOCOCCAL
  31. 31. STICTURE OF URETHRA: urethral stricture is a narrowing of the urethra caused by injury or disease such as urinary tract infections can occur as complication of gonococcal and non gonococcal urethritis
  32. 32. soft strictures occur following non gonococcal urethritis hard strictures occur following gonococcal other causes: Trauma is more common cause,it can be physical(eg catheterization , urethroscopy) Chemical (burns from podophyllin ,tca or diathermy
  33. 33. early syphilitic disease chancroid herpes genitalis tuberculosis bilharzia lgv