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DESCRIPTIONConducting literature review
Conducting Literature ReviewA very brief overview
About Me Dr. Merza Abbas Assoc. Prof. Chairman of Graduate Studies, Centre for Instructional Technology & Multimedia firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Achievement? Best Thesis/Dissertation Awards USM : META: Ibrahim Jbeili (2004) Hamidah Maidinsah (2004)
Tumpang syok sahaja
Why do a master degree? To do a better job To teach better: more effectively, more efficiently, more productively, etc To improve the quality of learning
To move to better jobs Because it is exciting, challenging, etc Because its there
Why do a master degree? To do a PHD, to be a researcher To acquire constructive knowledge as well as destructive knowledge To learn to deconstruct and/or reconstruct knowledge (how do you know what you know is correct?) No real applications except for a PHD or in a research environment
What is a graduate program?PHD Master Grad. Dip/ Prof. exams Bachelor Diploma Critical review of paradigms: Accept when irrefutable Critical review of theories: Accept when proven More skills & theories: Accept w/o question Skills & theories: Accept w/o question Skills: Accept w/o question
Structure of Academic thinking
P R E S C R I P T I V E Res.
ParadigmD E S C R I P T I V E Res.
Structure of Scientific Revolution (Kuhn, 1970)Master programs Paradigm Normal Science
New Normal Science
More Anomalies Doctoral Programs
Another new Paradigm
Objectivist ParadigmTheory Behaviourist Focus: Mastery of content/skills through conditioning and use of Mental processes extrinsic motivationalprocesses are predictable: External factors through accumulation of sub-skills can change and sub-procedures internal processes through activation of mental processes such as schemas, strategies, & metacognition
Constructivist ParadigmTheory Mental Development Humanist Social learning Focus: reasoning skills & science process skills through inquiry and solving real-life problems Mental processes are not predictable: Knowledge meaningful & through is private & is personally purposeful learning constructed through scaffolding, cooperative/collaborative learning,
What is a thesis/dissertation? Report of a scholarly investigation Proof of theory-practice mastery Genuine & Original thought/argument
Document to pass a sentence Verify/fine-tune theories, models, practice Reject/Debunk paradigms, theories, models
What is in a thesis/dissertation? Chapter 1: Introduction Problem Statement Research Questions Hypotheses, etc
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter
2: Literature Review 3: Research Methodology 4: Results / Data Analysis 5: Discussion & Conclusions
Skills for Research & Thesis Writing Draw & apply reasonable conclusionsOrganize & analyze expt. data Plan & conduct controlled expt. Generate logical predictions Recognize & state Alt. H & Theories Sense & state causal question Describe nature accurately
Dari Lawson (1995)
Literature Review What is it? What is it for? Where do we start? How do we do it?
How do we know weve done a good job? Worked example(s)
Quantitative research Qualitative research
Literature Review: M.Ed. Evaluation Form Perkaitan Sumber yang disoroti dengan masalah kajian. Terdapat teori/model untuk menyokong masalah kajian. Sumber yang disoroti adalah terkini dan mencakupi skop kajian.
What is it? High quality overview Clarity, Flow, Relevance, Recency, Empirical focus, Independence
With technically accurate citations and references List all articles cited in text, Cite all articles listed in reference Use the APA standard.
What is it for? Support for ideas in Chapter 1 Elaboration of ideas in Chapter 1 Reference for discussion and conclusions in Chapter 5 Must be thorough, exhaustive, & up-todate
Where do we start?
Choose a paradigm Problem Statement (3-5 pages: tentative cause & effect statements)Problems = anomalies Choose a suitable theory/model Identify Independent Variables (IV) Identify Dependent Variables (DV) Identify Moderator Variables (MV)
Write clear Research Questions
Derive a Title from the Research Questions Tip: RQ = Summary of Problem Statement
How will the IVs affect the DVs among the MVs? Develop the Hypotheses
Information Processing ModelLearning: process of E Encoding and decoding N Stimuli/Knowledge items V into meaningful structures I Response Muscles R using various cognitive Generator O strategiesN M E N T Senses Sensory Register Executive Control Motivation
Short Term/ Working Memory
Long Term Memory
Piagets theory Learning: process of resolving cognitive conflicts
Existing Schema in equilibrium New Information causes disequilibrium
New Schema in equilibrium
How do we do it? Expand from the Title Expand from the Research Questions Expand from the Problem Statement Take note of the Academic Pecking Order Sources of Knowledge Who else has done this, in what paradigm, with what subjects, & with what results: go to ASKERIC, Google, etc. Expand concepts to content outline Use cause and effect structure
Tip: Hypotheses are summaries for Lit. Review.
The Academic Pecking OrderInnovators Developers Reporters Students No name dropping, padding Please!
Sources of Knowledge Experience Authority Deductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning Scientific Thinking/Research (Empirical studies)
Inductive ReasoningBegins with specific observations Detects patterns & forms Forms tentative hypotheses to test Concludes with a new theoryDari Sopiah Abdullah (2004)
Deductive ReasoningBegins with a theory that explains an event forms hypotheses to test Collects data/ observations to test Hthesis Confirms original theory
How do you know youve done a good job? Does the review support every hypothesis? Does the review support Chapter 5? Up-to-date, thorough, exhaustive, original? Can be turned into a book / a monograph?
Tuckmans (1999) criteria Context Magnitude (number of references) How empirical & up-to-date Connectedness to the problem Well-organized? Establish significance? Convincing argument?
Lets try an example Paradigm Variables Research Questions Title Literature Review Outline
How to improve learning?