literacy guidelines - knights templar .literacy guidelines a writing guide ... sentences 12 - 15

Download Literacy Guidelines - Knights Templar .Literacy Guidelines A Writing Guide ... Sentences 12 - 15

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  • Literacy Guidelines

    A Writing Guide for Key Stage 3

  • This booklet is designed to remind you of the basic

    rules of grammar, punctuation and spelling. It also

    offers advice about the different types of writing

    you do in school.

    Contents

    Rules and Reminders page/s

    General Rules of Writing in School 1

    How to Set Out Your Work 2

    Checking Your Writing in Class 3

    The Key Terms of Language 4 - 11

    Sentences 12 - 15

    Capital Letters 16 - 17

    Paragraphs 18 - 19

    Punctuation 20 - 21

    Writing Direct Speech 22

    Common Errors 23 - 30

    Writing Skills Used in School page/s

    Planning and Organising 31

    Explaining 32

    Describing 33 - 34

    Discussing 35

    Reflecting and Evaluating 36

    Analysing 37

    Comparing 38

    Writing Styles 39 - 50

    Spelling 51 - 55

    Reading Skills 56

    Speaking and Listening in class 57

  • Your writing in school should be formal and polite. This means that you

    must write in a style that is as accurate and correct as you can make it.

    You must always remember that in school you are mainly writing for an

    adult audience, so choose your words wisely.

    In formal writing, you should not use apostrophes to shorten words,

    such as dont, isnt, its and youre.

    Your writing should not sound like speech. Words that are commonly

    used in casual speech, such as gonna, gotten, cos, aint and innit, have no

    place in the classroom.

    Slang terms, such as cool, sick, wicked and lol, should also be avoided

    when writing in school. Occasionally, a task may require you to use

    slang for a particular audience or purpose but informal language should

    otherwise be avoided.

    Sentences should not begin with connectives (joining words) such as

    but, because, or and and.

    Of course, there will be many occasions when teachers encourage you

    to write imaginatively - do not hold back! Just remember that the

    most imaginative stories are written in a style that is formal, accurate

    and polite.

    WRITING IN SCHOOL

    1

  • In many subjects, the date must be written on the right hand side of

    the page at the start of every new piece of work.

    The title of the work must be written in the middle of the page.

    If the title is too long to fit neatly alongside the date, write it on

    the next line. Both the title and the date must be underlined.

    Some subjects may also require you to write either Classwork or

    Homework at the start of the work or in the margin.

    You may sometimes be required to set out a piece of writing using

    sub-headings. These must be written next to the margin and they

    must be underlined.

    Note: these rules do not apply in Art, where you will use a sketchbook.

    HOW TO SET OUT YOUR WORK

    Tables, maps and diagrams

    In subjects such as Science, Maths and Geography you are required to

    draw graphs, charts, tables, maps and diagrams to present information,

    data and results. There are important things to remember when

    presenting information in this way.

    Use a sharp pencil and a ruler to draw straight lines and to

    underline headings and sub-headings.

    Draw in pencil but write in tables and label maps and diagrams

    neatly using a pen.

    Use colour where appropriate - a little colour can make maps and

    diagrams clearer.

    You will need:

    eraser pencil sharpener

    pencil compass

    coloured pencils

    ruler

    pen

    protractor

    highlighter pens

    2

  • CHECKING YOUR WRITING IN CLASS

    Making corrections

    You must check your writing for mistakes before your teacher sees it.

    Make sure that each sentence makes sense and that you have used

    punctuation correctly. Add missed paragraph breaks using a double

    slash (//) and check spellings using a dictionary.

    How to use a dictionary to help your spelling

    Dictionaries are available in all subject areas for you to use at any

    time when you are doing written work.

    You should use a dictionary to check spellings that you are unsure

    of when you have finished your writing.

    Question

    How do I look up a word if I cant spell it?

    Answer

    Firstly, think about the sounds that make up the word.

    What sound does the word start with?

    Which letter or group of letters could make that sound?

    This should direct you to the correct letter section of

    the dictionary (it is in alphabetical order).

    What sound comes next in the word?

    This will help you to search through the list of words

    in that section until you find the word you need to spell.

    With a little trial and error you will find the correct word.

    If you are still struggling, ask for help.

    3

  • THE KEY TERMS OF LANGUAGE

    Language Term and Function Examples

    Noun - the name of something

    Common nouns are the names given

    to general people, places or things,

    e.g. boy, student, school, book.

    Proper nouns are the names of

    specific people, places or things,

    including titles e.g. Kate, Baldock,

    Liverpool F.C., Star Wars. Proper

    nouns begin with capital letters.

    Abstract nouns are the names of

    feelings, qualities or ideas that you

    cannot see, touch or hear,

    e.g. love, bravery, dedication,

    honesty, happiness, beauty.

    (Nouns that you can see, touch or

    hear are called concrete nouns.)

    cup

    decision

    cheeseburger

    job

    Queen Elizabeth I

    person

    happiness

    Mr Happy

    courage

    London

    Pronoun - used in place of a noun

    Pronouns are used to avoid

    repetition and to make your writing

    flow smoothly.

    I, you, he, she, it, we, they, me,

    my, his, him, her, their, them, us,

    our, this, that, herself, himself

    4

  • THE KEY TERMS OF LANGUAGE

    5

    Language Term and Function Examples

    Noun phrase - a descriptive name

    A noun phrase is a group of words

    which presents a more descriptive

    version of a noun.

    Noun phrases can be made by

    adding words to nouns to develop

    their meaning or be more specific,

    e.g. the sandy beach, my favourite

    dress, a puzzling thought.

    Use noun phrases to be more

    expressive in descriptive writing.

    the skilful midfielder

    my birthday cake

    acid rain

    some of my friends

    the Year 7 disco

    old oak tree

    Modifier - changes meaning

    To modify a word means to change

    or develop its meaning, often by

    adding more specific detail.

    Nouns are often modified

    by adjectives.

    Verbs are often modified

    by adverbs.

    the happy teacher - happy (adjective) modifies teacher (noun)

    the pupil thought creatively -

    creatively (adverb) modifies thought (verb)

    she arrives tomorrow - tomorrow (adverb) modifies arrives (verb).

  • THE KEY TERMS OF LANGUAGE

    6

    Language Term and Function Examples

    Adjective - a describing word

    An adjective describes a noun

    or a pronoun.

    Adjectives describe qualities or

    characteristics such as texture,

    size and colour.

    They are used to give a more

    detailed picture of the thing being

    described.

    good, jolly, fast, bright, big,

    smart, incredible, beautiful,

    vicious, pretty, clever, pink,

    smooth, rocky, delicate, vast

    The talented artist used

    intricate brushwork.

    When heated, the

    chemicals in the

    beaker became very

    hot and turned blue.

    Verb - a doing word

    Verbs express:

    physical actions - to smile, to write

    mental actions - to think, to guess

    states of being - to be, to exist

    Verbs can be in the present tense

    or the past tense.

    jump, jumping, jumped, have, had,

    do, done, eat, excited, scared,

    smile, smiled, smiling, wrote,

    writing, dream, dreamt

    (To be = am, are, was, were, is)

    The athlete sprinted to the finish.

    She considered the problem.

    The experiment was a success.

  • THE KEY TERMS OF LANGUAGE

    7

    Language Term and Function Examples

    Adverb - used to describe

    Adverbs are used to add more

    detail to a verb or adjective

    by indicating:

    how

    where

    when

    frequency - how often / much

    They may be considered to

    describe the way in which

    something is done or the time

    in which it happens.

    Adverbial - an adverb or phrase

    An adverbial is a word or phrase

    that describes details such as

    time, place and effect.

    Adverbials are often separated

    by commas.

    They can be used to link ideas in

    long pieces of writing, such as

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