Long‐Term Integrated Nutrient Management for Rice‐Based Cropping Pattern: Effect on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Uptake, Nutrient Balance Sheet, and Soil Fertility

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    LongTerm Integrated Nutrient Managementfor RiceBased Cropping Pattern: Effect onGrowth, Yield, Nutrient Uptake, NutrientBalance Sheet, and Soil FertilityP. K. Saha a , M. Ishaque b , M. A. Saleque b , M. A. M. Miah b , G. M.Panaullah b & N. I. Bhuiyan ba Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) , Comilla, Bangladeshb Soil Science Division , Bangladesh Rice Research Institute , Gazipur,BangladeshPublished online: 19 Mar 2007.

    To cite this article: P. K. Saha , M. Ishaque , M. A. Saleque , M. A. M. Miah , G. M. Panaullah & N. I. Bhuiyan(2007) LongTerm Integrated Nutrient Management for RiceBased Cropping Pattern: Effect on Growth,Yield, Nutrient Uptake, Nutrient Balance Sheet, and Soil Fertility, Communications in Soil Science and PlantAnalysis, 38:5-6, 579-610, DOI: 10.1080/00103620701215718

    To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00103620701215718


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  • Long-Term Integrated NutrientManagement for Rice-Based Cropping

    Pattern: Effect on Growth, Yield, NutrientUptake, Nutrient Balance Sheet, and

    Soil Fertility

    P. K. Saha

    Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Comilla, Bangladesh

    M. Ishaque, M. A. Saleque, M. A. M. Miah, G. M. Panaullah,

    and N. I. Bhuiyan

    Soil Science Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur,


    Abstract: A 7-year-long field trial was conducted on integrated nutrient management

    for a dry season rice (Boro)green manure (GM)wet season rice (T. Aman) cropping

    system at the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute Farm, Gazipur during 19931999.

    Five packages of inorganic fertilizers, cow dung (CD), and GM dhaincha (Sesbania

    aculeata) were evaluated for immediate and residual effect on crop productivity,

    nutrient uptake, soil-nutrient balance sheet, and soil-fertility status. Plant height,

    active tiller production, and grain and straw yields were significantly increased as a

    result of the application of inorganic fertilizer and organic manure. Usually, the soil-

    test-based (STB) fertilizer doses for a high-yield goal produced the highest grain

    yield of 6.39 t ha21 (average of 7 years) in Boro rice. Application of CD at the rate

    of 5 t ha21 (oven-dry basis) once a year at the time of Boro transplanting supplemented

    50% of the fertilizer nutrients other than nitrogen (N) in the subsequent crop of the

    cropping pattern. A positive effect of GM on the yield of T. Aman rice was

    observed. Following GM, the application of reduced doses of phosphorus (P),

    potassium (K), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn) to the second crop (T. Aman) did not

    reduce yield, indicating the beneficial residual effect of fertilizer applied to the first

    Received 13 August 2004, Accepted 20 January 2006

    Address correspondence to P. K. Saha, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI),

    Regional Station, Shashongacha, G.P.O. Box No. 58, Comilla 3500, Bangladesh.

    E-mail: praneshsoil2000@yahoo.com

    Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 38: 579610, 2007

    Copyright # Taylor & Francis Group, LLCISSN 0010-3624 print/1532-2416 onlineDOI: 10.1080/00103620701215718





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  • crop (Boro rice) of the cropping pattern. The comparable yield of T. Aman was also

    observed with reduced fertilizer dose in CD-treated plots. The total P, K, and S

    uptake (kg/ha/yr) in the unfertilized plot under an irrigated rice system graduallydecreased over the years. The partial nutrient balance in the unfertilized plot (T1)

    was negative for all the nutrients. In the fertilized plots, there was an apparent

    positive balance of P, S, and Zn but a negative balance of N and K. This study

    showed that the addition of organic manure (CD, dhaincha) gave more positive

    balances. In the T4c treatment at 015 cm, the application of chemical fertilizers

    along with the organic manures increased soil organic carbon by (C) 0.71%. The

    highest concentration of total N was observed with T4c followed by T4d and T4b,

    where CD was applied in Boro season and dhaincha GM was incorporated in T.

    Aman season. The sixfold increase in soil-available P in T4b-, T4c-, T4a-treated plots

    was due to the addition of CD. Dhaincha GM with the combination of chemical ferti-

    lizer helps to mobilize soil-available P by 3 to 6 ppm. The highest amount of soil-

    available S was found in T4c- and T4a-treated plots. It was 2.5 times higher than that

    of the initial soil. The application of CD and dhaincha GM along with chemical ferti-

    lizers not only increased organic C, total N, available P, and available S but also

    increased exchangeable K, available Zn, available iron (Fe), and available

    manganese (Mn) in soil.

    Keywords: Cow dung, fertilizers, green manure, nutrient balance sheet, rice, pro-

    duction, soil fertility


    Soil is the natural media for plant growth. Plant nutrients in soil, whether

    naturally endowed or artificially maintained, are a major determinant of the

    success or failure of a crop production system. The crop sector of Bangladesh

    agriculture must bear the responsibility, above all else, of producing enough

    food to meet the requirements of the countrys ever-growing population.

    The pressing need is to achieve substantially higher crop yield than the

    present yield levels from the limited land resources on a sustainable basis.

    A crop production system with high-yield targets cannot be sustainable

    unless nutrient inputs to soil are at least balanced against nutrient removal

    by crops (Bhuiyan 1991). Proper soil-fertility management, therefore, is of

    prime importance in an endeavor to increase crop productivity. The

    problem is that not many of the farmers are blessed with fertile soils to till.

    Available data indicate that the fertility of most of the soils has deteriorated

    over the years (Karim, Miah, and Razia 1994; Ali, Shaheed, and Kubota

    1997), which is responsible for stagnating and, in some cases, even

    declining crop yields (Anonymous 1996; Cassman et al. 1995). The use of

    chemical fertilizers as a supplemental source of nutrients has been increasing

    steadily in Bangladesh, but this is true only for the three primary major

    nutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). Again, even

    these three fertilizers are usually not applied in balanced proportions by

    P. K. Saha et al.580




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  • most of the farmers (Anonymous 1997). It is now well known that sulfur (S)

    and zinc (Zn) deficiencies occur, especially in wetland rice soils in many parts

    of the country due to unbalanced fertilization (Portch and Islam 1984).

    Although the need for the application of S and Zn fertilizers along with

    NPK fertilizers is recognized by agricultural research and extension workers

    and many farmers, S and Zn fertilization is rarely done as required, which

    has led to aggravation of the S and Zn problems in many soils.

    Another very important factor to consider in improving crop productivity is

    the soil organic matter. Available reports indicate that most soils in Bangladesh

    have low organic matter content, usually less than 2% (Bhuiyan 1991).

    Moreover, the organic matter content of the soils is declining with time

    because of poor attention to its improvement and maintenance. Frequent

    tillage operations for high cropping intensity enhance decomposition of soil

    organic matter. Again, the addition of organic materials to soil through

    farmyard manure, composts, and organic residues has been reduced consider-

    ably because a major portion of these residues is used as fuel by the rural popu-

    lation. It is now believed by many that the low and declining organic matter

    content is one of the reasons for the low productivity of many of the soils.

    Thus, the need for proper soil organic matter management cannot be overem-

    phasized in view of the low organic matter content of the soils. A judicious inte-

    gration of macro- and micronutrients along with organic residues including

    green manure (GM) is needed to sustainably increase crop production in Ban-

    gladesh. Application of organic materials, especially Cowdung (CD), along

    with chemical fertilizers increases cereal crop yields (Saha et al. 1998; Saha

    1985). Application of GM and CD may sustain rice yield and substitute for

    chemical fertilizer. A review study on the use of GM showed that GM could

    increase rice yield by up to 3.3 t ha21, with an average of about 1 t ha21 (Ali

    1993). Inclusion of a GM crop within the cropping system deserves consider-

    ation for development of an integrated inorganicorganic soil-fertilization

    program for higher crop yield and for better soil health.

    In tropical Asian countries such as Bangladesh, soil-fertility-management

    research of cropping systems based on GM and their medium- or long-term

    residual effects is relatively new (Bhuiyan 1995). Farid et al. (1994) and

    Saha et al. (1998) reported that inclusion of GM between wheat and rice

    increased yields of both rice and wheat.

    The present study was conducted with an integrated nutrient management

    approach in a ricerice system in Grey terrace soil in Madhupur Tract [agro-

    ecological zone (AEZ) 28]. Different inorganic nutrients, organic manure

    (CD), and organic residues including dhaincha GM along with their

    immediate and residual effects have been evaluated in this trial. An attempt

    to relate nutrient uptake by the MV rice crops and nutrient balances was under-

    taken in this study. The main objectives of the present study were to know the

    changes of crop productivity, nutrient uptake, soil-nutrient balance sheet, and

    soil-fertility status under the influence of different fertilizer management

    practices in a BoroGMT Aman cropping pattern.

    Nutrient Management for Rice 581




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    A long-termfield trial, withBoroGMT.Aman cropping system,was conducted

    at the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) Farm, Gazipur (lat. 238590 N,long. 908240 E, 30 m above mean sea level) during the period 19931999. Theaverage temperature ranges from 7.28C in winter to 36.78C in summer. Themean annual rainfall is about 2000 mm. The soil of the experimental field has a

    silty clay loam texture (sand 21%, silt 45%, and clay 35%) and a slightly acidic

    pH (6.6). The other soil parameters were as follows: CEC 23 cmol kg21 soil,

    exchangeable calcium (Ca) 7.16 cmol kg21 soil, exchangeable magnesium (Mg)

    1.99 cmol kg21 soil, exchangeable potassium (K) 0.16 cmol kg21 soil, organic

    carbon (C) 12.8 g kg21, total nitrogen (N) 1.0 g kg21, available phosphorus (P)

    (modifiedOlsens) 6mgkg21, available sulfur (S) [0.01MCaH2(PO4)2 extraction]

    14 mg kg21, and available zinc (Zn) (DTPA extraction) 2.69 mg kg21.

    The experiment was laid out in a modified split-plot designwith three repli-

    cations. The treatments for the first crop of the cropping pattern (Boro, BRRI

    dhan29) were no fertilizer (T1); fertilization following the Bangladesh Agricul-

    tural Research Council (BARC) fertilizer-recommendation guide (Anonymous

    1987) for medium-yield goal (MYG) for the particular area (T2); soil-test-based

    (STB) fertilizer recommendation for high-yield goal (HYG) (T3); T3 CD atthe rate of 5 t ha21 on an oven-dry basis (T4); and local farmers practice

    (T5). Dhaincha (S. aculeata) was the second crop (Kharif I) grown as a GM.

    In T. Aman, the third crop in the cropping sequence, each original plot under

    treatments T2, T3, and T4 was divided into four subplots. The treatments for

    these subplots were full inorganic fertilizer doses as for the first crop without

    GM (T2a, T3a, T4a), full inorganic fertilizer doses plus GM (T2b, T3b, T4b),

    60% N and 50% other nutrient rates of full inorganic fertilizer doses plus

    GM (T2c, T3c, T4c), and 60% N only plus GM (T2d, T3d, T4d). The detailed

    treatment descriptions of the experiment are presented in Table 1.

    The sources of N, P, K, S, and Znwere urea, triple superphosphate, muriate of

    potash, gypsum, and zinc sulfate, respectively. Fertilizerswere applied to eachcrop

    (except dhaincha) according to treatments listed in Table 1. In treatment T4, CD at

    5 t ha21 (oven-dry basis) was applied once a year before transplanting Boro rice.

    One third of the N and all of the P, K, S, and Zn were applied at the time of

    final land preparation in both Boro and T. Aman seasons. The remaining two

    thirds of the N were applied in two equal installments: 2530 days (Boro) and

    2025 days (T. Aman) after transplanting and 7 days before panicle initiation

    stage in both seasons. The variety of Boro was BRRI dhan29 in all the years of

    the experiment; for T. Aman, BR 11 was used in 19931998 and BRRI dhan31

    was used in 1999. Three or four 45-day-old (Boro) and 30-day-old (T. Aman)

    seedlings were transplanted in hills 20 cm apart and in rows 20 cm apart.

    The dhaincha (S. aculeata)was grown as GM in appropriate plots between

    Boro and T. Aman seasons. Seeds were sown by broadcasting at a rate of 50 kg

    ha21 in the first week of May. Fifty-five-day-old dhaincha plants (1012 t ha21

    on a fresh-weight basis) were incorporated 78 days prior to planting T. Aman.

    P. K. Saha et al.582




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