Lysimeter Stations and Soil Hydrology Measuring Sites Stations and Soil Hydrology Measuring Sites in Europe Future Developments ... provided by I. Zima Szaloki, ... Lysimeter_types_CL.ppt

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  • 1

    Christine Lanthaler christine.lanthaler@aon.at

    Results of a 2004 survey/diploma thesis

    Lysimeter Stations and Soil HydrologyMeasuring Sitesin Europe

    Future Developments

    PurposeEquipment

    Research Results

    Johnstown Castle, Wexford/Irelandpicture: provided by K. Richards

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    Parts of the Thesis

    Lysimeter Stationsin Europe

    Lysimeter Stationsin Europe

    Basicsof Soil

    Hydrology

    Basicsof Soil

    HydrologyLysimeter

    TypesLysimeter

    TypesStations

    inEurope

    Stationsin

    EuropeResearch

    ResultsResearch

    ResultsFuture

    Develop-ments

    FutureDevelop-

    ments

    Concept forthe Internet

    Platform

    Concept forthe Internet

    Platform

    Measuringmethodsand probesused inthe unsa-turated zone(comparisonof techniques)

    Measuringmethodsand probesused inthe unsa-turated zone(comparisonof techniques)

    Seepagewatersamplers(SWS)

    Lysimeters

    Comparisonof types

    ERRORS

    Seepagewatersamplers(SWS)

    Lysimeters

    Comparisonof types

    ERRORS

    Overview

    Classificationaccordingto theirvegetationtype(s) andcountries/only examples

    Descriptions(tables)

    Overview

    Classificationaccordingto theirvegetationtype(s) andcountries/only examples

    Descriptions(tables)

    Classificationaccording totheir vegeta-tion type(s)/onlyexamples

    Summary

    Classificationaccording totheir vegeta-tion type(s)/onlyexamples

    Summary

    Statementsreportedin thequestionnaire

    Summaryand generaldevelopments

    Statementsreportedin thequestionnaire

    Summaryand generaldevelopments

    Goal andtarget group

    Usability Layout Contents Example

    Goal andtarget group

    Usability Layout Contents Example

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    Soil HydrologyMeasuring Techniques

    soil water content:

    direct/destructive or gravimetric method soil samples

    Soil samples are taken in Wagna, 2004/07/26 picture: C. Lanthaler

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    Soil HydrologyMeasuring Techniques

    soil water content:

    indirect/non-destructive methods measuring sensors

    TDR = TimeDomainReflectrometry

    dielectric constant

    TDR probes and pre-boring with extensiontubes for installing probes in soilto avoid damaging the probes rodsaccording to IMKO 2003, pdf, modified

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    Soil HydrologyMeasuring Techniques

    matric potential/suction: direct method tensiometer, piezometer

    negative pressure head of water ismeasured directly

    Example of a tensiometeraccording to UMS 2003 a,

    modified

    Principles of a tensio-meter (above watertable) and a piezometer (below water table)MARSHALL 1996, p. 30

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    Soil HydrologyMeasuring Techniques

    matric potential/suction:

    indirect method gypsum or porous blocks(electrical resistance method)

    matric potential must bederived indirectly fromelectrical conductivity/soil water content

    Calibration curve of thegypsum block and block cast

    in rectangular shape withbared copper wire electrodes

    MARSHALL 1996, p. 68

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    Soil HydrologyMeasuringTechniques

    Scheme of probes installedin soil (Neuherberg)

    picture: C. Lanthaler, August 2004

    Soil hydrological measuringprofile (Wagna)

    picture: C. Lanthaler, August 2004

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    Soil HydrologySoil WaterQuality/Measuring

    soil solution/seepage water:

    suction cups suction plates

    vacuum is applied

    System of vacuum appliedto suction cups,sampling bottles

    from UMS 2003 b, pdf, complemented

    LYSIMETER

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    LysimetersWhat is alysimeter?

    lysimeter = combination of Greek words:lusis = solution/Germ.: Lsung andmetron = measure/Germ.: messen

    original aim: to determine transport and leachinglosses of solutes; also used for determining actualevapotranspiration and groundwater rechargewater balance!

    A lysimeter is a device that isolates a volume of soil or earth between the soil surface and a depthgiven and includes a percolating water samplingsystem at its bottom.

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    Lysimeters

    soil is hydrologically isolated from surrounding soil,

    containers: filled with disturbed (artificially filled) or undisturbed (monolithic) bare soil or soil covered with natural or cultivated vegetation,

    seepage water is measured directly; vertical water movement is also to be determined

    What is alysimeter?

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    Purpose of Research Stations

    Agronomy, Agricultural Economy, Forest Economynutrient and pesticide/herbicide leaching losses,water demand of agricultural areas

    Ecology, Environment Protectionseepage water prediction of polluted sites,source term determination

    Use of lysimeters in different fields of research:

    (Soil) Hydrology, Soil Science, Hydrogeology,Water Economy

    water balance/evapotranspiration, monitoringseepage water/groundwater quality and quantity

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    Lysimeter TypesGravitationlysimeter

    percolating water is collected gravimetrically =gravitation lysimeter

    Principle sketch of a gravitation lysimeter MULLER 1996

    Lysimeter station of the LUA Essen (Waldfeucht) SUSSET et al., 2003

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    Lysimeter Types

    lysimeters are either weighable

    Weighable lysimeter (monolithic)

    Weighable lysimeter with built-in probesKLOTZ, SEILER 1998, p. 6

    Weighing equipment (3 load cells) in Wagnapicture: C. Lanthaler, August 2004

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    Lysimeter Types

    or non-weighable

    Non-weighablelysimeter (monolithic)

    Equipment of a measuring site including a non-weighable monolithic field lysimeter and

    soil hydrology measuring probesaccording to HARTL et al. 2001,

    p. 216, modified

    Modified monolithic field lysimeter, Petzenkirchen system

    according to FEICHTINGER inBAL 1992, p. 59, modified

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    Lysimeter Types

    an artificial groundwater level can be simulated = groundwater lysimeter GW level = variable

    Groundwaterlysimeter

    Principle of a groundwaterlysimeter with variable

    groundwater levelKESSLER, MEISSNER and RUPP

    in BAL 2001, p. 135

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    Lysimeter Types

    or GW level = constant

    Groundwaterlysimeter

    Principle system of a groundwaterlysimeter equipped with a device

    to control the constantgroundwater level continuously

    DVWK 1980, p. 14

    Principle of a hydraulicgroundwater lysimeter (without

    electronic components for shallowwater tables in mires/Scotland)

    according to INGRAM, COUPAR, BRAGG 2001

    Hydraulic groundwater lysimeter

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    Lysimeter Types

    large lysimeters/test areassize: 30 m - 670 m;trays or geomembranefilled with soil orsubstrate

    Largelysimeters

    Sketch of the test field and a lysimeter container in Seibersdorf/Austria

    KRENN 2001

    Lysimeterkeller

    B

    A

    C

    D

    Kompostsubstrat

    Luzerne

    Hausmll

    Dra inagekies

    Dra inage

    Sensoren

    Large lysimeter inSeibersdorf/Austria

    picture: C. Lanthaler, August 2004

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    SWS TypesSeepage watersamplers

    SWS with applied vacuum (backfilled)

    Seepage water sampler(SWS) according to

    E. STENITZEREDER in BHM et al. 2002,

    p. 121, modified

    SWS do NOT reach the earths surface!

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    SWS TypesSeepage watersamplers

    Capillary Wick Samplers (PCAPs) or Drain Gauge(monolithic)

    Capillary wick sampler inVilli-Morgon, France

    picture: provided byJ.-G. Lacas, 2004

    Capillary wick sampler, in:DECAGON, 2003/pdf

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    SWS TypesSeepage watersamplers

    Funnels, buckets, trays, collection segments/cans

    Filled tray and collectionvessel, installed in a forestnear Jastrebarsko/Croatia

    picture: C. Lanthaler,October 2004

    Collection segments and water samplers in a tunnel

    in Sinji Vrh/SloveniaENUR CURK inBAL 2001, p. 128

    Seepage water samplerside view/Czech Republicsketch provided by M. Florin

    2004, modified

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    Installing LysimetersWeighable mono-lithic field lysimeters in Wagna

    pictures: C. Lanthaler, August 2004

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    Weighability(non-weighable/weighable)

    Soil filling technique(monolithic/backfilled)

    Seepage water collection(gravimetric or not)

    Groundwaterconnection

    Lysimeter TypesClassification

    Combined types (examples):

    Non-weighable backfilled gravitation lysimeter or

    Weighable monolithic groundwater lysimeter

    Large lysimeters/test areas

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    Lysimeter Errors

    Bypass fluxescannot be determined in containers; lateral water transport is suppressed in a closed vessel

    Boundary effects at the bordersplants are prevented from spreading; surface watermay run in an uncontrolled way keep gaps (betweencylinders) as small as possible; use larger vessels!

    Natural hydraulic condition is disturbed, whena lysimeter or SWS is installed

    Island/oasis effectsvegetative, hydrological and micro-climatical conditionshave to be as highly as possible representative of the field

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    Lysimeter Errors

    Disturbed profilewhen soil is artificially backfilled into lysimeters/SWS,soil is mineralized due to aeration - higher nitrateconcentration! investigate for longer periods, do not mix soil layers!

    Protect lysimeters against animals!

    Phenomena/boundary effects at the lysimeter bottomnatural soil profile (capillaries) is interrupted;seepage water only occurs when hydraulic pressureexceeds air pressure (when pores are saturated)use several outlets to reduce dammed water!

    The lysimeter that is built in best is the one you dont see!!!

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    Research ResultsGeneral Statements

    Measurementsat one position;lysimeter errors!

    Investigation ofland use change;balances

    Lysimeter studies

    Numerical waterand nutrienttransport models

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    The Survey

    According to the survey 2004

    2930 vessels

    2440 lysimeters490 SWS

    178 sites (ca.)in 18 countries

    operated by117 institutions

    Lysimeter types

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    The SurveyLysimeter sites

    According to the survey 2004

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    The Survey

    According to the survey 2004

    Largest number ofvessels at one site

    320 lysimeters in Szarvas(Hungary)252 lysimeters at Limbur-gerhof (Germany)

    Still operating

    2 lysimeters at RothamstedResearch (UK) since 1880234 lysimeters at Limburger-hof (Germany) since 1927/1930

    Facts & Figures

    New lysimeters were built in at following sites (2004/2005)

    Wagna (Austria): 2 weighable monolithic field lysimeters & probesMunich/Freimann (Germany): 1 backfilled gravitation lysimeterBraunschweig-Vlkenrode (Germany): 8 weighable backfilledlysimetersVilli-Morgon (France): 4 capillary wick samplers & probesJohnstown Castle, Wexford (Ireland): 75 non-weighable monolithicgravitation lysimetersScotland (UK): seepage water samplers (5 plots)

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    Internet PlatformLysimeter sitesin Europe

    http://www.lysimeter.at Research stations in Europe

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    to improve measuring methods;to determine hydraulic parameters;

    to compare lysimeter data with data ofsurrounding undisturbed soil and

    to compare different soil types

    Future DevelopmentsChallenges

    to investigate soil &groundwater protectivecultivation systems and

    land use changes;to monitor the fateof pollutants in soil

    to determine water& nutrient balances;

    to calibrate and verifysoil hydrological or

    solute transport models

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    Lysimeter station (cellar) Jlich/Germany

    Lysimeter and weather stationGro-Enzersdorf/Austria

    Lysimeter station (cellar)GSF Neuherberg/Germany

    pictures: C. Lanthaler,April and August 2004

    Stationsin Europe(Examples)

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    Lysimeter station Szarvaspicture: provided by I. Zima Szaloki, 2004

    Facility in Fagnires/France picture: provided by B. Nicolardot, 2004

    Facility in Hirschstetten/Austriapicture: C. Lanthaler, August 2004

    Stationsin Europe(Examples)

    Lysimeter station Jokioinenpicture: provided by R. Lemola, 2004

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