Long‐Term Integrated Nutrient Management for Rice‐Based Cropping Pattern: Effect on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Uptake, Nutrient Balance Sheet, and Soil Fertility
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LongTerm Integrated Nutrient Managementfor RiceBased Cropping Pattern: Effect onGrowth, Yield, Nutrient Uptake, NutrientBalance Sheet, and Soil FertilityP. K. Saha a , M. Ishaque b , M. A. Saleque b , M. A. M. Miah b , G. M.Panaullah b & N. I. Bhuiyan ba Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) , Comilla, Bangladeshb Soil Science Division , Bangladesh Rice Research Institute , Gazipur,BangladeshPublished online: 19 Mar 2007.
To cite this article: P. K. Saha , M. Ishaque , M. A. Saleque , M. A. M. Miah , G. M. Panaullah & N. I. Bhuiyan(2007) LongTerm Integrated Nutrient Management for RiceBased Cropping Pattern: Effect on Growth,Yield, Nutrient Uptake, Nutrient Balance Sheet, and Soil Fertility, Communications in Soil Science and PlantAnalysis, 38:5-6, 579-610, DOI: 10.1080/00103620701215718
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00103620701215718
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Long-Term Integrated NutrientManagement for Rice-Based Cropping
Pattern: Effect on Growth, Yield, NutrientUptake, Nutrient Balance Sheet, and
P. K. Saha
Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Comilla, Bangladesh
M. Ishaque, M. A. Saleque, M. A. M. Miah, G. M. Panaullah,
and N. I. Bhuiyan
Soil Science Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur,
Abstract: A 7-year-long field trial was conducted on integrated nutrient management
for a dry season rice (Boro)green manure (GM)wet season rice (T. Aman) cropping
system at the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute Farm, Gazipur during 19931999.
Five packages of inorganic fertilizers, cow dung (CD), and GM dhaincha (Sesbania
aculeata) were evaluated for immediate and residual effect on crop productivity,
nutrient uptake, soil-nutrient balance sheet, and soil-fertility status. Plant height,
active tiller production, and grain and straw yields were significantly increased as a
result of the application of inorganic fertilizer and organic manure. Usually, the soil-
test-based (STB) fertilizer doses for a high-yield goal produced the highest grain
yield of 6.39 t ha21 (average of 7 years) in Boro rice. Application of CD at the rate
of 5 t ha21 (oven-dry basis) once a year at the time of Boro transplanting supplemented
50% of the fertilizer nutrients other than nitrogen (N) in the subsequent crop of the
cropping pattern. A positive effect of GM on the yield of T. Aman rice was
observed. Following GM, the application of reduced doses of phosphorus (P),
potassium (K), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn) to the second crop (T. Aman) did not
reduce yield, indicating the beneficial residual effect of fertilizer applied to the first
Received 13 August 2004, Accepted 20 January 2006
Address correspondence to P. K. Saha, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI),
Regional Station, Shashongacha, G.P.O. Box No. 58, Comilla 3500, Bangladesh.
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 38: 579610, 2007
Copyright # Taylor & Francis Group, LLCISSN 0010-3624 print/1532-2416 onlineDOI: 10.1080/00103620701215718
crop (Boro rice) of the cropping pattern. The comparable yield of T. Aman was also
observed with reduced fertilizer dose in CD-treated plots. The total P, K, and S
uptake (kg/ha/yr) in the unfertilized plot under an irrigated rice system graduallydecreased over the years. The partial nutrient balance in the unfertilized plot (T1)
was negative for all the nutrients. In the fertilized plots, there was an apparent
positive balance of P, S, and Zn but a negative balance of N and K. This study
showed that the addition of organic manure (CD, dhaincha) gave more positive
balances. In the T4c treatment at 015 cm, the application of chemical fertilizers
along with the organic manures increased soil organic carbon by (C) 0.71%. The
highest concentration of total N was observed with T4c followed by T4d and T4b,
where CD was applied in Boro season and dhaincha GM was incorporated in T.
Aman season. The sixfold increase in soil-available P in T4b-, T4c-, T4a-treated plots
was due to the addition of CD. Dhaincha GM with the combination of chemical ferti-
lizer helps to mobilize soil-available P by 3 to 6 ppm. The highest amount of soil-
available S was found in T4c- and T4a-treated plots. It was 2.5 times higher than that
of the initial soil. The application of CD and dhaincha GM along with chemical ferti-
lizers not only increased organic C, total N, available P, and available S but also
increased exchangeable K, available Zn, available iron (Fe), and available
manganese (Mn) in soil.
Keywords: Cow dung, fertilizers, green manure, nutrient balance sheet, rice, pro-
duction, soil fertility
Soil is the natural media for plant growth. Plant nutrients in soil, whether
naturally endowed or artificially maintained, are a major determinant of the
success or failure of a crop production system. The crop sector of Bangladesh
agriculture must bear the responsibility, above all else, of producing enough
food to meet the requirements of the countrys ever-growing population.
The pressing need is to achieve substantially higher crop yield than the
present yield levels from the limited land resources on a sustainable basis.
A crop production system with high-yield targets cannot be sustainable
unless nutrient inputs to soil are at least balanced against nutrient removal
by crops (Bhuiyan 1991). Proper soil-fertility management, therefore, is of
prime importance in an endeavor to increase crop productivity. The
problem is that not many of the farmers are blessed with fertile soils to till.
Available data indicate that the fertility of most of the soils has deteriorated
over the years (Karim, Miah, and Razia 1994; Ali, Shaheed, and Kubota
1997), which is responsible for stagnating and, in some cases, even
declining crop yields (Anonymous 1996; Cassman et al. 1995). The use of
chemical fertilizers as a supplemental source of nutrients has been increasing
steadily in Bangladesh, but this is true only for the three primary major
nutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). Again, even
these three fertilizers are usually not applied in balanced proportions by
P. K. Saha et al.580
most of the farmers (Anonymous 1997). It is now well known that sulfur (S)
and zinc (Zn) deficiencies occur, especially in wetland rice soils in many parts
of the country due to unbalanced fertilization (Portch and Islam 1984).
Although the need for the application of S and Zn fertilizers along with
NPK fertilizers is recognized by agricultural research and extension workers
and many farmers, S and Zn fertilization is rarely done as required, which
has led to aggravation of the S and Zn problems in many soils.
Another very important factor to consider in improving crop productivity is
the soil organic matter. Available reports indicate that most soils in Bangladesh
have low organic matter content, usually less than 2% (Bhuiyan 1991).
Moreover, the organic matter content of the soils is declining with time
because of poor attention to its improvement and maintenance. Frequent
tillage operations for high cropping intensity enhance decomposition of soil
organic matter. Again, the addition of organic materials to soil through
farmyard manure, composts, and organic residues has been reduced consider-
ably because a major portion of these residues is used as fuel by the rural popu-
lation. It is now believed by many that the low and declining organic matter
content is one of the reasons for the low productivity of many of the soils.
Thus, the need for proper soil organic matter management cannot be overem-
phasized in view of the low organic matter content of the soils. A judicious inte-
gration of macro- and micronutrients along with organic residues including
green manure (GM) is needed to sustainably increase crop production in Ban-
gladesh. Application of organic materials, especially Cowdung (CD), along
with chemical fertilizers increases cereal crop yields (Saha et al. 1998; Saha
1985). Application of GM and CD may sustain rice yield and substitute for
chemical fertilizer. A review study on the use of GM showed that GM could
increase rice yield by up to 3.3 t ha21, with an average of about 1 t ha21 (Ali
1993). Inclusion of a GM crop within the cropping system deserves consider-
ation for development of an integrated inorganicorganic soil-fertilization
program for higher crop yield and for better soil health.
In tropical Asian countries such as Bangladesh, soil-fertility-management
research of cropping systems based on GM and their medium- or long-term
residual effects is relatively new (Bhuiyan 1995). Farid et al. (1994) and
Saha et al. (1998) reported that inclusion of GM between wheat and rice
increased yields of both rice and wheat.
The present study was conducted with an integrated nutrient management
approach in a ricerice system in Grey terrace soil in Madhupur Tract [agro-
ecological zone (AEZ) 28]. Different inorganic nutrients, organic manure
(CD), and organic residues including dhaincha GM along with their
immediate and residual effects have been evaluated in this trial. An attempt
to relate nutrient uptake by the MV rice crops and nutrient balances was under-
taken in this study. The main objectives of the present study were to know the
changes of crop productivity, nutrient uptake, soil-nutrient balance sheet, and
soil-fertility status under the influence of different fertilizer management
practices in a BoroGMT Aman cropping pattern.
Nutrient Management for Rice 581
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A long-termfield trial, withBoroGMT.Aman cropping system,was conducted
at the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) Farm, Gazipur (lat. 238590 N,long. 908240 E, 30 m above mean sea level) during the period 19931999. Theaverage temperature ranges from 7.28C in winter to 36.78C in summer. Themean annual rainfall is about 2000 mm. The soil of the experimental field has a
silty clay loam texture (sand 21%, silt 45%, and clay 35%) and a slightly acidic
pH (6.6). The other soil parameters were as follows: CEC 23 cmol kg21 soil,
exchangeable calcium (Ca) 7.16 cmol kg21 soil, exchangeable magnesium (Mg)
1.99 cmol kg21 soil, exchangeable potassium (K) 0.16 cmol kg21 soil, organic
carbon (C) 12.8 g kg21, total nitrogen (N) 1.0 g kg21, available phosphorus (P)
(modifiedOlsens) 6mgkg21, available sulfur (S) [0.01MCaH2(PO4)2 extraction]
14 mg kg21, and available zinc (Zn) (DTPA extraction) 2.69 mg kg21.
The experiment was laid out in a modified split-plot designwith three repli-
cations. The treatments for the first crop of the cropping pattern (Boro, BRRI
dhan29) were no fertilizer (T1); fertilization following the Bangladesh Agricul-
tural Research Council (BARC) fertilizer-recommendation guide (Anonymous
1987) for medium-yield goal (MYG) for the particular area (T2); soil-test-based
(STB) fertilizer recommendation for high-yield goal (HYG) (T3); T3 CD atthe rate of 5 t ha21 on an oven-dry basis (T4); and local farmers practice
(T5). Dhaincha (S. aculeata) was the second crop (Kharif I) grown as a GM.
In T. Aman, the third crop in the cropping sequence, each original plot under
treatments T2, T3, and T4 was divided into four subplots. The treatments for
these subplots were full inorganic fertilizer doses as for the first crop without
GM (T2a, T3a, T4a), full inorganic fertilizer doses plus GM (T2b, T3b, T4b),
60% N and 50% other nutrient rates of full inorganic fertilizer doses plus
GM (T2c, T3c, T4c), and 60% N only plus GM (T2d, T3d, T4d). The detailed
treatment descriptions of the experiment are presented in Table 1.
The sources of N, P, K, S, and Znwere urea, triple superphosphate, muriate of
potash, gypsum, and zinc sulfate, respectively. Fertilizerswere applied to eachcrop
(except dhaincha) according to treatments listed in Table 1. In treatment T4, CD at
5 t ha21 (oven-dry basis) was applied once a year before transplanting Boro rice.
One third of the N and all of the P, K, S, and Zn were applied at the time of
final land preparation in both Boro and T. Aman seasons. The remaining two
thirds of the N were applied in two equal installments: 2530 days (Boro) and
2025 days (T. Aman) after transplanting and 7 days before panicle initiation
stage in both seasons. The variety of Boro was BRRI dhan29 in all the years of
the experiment; for T. Aman, BR 11 was used in 19931998 and BRRI dhan31
was used in 1999. Three or four 45-day-old (Boro) and 30-day-old (T. Aman)
seedlings were transplanted in hills 20 cm apart and in rows 20 cm apart.
The dhaincha (S. aculeata)was grown as GM in appropriate plots between
Boro and T. Aman seasons. Seeds were sown by broadcasting at a rate of 50 kg
ha21 in the first week of May. Fifty-five-day-old dhaincha plants (1012 t ha21
on a fresh-weight basis) were incorporated 78 days prior to planting T. Aman.
P. K. Saha et al.582