literacy initiative for empowerment (life) and pakistan : challenges and strategic needs

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Literacy Initiative for Empowerment (LIFE) and Pakistan : Challenges and Strategic Needs Dr. Maurice Robson UNESCO Representative National Consultative Workshop on Literacy 17 February 2009, Islamabad. Purpose and Outline. Purpose: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Literacy Initiative for Empowerment (LIFE) and Pakistan: Challenges and Strategic Needs

    Dr. Maurice RobsonUNESCO RepresentativeNational Consultative Workshop on Literacy17 February 2009, Islamabad

  • Purpose and OutlinePurpose: To build consensus amongst decision makers on the urgent need for a well-organized, nation wide, movement for the eradication of illiteracy in Pakistan

    Outline: National and international commitments for literacy Development rationale for literacy The report card for Pakistan Institutionalization of literacy efforts: Challenges and issues Proposed strategic actions

  • Six Goals of Dakar - EFA1.ECCE - Early Childhood care and education.2.UPE - Free and compulsory basic education .3.Learning opportunities for Young & Adults.4.Literacy Rate (50% improvement).5.Gender equality - elimination of gender disparities.6.Quality of education - Learning achievement.

  • EFA and MDGsGoal 2: Achieve universal primary educationTarget 3: Completion of full primary schooling by all children Indicator No 8: Literacy rate of 15-24 year old Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower womenTarget 4: eliminate gender disparityIndicator 10: Ratio of literate women to men, 15-24 years oldECCE: Expanding early childhood care and educationUPE: Universal primary education Continuing Education: Learning and life skills programmes for young and adultsLiteracy: 50% increase in adult literacy rates Gender: Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary by 2005, and gender equality in education by 2015Quality: Improving quality of educationMDGs by 2015EFA Goals by 2015 LITERACY IS AT THE CORE

  • International Commitments EFA : Pakistan is signatory to EFA and MDGs - Literacy is one of the six Goals of EFA Target: 86% literacy to be achieved by 2015 (National Plan of Action for EFA - Ministry of Education, 2003)

    UN Literacy Decade (2003-2012): Pakistan reflected achievement of UNLD goals in its PRSP-1

    LIFE : Pakistan has agreed to launch Literacy Initiative for Empowerment (LIFE) in 2005.

    PRSP : EFA and Literacy are part of Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP II)

  • National Commitments of Pakistan Constitution of Pakistan (1973)State shall be responsible for: eradication of illiteracy and provision of free and compulsory education up to secondary level, within minimum possible time(Article 37-B, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan)

  • Why Literacy? A Human Right: Literacy is a basic human right (Atricle 26 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights -1948) A basis for learning: Literacy is a foundation for all further learning A public good: individual and social benefits, reduces conservatism and intolerance, connects individuals to the global trends and thinking A key part of Poverty Reduction strategy : an important indicator of Human Development Index (HDI)

  • Report Card: Literacy in PakistanPSLM (2006-07) Statistics Division, GoPOverall, 45% population (10+) is illiterate, and58% Women can not read and write70% Rural women are illiterate76% Rural women in NWFP are illiterate84% Rural women in Sindh can not read and write85% Rural women in Balochistan are illiterateDisparities: 80% literacy among males in urban Sindh vs 15% literacy among females in rural Balochistan PSLM (2005-06)32 districts with literacy rate below 40%56 districts with more than 70% illiterate women

  • Provincial Comparison of Rural Female Literacy(PSLM Survey 2006-07)PunjabSindhNWFPBalochistan

  • Number of Illiterates are increasing in Pakistan(Source: Census Reports and projections for 2006-07)

    YearPop 10 +(Millions)Literacy Rate (10+)Illiterate Pop (10+)-Million195122.7117.918.64196126.1216.722.08197242.9121.733.59198156.3326.242.69199889.8443.9250.382006-07(estimated)112.0055.0050.40

  • Asian Map of Literacy

  • Human Development in South and West Asia (Source: Human Development Report 2007-08, and UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Report 2009)

  • Dakar Goal Achievement EDIEducation For All Development Index (EDI) for 129 countries- GMR 2009

    S. No.Achievement LevelNo. of Countries (world position)South and West Asian countries1.Far from EFA Goals295 Countries including, India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, and Pakistan3.Intermediate position44Maldives2.Closer to EFA Goals56

  • Education Budget in Pakistan: (1995-96 to 2008-09)(Source: Economic Survey (2002-2003) Finance Division Government of Pakistan, Page 167, Table 11.5 and Economic Survey of Pakistan 2005-06, and EFA Global Monitoring Report 2008, 2009, and other related documents of Govt. of Pakistan)

    Year% of GDPYear% of GDP1995-962.002002-031.71996-972.622003-042.201997-982.342004-052.121998-992.402005-062.401999-001.72006-072.422000-011.62007-082.492001-021.92008-09(PRSP II, page 316))1.25

  • Pre-conditions for Success of Adult Literacy ProgrammesVision: Literacy programmes based on an agenda of social change including functional literacy/income generation skills learners can not be attracted just for alphabets- Literacy for a causeIncluding post-literacy and continuing education: beyond basic literacy- mainstreaming neo-literates and NFBE pass outs with formal education - continuing education

    Leadership: literacy movement demands leadership, not merely the funds

    Organizational structure: expertise for training, material development, research & evaluation

    Consistent policy and approach

  • An analysis of Literacy Programmes in PakistanCommitment gap: Lack of Political Will funds were sanctioned but politicians could not provide leadership politicization of literacy projects

    Policy Gap: A clear and strong policy on Literacy and NFBE has been missing: Lack of administrative will open and disguised opposition to Literacy & NFBE by the traditional planners.

    Organizational Gap: Absence of permanent organizational structure led to coordination gap

    Financial Resources Gap: limited financial assistance, and uncertainty about funding

    Technical Capacity Gap: islands of excellence but weak professional base /continuity of experience/independent research and evaluation studies

  • A Strategy for PakistanA vision: a national framework developed: consistent policy on adult literacy (Legislation, Parliament Resolution, strengthening provisions for Adult Literacy and NFBE in new National Education Policy)

    A commitment: political leadership - Ministers, Parliamentarians, and political parties support and lead literacy programmes at various levels

    Partnerships: joint Federal and Provincial agreements/ coordination/monitoring structures and processes

    Guaranteed Financial Resources: Consistent flow of financial resources x % of education budget (?) matching grants to provinces

    Clear Roles and Responsibilities: Clearly spelling out role and responsibilities of Federal Govt., Provincial Govts., and District Govts.

    A strong Professional base: An Institute or Resource Centre for technical tasks like training, material development, research etc.

  • Focussed ApproachPriority: Out of School Youth (10-25)Female Literacy programmes

    Modalities:NFBE: Non-formal Basic Education Centers for 6-15 years out of school children and youthPost Literacy: Making literacy meaningful, post literacy phase to be added, mobile libraries, reading rooms etc. ECE: Linking female literacy or Mothers Literacy with Early Childhood Education

  • LIFE: UNESCO support for LiteracyLIFE (Literacy Initiative for Empowerment) launched by UNESCO in 36 countries- with literacy rate below 50% or illiterate population above 10 million

    Country Action Plan for Literacy: Pakistan has committed for LIFE - including launching of a national literacy programme

    Technical Assistance: UNESCO is providing support to Pakistan for formulation of a policy on literacy and capacity development

  • A basis for success! Rich experience! Not from zero!A National Literacy Curriculum (2007), approved and launched by the Ministry of Education Literacy materials: Literacy primers and post literacy readers produced by NCHD, Institute of Mass Education (AIOU), MoE, UNESCO, and NGOsTrained human resources available with NCHD, National Education Foundation, provincial Directorates of Literacy and NFE, and NGOsA Joint UN Programme in Education (2009-10): Literacy and NFBE as part of the 2-year programme of cooperation agreed between UN and Govt. of PakistanPolicy comment through legislation a must for sustainability and institutionalization of literacy programmes

  • What is missing?

    A consistent policyandLeadership For this workshop to succeed in formulating a clear strategy and mobilizing of strong leadership for Literacy


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