Macrophomina phaseolina causing a charcoal rot of sunflower through Slovakia

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<ul><li><p>Biologia, Bratislava, 62/2: 136138, 2007Section BotanyDOI: 10.2478/s11756-007-0020-9</p><p>Short Communication</p><p>Macrophomina phaseolina causing a charcoal rot of sunflowerthrough Slovakia</p><p>Peter Bokor</p><p>Department of Plant Protection, Slovak Agricultural University, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK94976, Nitra, Slovakia; e-mail: Pe-ter.Bokor@uniag.sk</p><p>Abstract: The fungus Macrophomina phaseolina distributed especially in warmer region of Europe is reported for the firsttime from the Slovakia as a pathogen of sunflower. Morphology of its populations is characterized.</p><p>Key words: Macrophomina phaseolina; Slovakia</p><p>Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. is a soil-bornefungus that causes charcoal rot disease of many cropsin arid and semiarid areas of the world (Dhingra &amp; Sin-clair 1978) including soybean (Bradley &amp; del Rio 2003;Wrather et al. 1998; Wyllie 1989), alfalfa (Boewe 1963;Gray et al. 1980; Pratt et al. 1998; Stuteville &amp; Erwin1990), white clover (Farr et al. 1989; Halpin &amp;McCarter1961; Kilpatrick 1959; McGlohon 1959), beans (Olaya&amp; Agawi 1996) and muskmelon (Walker 1994).</p><p>M. phaseolina is the most important pathogenof sunower in warmer countries (Jimnez-Diz at al.1983; Sackston 1957; Sadashivaiah et al. 1986). In Italysunower has been widely cultivated not only in warmareas, but also in northern Italy (Rigoni 1990) and inmountain areas (Mannini &amp; Galina 1990). In all of theseareas M. phaseolina has been reported on sunower(Tossi et al. 1990; Zazzerini et al. 1985).</p><p>During the years 2004 and 2005 sunower plantswere examined in more than 100 localities in Slovakia.Sunower plants exhibited symptoms of charcoal rotin some elds during the second half of August andlater. Infected sunower plants died prematurely andhad silvery-grey appearance. In the lower part of theirstem the pith was compressed into horizontal layers andblack microsclerotia were found there (Fig. 1). The sizeof microsclerotia was between 6595 m. These symp-toms were observed in 16 localities of 68 monitored in2004 and in 21 localities of 44 monitored in 2005. Thenumber of aected sunower plants uctuated from 0to 95% in 2004 and from 0 to 55% in 2005 (Table 1).</p><p>Our observation is the rst record of the occurrenceof the pathogenM. phaseolina on sunower in Slovakia.The fungus identication was based on the symptomson the host plants, colony colour, and morphology andsize of the microsclerotia (Smith &amp; Wyllie 1999).</p><p>The stem tissue was placed in Petri dishes con-taining potato dextrose agar (PDA). Grey hyphae grewfrom the stem on the PDA, subsequently turning black</p><p>Fig. 1. Typical symptoms of charcoal rot on sunower cross-section stem. The pith in the stem is compressed into horizontallayers. The black microsclerotia are visible in the pith of the lowerpart of stem.</p><p>and forming microsclerotia with diameter of 88 m 20 m (Fig. 2). Similar results were obtained also byGulya et al. (2002) and Bradley &amp; Del Rio (2003).</p><p>To conrm pathogenicity the sunower plantsgrown in 200 mm diameter pots were inoculated withthe previously obtained isolate of M. phaseolina. Two-</p><p>c2007 Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences</p></li><li><p>Macrophomina phaseolina causing a charcoal rot 137</p><p>Table 1. The occurrence of Macrophomina phaseolina on sun-ower in Slovakia during 2004 and 2005.</p><p>Number of aected plants (%)Location</p><p>2004 2005</p><p>Veaty 10Svatue 10Luenec 5Fiakovsk Kove 24Riovce 95 55Alekince 40 Malanta 20 Mal Cetn 60 Doln tl 10 Dulov Dvor 5 Hul 70 Vinodol 50 Ba 30 Podhjska 20 Mojmrovce 10 Komrno 10 Zbrojnky 40Kolany 10Neverice 10Zlat Moravce 5Vrble 40 15Cabaj-por . Pere 15ihrec 10Kamenn 20Bruty 10Borsk Mikul 10Buany 10Trnava 10Peeady 30 Madunice 10 Trvnik 10Sap 10Lehnice 15Bojniky 30ulekovo 5 </p><p>week-old culture of M. phaseolina cultivated in Petridishes (80 mm in diameter) containing PDA was mixedwith the soil into which sunower seeds were sown im-mediately. After 8 weeks, M. phaseolina was re-isolatedfrom the infected tissues of the cultivated sunowerplants and placed on PDA.</p><p>The pathogen is commonly widespread in warmerEuropean countries especially in Hungary (Varga et al.1997), Bulgaria (Alexandrov 1999), Croatia and Serbia(Acimovi 1962; Mari et al. 1988) but its occurrencewas recorded in Czech Republic (rov et al. 2003),with colder climatic conditions, too. We can assumegood adaptation capability of this pathogen in colderconditions similarly as in Italy, where it was recorded inwarmer regions rst and later also in colder northern re-gions. In case of widespreading,M. phaseolina pathogenmay cause serious damage not only to sunower, butalso to potato, soybean and another crops. Transfer ofthe pathogen by seeds increases its spread and risk ofinfection. Since the occurrence of this disease has beenconrmed in Slovakia, the appropriate measures con-cerning the growing extent, monitoring the disease, andmanagement strategies must be taken.</p><p>Fig. 2. Pure culture of M. phaseolina cultivated in Petri dishes.The grey hyphae and black microsclerotia grew on the PDA.</p><p>References</p><p>Acimovi M. 1962. Sclerotium bataticola Taub. kao uzronikuvelosti suncokreta u Vojvodiny. Zatita bilja, pp. 6970.</p><p>Alexandrov V. 1999. Incidence of charcoal rot of sunower causedby Sclerotium bataticola Taub. in Bulgaria. Bulg. J. Agricul.Sci. 5: 867870.</p><p>Boewe G.H. 1963. Host plants of charcoal rot disease in Illinois.Plant Dis. Rep. 47: 753755.</p><p>Bradley C.A. &amp; del Rio L.E. 2003. First report of charcoal roton soybean caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in NorthDakota. Plant Dis. 87: 601.</p><p>Dhingra O.D. &amp; Sinclair J.B. 1978. Biology and pathology ofMacrophomina phaseolina. Universidad, Federal de Vicosa,Brasil, 166 pp.</p><p>Farr D.F., Bills G.F., Chamuris G.P. &amp; Rossman A. Y. 1989.Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States.American Phytopathol. Soc., St. Paul, MN.</p><p>Gray F.A., Haaland R.L., Clark E.M. &amp; Ball D.M. 1980. Diseasesof alfalfa in Alabama. Plant. Dis. 64: 10151017.</p><p>Gulya T., Krupinsky J. &amp; Charlet L. 2002. First report of charcoalrot (Macrophomina phaseolina) on sunower in North andSouth Dakota. Plant Dis. 87: 601.</p><p>Halpin J.E. &amp; McCarter S.M. 1961. Fungi associated with whiteclover stolons in selected areas of the Southeast during mid-summer. Plant Dis. Rep. 45: 298299.</p><p>Jimnez-Daz R. M., Blanco-Lpez M.A. &amp; Sackston W.E. 1983.Incidence and distribution of charcoal rot of sunower causedby Macrophomina phaseolina in Spain. Plant Dis. 67: 10331036.</p><p>Kilpatrick R.A. 1959, Fungi associated with red and white cloversin New Hampshire. Plant Dis. Rep. 43: 11111113.</p><p>Mannini P. &amp; Gallina D. 1990. Possibilita produttiva del girasolenelAppennino Bolognese. LInf. Agrario 12: 6368.</p><p>Mari A., Camprag D. &amp; Masirevi S. 1988. Bolesti i stetocinesuncokreta i njihhovo suzbijanje. Nolit, Beograd, pp. 1227.</p><p>McGlohon N.E. 1959. Survey of fungi associated with white cloverstolons. Plant. Dis. Rep. 43: 2224.</p><p>Olaya G. &amp; Abawi G.S. 1996. Eect of water potential on mycelialgrowth and on production and germination of sclerotia ofMacrophomina phaseolina. Plant Dis. 80: 13471350.</p><p>Pratt R.G., Mc Laughlin M.R., Pederson G.A. &amp; Rowe D.E. 1998.Pathogenicity of Macrophomina phaseolina to mature planttissues of alfalfa and white clover. Plant. Dis. 82: 10331038.</p><p>Rigoni A. 1990. Girasole coltura alternative per la pianuraPadana. LInf. Agrario 12: 6162.</p></li><li><p>138 P. Bokor</p><p>Sackston W.E. 1957. Diseases of sunower in Uruguay. Plant Dis.Rep. 41: 885889.</p><p>Sadashivaiah A.S., Ranganathaiah K.G. &amp; Nanje Gowda D. 1986.Seed helth testing of Helianthus annuus with special referenceto Macrophomina phaseolina. Indian Phytopathol. 39: 445446.</p><p>Smith G.S. &amp; Wyllie T.D. 1999. Charcoal rot, pp. 2931. In:Hartman G.L., Sinclair J.B. &amp; Rupe J.C. (eds), Compendiumof soybean diseases, 4th ed. American Phytopathol. Soc., St.Paul, MN.</p><p>Stuteville D.L. &amp; Erwin D.C. 1990. Other fungi associated withalfalfa. In: Stuteville D.L. &amp; Erwin D.C. (eds), Compendiumof alfalfa diseases, 2nd ed. American Phytopathol. Society, St.Paul, MN.</p><p>rov J., Kudlkov I., alu Z. &amp; Veverka K. 2003.Macrophom-ina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. moving north temperatureadaptation or change in climate? Z. Panzenzenkr. Panzen-schutz 110: 444448.</p><p>Tosi L., Zazzerini A. &amp; Mastrorilli M. 1990. Rilievi topatologicisu varieta di girasole a confrotno nel biennio. LInf. Agrario12: 7377.</p><p>Varga P., Kadlicsko S. &amp; Simay E.I. 1997. The grey rot diseasecaused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid., with spe-cial reference to sunower. Novenyvedelem 33: 205209.</p><p>Walker G.E. 1994. First report of Macrophomina phaseolina As-sociated with Vine Decline of Muskmelon in South Australia.Plant Dis. 78: 640.</p><p>Wrather J.A., Kendig S.R. &amp; Tyler D.D. 1998. Tillage eects onMacrophomina phaseolina population density and soybeanyield. Plant Disease 82: 247250.</p><p>Wyllie T.D. 1989. Charcoal rot, pp. 3032. In: Sinclair J.B. &amp;Backman P.A. (eds), Compendium of soybean diseases, 3rd</p><p>ed. American Phytopathol. Soc., St. Paul, MN.Zazzerini A., Monotti M., Buonaurio R. &amp; Pirani V. 1985. Eects</p><p>of some environmental and agronomical factors on charcoalrot of sunower. Helia 8: 4549.</p><p>Received Nov. 18, 2005Accepted Dec. 7, 2006</p><p> /ColorImageDict &gt; /JPEG2000ColorACSImageDict &gt; /JPEG2000ColorImageDict &gt; /AntiAliasGrayImages false /DownsampleGrayImages true /GrayImageDownsampleType /Bicubic /GrayImageResolution 150 /GrayImageDepth -1 /GrayImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /EncodeGrayImages true /GrayImageFilter /DCTEncode /AutoFilterGrayImages true /GrayImageAutoFilterStrategy /JPEG /GrayACSImageDict &gt; /GrayImageDict &gt; /JPEG2000GrayACSImageDict &gt; /JPEG2000GrayImageDict &gt; /AntiAliasMonoImages false /DownsampleMonoImages true /MonoImageDownsampleType /Bicubic /MonoImageResolution 600 /MonoImageDepth -1 /MonoImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /EncodeMonoImages true /MonoImageFilter /CCITTFaxEncode /MonoImageDict &gt; /AllowPSXObjects false /PDFX1aCheck false /PDFX3Check false /PDFXCompliantPDFOnly false /PDFXNoTrimBoxError true /PDFXTrimBoxToMediaBoxOffset [ 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 ] /PDFXSetBleedBoxToMediaBox true /PDFXBleedBoxToTrimBoxOffset [ 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 ] /PDFXOutputIntentProfile (None) /PDFXOutputCondition () /PDFXRegistryName (http://www.color.org?) /PDFXTrapped /False</p><p> /SyntheticBoldness 1.000000 /Description &gt;&gt;&gt; setdistillerparams&gt; setpagedevice</p></li></ul>