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  • Literary TheoriesLiterary TheoriesSession 1

    Literature and Literary StudyLiterature and Literary Study

    M. ThoyibiM. Thoyibi

  • Literary TheoriesLiterary TheoriesSession 2

    Literature and Literary StudyLiterature and Literary Studyy yy y

  • Literature and Literary StudyLiterature and Literary StudyLiterature and Literary StudyLiterature and Literary Study

  • Literature and Literary StudyLiterature and Literary StudyLiterature and Literary StudyLiterature and Literary Study

    Literature: a creative work the Literature: a creative work the Literature: a creative work the Literature: a creative work the medium of which is language, having medium of which is language, having its own conventionits own conventionits own convention.its own convention.Literary Study: a scholarly/scientific Literary Study: a scholarly/scientific work concerned with the work concerned with the work concerned with the work concerned with the interpretation, characterization, and interpretation, characterization, and evaluation of literatureevaluation of literatureevaluation of literature.evaluation of literature.

  • LiteratureLiteratureLiteratureLiterature

  • Literary StudyLiterary StudyLiterary StudyLiterary Study

  • Literary StudyLiterary StudyLiterary StudyLiterary Study

    Literary Theory: the study of the Literary Theory: the study of the Literary Theory: the study of the Literary Theory: the study of the principles, categories, and criteria principles, categories, and criteria (standards, norms) of literary works(standards, norms) of literary worksLiterary History: the study concerned with Literary History: the study concerned with the chronological order of literature being the chronological order of literature being integral parts of historical processintegral parts of historical processLiterary Criticism: the study concerned Literary Criticism: the study concerned

    h d f l f l dh d f l f l dwith defining, classifying, analyzing, and with defining, classifying, analyzing, and evaluating works of literature evaluating works of literature

  • Types of Literary StudyTypes of Literary Studyyp y yyp y y

    LITERARYSTUDY

    LITERARY THEORY

  • INTERINTER--RELATION OF ELEMENTS RELATION OF ELEMENTS IN LITERARY STUDYIN LITERARY STUDYIN LITERARY STUDYIN LITERARY STUDY

    LITERARY HISTORYLITERARY HISTORY

    LITERARY CRITICISMLITERARY THEORY LITERARY CRITICISMLITERARY THEORY

  • LITERARY THEORY LITERARY HISTORY LITERARY CRITICISM

    How do we divide literature chronologically? What is drama?

    Does the novel have a good plausibility?How is a literary work related to the contexts of the literary creation?

    What makes Elizabethan literature different from that of Victorian?

    Why do we call Waiting for Godot a masterpiece?

    How should a plot be built?

    When did Elizabethan period begin?

    How was the Victorian Age reflected in Jane Austens works?

    How should a plot be built?

    How did Charles Dickens respond to poverty in England?

    How should a literary work be judged?

    How did Charles Dickens respond to poverty in England?

    How does the life of the author contribute to the literary creation?

    How is gender inequality addressed in a literary work?

    What makes poetry different from novel and drama?

    How is gender inequality addressed in a literary work?

  • Literary GenresLiterary GenresLiterary GenresLiterary GenresPOETRY POETRY FICTION FICTION DRAMA DRAMA NONNON--

    FICTIONFICTION

    TTYPE OF YPE OF WORKS WORKS

    Narrative, Lyrical/ reflectNarrative, Lyrical/ reflect--ive (soliloquy)ive (soliloquy): Ballad : Ballad (verse narrative), Sonnet (a (verse narrative), Sonnet (a lyric of fourteen lines), Ode lyric of fourteen lines), Ode (celebration of victory), (celebration of victory),

    Short storyShort storyNovelNovelNovella Novella

    TragedyTragedyComedyComedyTragicomedyTragicomedyMelodramaMelodrama

    Satire, Diary, Satire, Diary, Autobiography, Autobiography, Nature Writing, Nature Writing, etc etc

    ( y)( y)Elegy lament of death) Elegy lament of death) Opera, etc. Opera, etc.

    LLANGUAGEANGUAGE Verse, Condensed Verse, Condensed Prose (and Prose (and dialogue) dialogue)

    Dialogue Dialogue Prose Prose (dialogue) (dialogue)

    AAUTHORS UTHORS Direct, in the voice of the Direct, in the voice of the d ti d ti

    HalfHalf--hidden, hidden, ti di t ti di t

    Fully hidden behind Fully hidden behind th k f th th k f th

    Direct, HalfDirect, Half--hidd hidd VVOICEOICE dramatic personaedramatic personae sometimes direct sometimes direct

    in the narration, in the narration, now and then now and then hidden behind the hidden behind the characters characters speeches speeches

    the masks of the the masks of the characters characters

    hidden hidden

    speeches. speeches.

    SSTRUCTTRUCT. . EELEMENTS LEMENTS

    Speaker, plot of thought, Speaker, plot of thought, tone of voice (mood), tone of voice (mood), figurative language (simile, figurative language (simile, metaphor, personification, metaphor, personification, apostrophe irony paradox apostrophe irony paradox

    Characters & Characters & characterization, characterization, setting of place setting of place and time, plot, and time, plot, point of view point of view

    Characters & Characters & characterization, characterization, scenery (setting of scenery (setting of place and time), place and time), plot theme (and plot theme (and

    Speaker, style, Speaker, style, central central purpose, purpose, central idea. central idea.

    apostrophe, irony, paradox, apostrophe, irony, paradox, imagery, symbols,) imagery, symbols,)

    point of view, point of view, style, and themestyle, and theme

    plot, theme (and plot, theme (and costumes, lighting costumes, lighting system, sound system, sound system)system)

  • Periods of English LiteraturePeriods of English LiteraturePeriods of English LiteraturePeriods of English Literature450450--10661066 Old English (AngloOld English (Anglo--Saxon) PeriodSaxon) Period10661066 15001500 Middl E li h P i dMiddl E li h P i d10661066--15001500 Middle English PeriodMiddle English Period15001500--16601660 The RenaissanceThe Renaissance

    15581558--1603 1603 Elizabethan AgeElizabethan Age16031603--1625 1625 Jacobean AgeJacobean Age16251625--1649 1649 Caroline AgeCaroline Age16491649--1660 1660 Commonwealth (Puritan)Commonwealth (Puritan)

    16601660--17981798 Neoclassical PeriodNeoclassical Period16601660--1700 1700 The RestorationThe Restoration17001700--1745 1745 The Augustan (Pope) AgeThe Augustan (Pope) Age17451745--1798 1798 The Age of SensibilityThe Age of Sensibility

    17981798--1832 1832 The Romantic PeriodThe Romantic Period18321832--1901 1901 The Victorian PeriodThe Victorian Period18321832 1901 1901 The Victorian PeriodThe Victorian Period19141914-- The modern PeriodThe modern Period

    19011901--1914 1914 The Edwardian PeriodThe Edwardian Period19101910--1936 1936 The Georgian The Georgian

  • What Is Literary Theory?What Is Literary Theory?What Is Literary Theory?What Is Literary Theory?

    ""Literary theory " "critical theory " or Literary theory " "critical theory " or Literary theory, critical theory, or Literary theory, critical theory, or "theory," can be understood as the set of "theory," can be understood as the set of concepts and intellectual assumptions on concepts and intellectual assumptions on p pp pwhich rests the work of explaining or which rests the work of explaining or interpreting literary texts. interpreting literary texts. Literary theory refers to any principles Literary theory refers to any principles derived from internal analysis of literary derived from internal analysis of literary t t f k l d t l t th t t f k l d t l t th texts or from knowledge external to the texts or from knowledge external to the text that can be applied in multiple text that can be applied in multiple interpretive situationsinterpretive situationsinterpretive situations.interpretive situations.

  • All critical practice regarding literature All critical practice regarding literature d d d l i t t f d d d l i t t f depends on an underlying structure of depends on an underlying structure of ideas in at least two ways: ideas in at least two ways:

    1.1.theory provides a rationale for what theory provides a rationale for what constitutes the subject matter of criticismconstitutes the subject matter of criticism"th lit ""th lit " d th ifi i f d th ifi i f "the literary""the literary"and the specific aims of and the specific aims of critical practicecritical practice

    2.2.theory provides a rationale for the act of theory provides a rationale for the act of interpretation itself. interpretation itself.

    For example to speak of the "unity" of For example to speak of the "unity" of For example, to speak of the unity of For example, to speak of the unity of Oedipus the KingOedipus the King explicitly invokes explicitly invokes Aristotle's theoretical statements on Aristotle's theoretical statements on poetics. poetics.

  • Nature of Literary TheoryNature of Literary TheoryNature of Literary TheoryNature of Literary Theory"Literary theory" is the body of ideas and "Literary theory" is the body of ideas and

    th d i th ti l di f th d i th ti l di f methods we use in the practical reading of methods we use in the practical reading of literature. literature. By literary theory we refer not to the meaning of By literary theory we refer not to the meaning of k f lit t b t t th th i th t l k f lit t b t t th th i th t l a work of literat

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