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  • HORIZONTAL-HYG DL 2/5 Report SSPI-CT-2004-513660

    __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Literature review on detection and eradication of plant pathogens in sludge, soils and treated biowaste

    Page 1/52

    SSPI-CT-2004- 513660

    HORIZONTAL - HYGHORIZONTAL STANDARDS ON HYGIENIC PARAMETERS FOR

    IMPLEMENTATION OF EU DIRECTIVES ON SLUDGE, SOIL AND TREATED BIO-WASTE

    Instrument: STREPThematic Priority: PRIORITY 8.1 STREP

    Topic 1.5 Environmental assessment

    Deliverable 5/2Literature review on

    detection and eradication of plant pathogens in sludge, soils and treated biowaste

    (deskstudy Horizontal 30)

    Due date of deliverable: December 2005 Actual submission date: January 2006

    Start date of project: 1-12-2004 Duration: 3 years

    Organisation name of lead contractor for this deliverable: KLV (partner 10) DRAFT, Revision, Final

    Project co-funded by the European Commission within the Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)Dissemination Level

    PU Public PUPP Restricted to other programme participants (including the Commission Services)RE Restricted to a group specified by the consortium (including the Commission Services)CO Confidential, only for members of the consortium (including the Commission Services)

  • HORIZONTAL-HYG DL 2/5 Report SSPI-CT-2004-513660

    __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Literature review on detection and eradication of plant pathogens in sludge, soils and treated biowaste

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    DisclaimerThe European Commission does not accept any liability for the information contained in this document resulting from work carried out under contract with the FP 6 prgram of the European Commission,. The conclusions herein reflect at this point the opinion of the authors. After consultation, it can be considered to reflect the consensus opinion of the CEN bodies involved in project HORIZONTAL. The opinions are not necessarily consistent with the views of the European Commission.

    Lisbeth Mikkelsen1, John Elphinstone2, Dan Funck Jensen1

    1Department of Plant Biology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, DK

    2Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York, UK

    January 2006

  • HORIZONTAL-HYG DL 2/5 Report SSPI-CT-2004-513660

    __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Literature review on detection and eradication of plant pathogens in sludge, soils and treated biowaste

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    Contents

    1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION................................................................................................ 5

    1.1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 61.2. SCOPE.............................................................................................................. 7

    2. DEFINITIONS .......................................................................................................................... 7

    2.1. PLANT PATHOGENS ........................................................................................... 7Description of plant pathogens.................................................................................................... 7Quarantine plant pathogens: ....................................................................................................... 9Sources of plant pathogens: ...................................................................................................... 102.2. TYPES OF SLUDGE AND BIOWASTE ................................................................... 10Sludge ...................................................................................................................................... 10Biowaste................................................................................................................................... 10Sources of biodegradable waste (Lepeuple et al. 2004): ............................................................ 102.3. SOIL ............................................................................................................... 11

    4. REGULATIONS, STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES FOR SLUDGE AND BIOWASTE 15

    4.1. REGULATION OF PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS............................................... 154.2. REGULATION OF WASTE OF PLANT ORIGIN........................................................ 164.3. STANDARDS FOR COMPOST SANITIZATION........................................................ 164.4. GERMAN LEGISLATION .................................................................................... 164.5. SWITZERLAND ................................................................................................ 174.6. FRANCE .......................................................................................................... 174.7. DENMARK....................................................................................................... 174.8. NORDIC INVESTIGATION .................................................................................. 184.9. UNITED KINGDOM EXPERIENCES OF PLANT PATHOGENS IN BIOWASTE ............... 184.10. EPPO (OEPP) EUROPEAN AND MEDITERRANEAN PLANT PROTECTION ORGANIZATION DRAFT GUIDELINE.......................................................................... 20

    5. FATE OF SOME PLANT PATHOGENS DURING BIOWASTE TREATMENT ............. 21

    5.1. VIRUSES AND VIROIDS ..................................................................................... 215.2. BACTERIA....................................................................................................... 225.3. FUNGI ............................................................................................................. 22Synchytrium endobioticum....................................................................................................... 25Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis ........................................................................ 26

    6. DETECTION METHODS...................................................................................................... 26

    6.1. BIOASSAYS AND BAIT TESTS ............................................................................ 266.2. PATHOGEN ISOLATION..................................................................................... 276.3. SEROLOGICAL METHODS ................................................................................. 286.4. NUCLEIC ACID-BASED DETECTION METHODS .................................................... 28

    7. CONCLUSIONS ..................................................................................................................... 29

  • HORIZONTAL-HYG DL 2/5 Report SSPI-CT-2004-513660

    __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Literature review on detection and eradication of plant pathogens in sludge, soils and treated biowaste

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    7.1. LEGISLATIONS AND REGULATIONS ................................................................... 297.2. ERADICATION OF PLANT PATHOGENS ............................................................... 297.3. DETECTION METHODS ..................................................................................... 30

    8. RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................................................ 31

    8.1. FURTHER RESEARCH WORK RECOMMENDED ................................................... 31Lethal temperature/time requirements for elimination of high-risk organisms ........................... 31Specifications for composting and digestion processes ............................................................. 31Detection of key organisms in biowastes before and after processing........................................ 31Suitability of indicator organisms for process validation ........................................................... 32Improvement of detection methods........................................................................................... 32

    9. REFERENCES........................................................................................................................ 33ANNEX 1..................................................................................................................................... 38

    PART A................................................................................................................ 38S e c t i o n I ............................................................................................................................. 38S e c t i o n I I ........................................................................................................................... 41PART B................................................................................................................ 42

    ANNEX 2..................................................................................................................................... 43

    PART A................................................................................................................ 43S e c t i o n I ............................................................................................................................. 43S e c t i o n I I ........................................................................................................................... 47PART B................................................................................................................ 49SUBJECT OF CONTAMINATION..........

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