Long‐Term Integrated Nutrient Management for Rice‐Based Cropping Pattern: Effect on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Uptake, Nutrient Balance Sheet, and Soil Fertility

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  • This article was downloaded by: [University of New Mexico]On: 27 November 2014, At: 10:49Publisher: Taylor & FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office:Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

    Communications in Soil Science and PlantAnalysisPublication details, including instructions for authors and subscriptioninformation:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/lcss20

    LongTerm Integrated Nutrient Managementfor RiceBased Cropping Pattern: Effect onGrowth, Yield, Nutrient Uptake, NutrientBalance Sheet, and Soil FertilityP. K. Saha a , M. Ishaque b , M. A. Saleque b , M. A. M. Miah b , G. M.Panaullah b & N. I. Bhuiyan ba Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) , Comilla, Bangladeshb Soil Science Division , Bangladesh Rice Research Institute , Gazipur,BangladeshPublished online: 19 Mar 2007.

    To cite this article: P. K. Saha , M. Ishaque , M. A. Saleque , M. A. M. Miah , G. M. Panaullah & N. I. Bhuiyan(2007) LongTerm Integrated Nutrient Management for RiceBased Cropping Pattern: Effect on Growth,Yield, Nutrient Uptake, Nutrient Balance Sheet, and Soil Fertility, Communications in Soil Science and PlantAnalysis, 38:5-6, 579-610, DOI: 10.1080/00103620701215718

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  • Long-Term Integrated NutrientManagement for Rice-Based Cropping

    Pattern: Effect on Growth, Yield, NutrientUptake, Nutrient Balance Sheet, and

    Soil Fertility

    P. K. Saha

    Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Comilla, Bangladesh

    M. Ishaque, M. A. Saleque, M. A. M. Miah, G. M. Panaullah,

    and N. I. Bhuiyan

    Soil Science Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur,

    Bangladesh

    Abstract: A 7-year-long field trial was conducted on integrated nutrient management

    for a dry season rice (Boro)green manure (GM)wet season rice (T. Aman) cropping

    system at the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute Farm, Gazipur during 19931999.

    Five packages of inorganic fertilizers, cow dung (CD), and GM dhaincha (Sesbania

    aculeata) were evaluated for immediate and residual effect on crop productivity,

    nutrient uptake, soil-nutrient balance sheet, and soil-fertility status. Plant height,

    active tiller production, and grain and straw yields were significantly increased as a

    result of the application of inorganic fertilizer and organic manure. Usually, the soil-

    test-based (STB) fertilizer doses for a high-yield goal produced the highest grain

    yield of 6.39 t ha21 (average of 7 years) in Boro rice. Application of CD at the rate

    of 5 t ha21 (oven-dry basis) once a year at the time of Boro transplanting supplemented

    50% of the fertilizer nutrients other than nitrogen (N) in the subsequent crop of the

    cropping pattern. A positive effect of GM on the yield of T. Aman rice was

    observed. Following GM, the application of reduced doses of phosphorus (P),

    potassium (K), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn) to the second crop (T. Aman) did not

    reduce yield, indicating the beneficial residual effect of fertilizer applied to the first

    Received 13 August 2004, Accepted 20 January 2006

    Address correspondence to P. K. Saha, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI),

    Regional Station, Shashongacha, G.P.O. Box No. 58, Comilla 3500, Bangladesh.

    E-mail: praneshsoil2000@yahoo.com

    Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 38: 579610, 2007

    Copyright # Taylor & Francis Group, LLCISSN 0010-3624 print/1532-2416 onlineDOI: 10.1080/00103620701215718

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  • crop (Boro rice) of the cropping pattern. The comparable yield of T. Aman was also

    observed with reduced fertilizer dose in CD-treated plots. The total P, K, and S

    uptake (kg/ha/yr) in the unfertilized plot under an irrigated rice system graduallydecreased over the years. The partial nutrient balance in the unfertilized plot (T1)

    was negative for all the nutrients. In the fertilized plots, there was an apparent

    positive balance of P, S, and Zn but a negative balance of N and K. This study

    showed that the addition of organic manure (CD, dhaincha) gave more positive

    balances. In the T4c treatment at 015 cm, the application of chemical fertilizers

    along with the organic manures increased soil organic carbon by (C) 0.71%. The

    highest concentration of total N was observed with T4c followed by T4d and T4b,

    where CD was applied in Boro season and dhaincha GM was incorporated in T.

    Aman season. The sixfold increase in soil-available P in T4b-, T4c-, T4a-treated plots

    was due to the addition of CD. Dhaincha GM with the combination of chemical ferti-

    lizer helps to mobilize soil-available P by 3 to 6 ppm. The highest amount of soil-

    available S was found in T4c- and T4a-treated plots. It was 2.5 times higher than that

    of the initial soil. The application of CD and dhaincha GM along with chemical ferti-

    lizers not only increased organic C, total N, available P, and available S but also

    increased exchangeable K, available Zn, available iron (Fe), and available

    manganese (Mn) in soil.

    Keywords: Cow dung, fertilizers, green manure, nutrient balance sheet, rice, pro-

    duction, soil fertility

    INTRODUCTION

    Soil is the natural media for plant growth. Plant nutrients in soil, whether

    naturally endowed or artificially maintained, are a major determinant of the

    success or failure of a crop production system. The crop sector of Bangladesh

    agriculture must bear the responsibility, above all else, of producing enough

    food to meet the requirements of the countrys ever-growing population.

    The pressing need is to achieve substantially higher crop yield than the

    present yield levels from the limited land resources on a sustainable basis.

    A crop production system with high-yield targets cannot be sustainable

    unless nutrient inputs to soil are at least balanced against nutrient removal

    by crops (Bhuiyan 1991). Proper soil-fertility management, therefore, is of

    prime importance in an endeavor to increase crop productivity. The

    problem is that not many of the farmers are blessed with fertile soils to till.

    Available data indicate that the fertility of most of the soils has deteriorated

    over the years (Karim, Miah, and Razia 1994; Ali, Shaheed, and Kubota

    1997), which is responsible for stagnating and, in some cases, even

    declining crop yields (Anonymous 1996; Cassman et al. 1995). The use of

    chemical fertilizers as a supplemental source of nutrients has been increasing

    steadily in Bangladesh, but this is true only for the three primary major

    nutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). Again, even

    these three fertilizers are usually not applied in balanced proportions by

    P. K. Saha et al.580

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  • most of the farmers (Anonymous 1997). It is now well known that sulfur (S)

    and zinc (Zn) deficiencies occur, especially in wetland rice soils in many parts

    of the country due to unbalanced fertilization (Portch and Islam 1984).

    Although the need for the application of S and Zn fertilizers along with

    NPK fertilizers is recognized by agricultural research and extension workers

    and many farmers, S and Zn fertilization is rarely done as required, which

    has led to aggravation of the S and Zn problems in many soils.

    Another very important factor to consider in improving crop productivity is

    the soil organic matter. Available reports indicate that most soils in Bangladesh

    have low organic matter content, usually less than 2% (Bhuiyan 1991).

    Moreover, the organic matter content of the soils is declining with time

    because of poor attention to its improvement and maintenance. Frequent

    tillage operations for high cropping intensity

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