listening with mobile devices: an ecological approach to context-embedded learning

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Listening with mobile devices: An ecological approach to context-embedded learning. Agnieszka (Aga) Palalas, Ed.D . Debra Hoven, Ph.D. May 2013. Overview. What is DBR What are mobile devices/mobile learning? L istening in the real world What is ecological constructivism (EC) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Listening with mobile devices: An ecological approach to context-embedded learningAgnieszka (Aga) Palalas, Ed.D.Debra Hoven, Ph.D.1May 2013both1What is DBRWhat are mobile devices/mobile learning?Listening in the real world What is ecological constructivism (EC)MELLES study overviewListening tasksEC and context-embedded language learningConclusionsDiscussion

Overview2Aga23DBR methodologyDesign experiments > design-based research = design research = DBR = EDR = researching innovative educational designs in their naturalistic settings(Brown, 1992; Collins, 1992)

A systematic but flexible methodology aimed to improve educational practices through iterative analysis, design, development, and implementation, based on collaboration among researchers and practitioners in real-world settings, and leading to contextually-sensitive design principles and theories. (Wang & Hannafin, 1999, p. 7)Context rules

Aga3Practice research (unifying theory and practice)Drawing on engineering and technological researchFocusing on design, construction, implementation and adoption of learning solutionsProcess-focused and iterative---evolvingInterventionist: applied solutions to real educational problems; participatory (multiple agents & actors)Contextual: real people, context, and cultural background(s), in-situ investigation/evaluation


DBR: implicationsThe intervention embod[ied] specific theoretical claims about teaching and learning, and reflect[ed] a commitment to understanding the relationships among theory, designed artifacts, and practice. [] research on specific interventions can contribute to theories of learning and teaching.(Design-Based Research Collective, 2003, p.6)(Palalas & Hoven, 2013)Aga56Learning or training: knowledge construction, skill development and performance support Learners participate across locations, times and contexts (inside and outside the classroom)Enabled by portable devices and web connectivityflexible on-demand access to learning materials, experts, peers and other resourcestools to create content and interact with peers, experts, learning systems and supports, and the environment in which the learning is occurringM-learning devices: handheld, highly portable, connected, always-on, personal, ubiquitouscontingent on needs and contextWhat is mobile learning?Aga6Authentic listeningIn dynamic real-world communicative situationsIntegrated listening-speakingSupported by chunking tasks & JIT peer/teacher/ learner-created audio-visual-textual vocabulary bankCollaboratively co-construed meanings & interpretationsCollaboratively co-constructed schemata & environmentsListening in the real world 1/2Debra7Authentic listening

Learners utilizing the resources available to them- self- peer- tool- expert to raise their awareness of their context in order to perceive the affordances of features within the environment around them &/or accessible to themListening in the real world 2/2Debra89Mobile-Enabled Language Learning Eco-system (MELLES)What are the characteristics of an effective, pedagogically-sound MELLES for students mobile devices, through which adult ESP students in a community college enhance listening skills, while expanding their learning outside the classroom?

Evolution of theoryMELLES design principlesEcological Constructivism

Evolution of practiceMELLES prototypeModel for replication

DBR application for educational context(Palalas, 2012)


Inadequate aural skills instruction - college ESP students

Solution: MELL educational intervention to enhance effectiveness and appeal of ESPaugment in-class learningout-of-class language practicestudents own mobile devicesreplicable and reusable design principles 10Statement of the problemAga1011Evolution of DBR process and outcomes2005 20072011Social Constructivism --> SCT --> Ecological Constructivism20092010Aga1112Methodology: DBR

Bannan, B. (2009)Barab, S., & Squire, K. (2004)Brown, A. (1992)Dede, C. (2004)Herrington, J., McKenney, S., Reeves, T., & Oliver, R. (2007)Kelly, A. (2009)Plomp, T. (2009)Reeves, T. (2006)Van den Akker et al (2006)Wang, F., & Hannafin, M. J. (2005)Palalas, A. (2012)DBR PhasesInformed explorationEnactmentEvaluation:LocalBroad(Analysis of outcomesRedesign iterations) Aga12


Outcomes: listening tasksAga13Eight interconnected, non-linear tasks Co-learning: collaborative & individualAuthentic communication challenges Expert guidance Interaction: peers, L1 speakers, ESP expertsCo-created multimedia artefactsPeer evaluation: comments & rating each others audioEvolving ESP resourceAural focus but integrated all four language skills (holistic learning context)

Listening tasksAga1415Emerging theoretical frameworkEcological Constructivism

Deriving from:Social Constructivism + Sociocultural Theory + Ecological Linguistics + Contextual and situated learning the recent metaphor of ecology attempts to capture the interconnectedness of psychological, social, and environmental process in SLA (Lam & Kramsch, 2003, p.144) Affordances:- exist as an initial state in the dynamic environment- represent a relationship (reciprocal interaction) between the actors (learners) and elements of the environment- are for learners to perceive, construe and act purposefully upon, both individually and in collaboration with others

Debra1516Ecological Constructivism: emergent theoryIncorporating:Interaction mediated by cultural tools such as language and technology (Hoven, 1997; Pachler, 2009, p. 5)Learning mediated by the contextActive learning in & around real-life problemsGoal-oriented, real-life communicative activitiesInteractivity in social contexts Community-embedded communicationCommunities of learners developing into communities of practiceScaffolding and guidanceFeedback from facilitators and peers

Debra16Language is dynamic and contextually contingentAffordances are inherent in the dynamic environmentLearners act on affordances in the environmentLearning, individual or collaborative, emerges from and through interactions co-construing of knowledgeThe process of collaboration enables individuals to perceive novel affordancesNoticing of affordances can be self-originating or can be guidedDynamic networks of fluidly inter-linked contexts form an open systemMobile technologies mediate interaction and connection over the network and with environment Knowing: an evolving process enabled by acting on affordances available in the environment, in which learners operate and collaborate across dynamic networks through connections made possible by mobile technologies 17Ecological Constructivism: principlesDebraInput, rehearsal, repetition and practice in meaningful context with appropriate feedback


Thank you!

Q&A1818Bannan, B. (2009). The Integrative Learning Design Framework: An illustrated example from the domain of instructional technology. In T. Plomp & N. Nieveen (Eds.), An introduction to educational design research (pp. 53-73). SLO: Netherlands Institute for Curriculum Development.Barab, S., & Squire, K. (2004). Design-Based Research: Putting a stake in the ground. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13(1), 1-14. doi:10.1207/s15327809jls1301_1Brown, A. L. (1992). Design experiments: Theoretical and methodological challenges in creating complex interventions in classroom settings. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2(2), 141178.Collins, A. (1992). Towards a design science of education. In E. Scanlon and T. OShea (Eds.), New directions in educational technology (pp. 1522). Berlin: Springer.Dede, C. (2004). If Design-Based Research is the answer, what is the question? The Journal of the Instructional Sciences, 13 (1). Design-Based Research Collective. (2003). Design-Based Research: An emerging paradigm for educational inquiry. Educational Researcher, 32(1), 5-8. Retrieved from Farmer, R., & Gruba, P. (2006). Towards model-driven end-user development in CALL. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 19(2 & 3), 149-191.Palalas, A. (2012). Design guidelines for a Mobile-Enabled Language Learning system supporting the development of ESP listening skills (Doctoral dissertation, Athabasca University). Retrieved from, A., & Hoven, D. (2013). Implications of using DBR to investigate the iterative design of a mobile-enabled language learning system. CALICOPlomp, T. (2009). Educational design research: An introduction. In T. Plomp & N. Nieveen (Eds.), An introduction to educational design research (pp. 9-36). SLO: Netherlands Institute for Curriculum Development.Reeves, T. (2006). Design research from a technology perspective. In J. van den Akker, K. Gravemeijer, S. McKenney & N. Nieveen (Eds.), Educational design research: The design, development and evaluation of programs, processes and products (pp. 52-66). New York: Routledge. Van den Akker, J. (1999). Principles and Methods of Development Research. In J. van den Akker, R.M. Branch, K. Gustafson, N. Nieveen, & T. Plomp (Eds.), Design approaches and tools in education and training (pp. 1-14). Boston: Kluwer Academic. Wang, F., & Hannafin, M. J. (2005). Design-based research and technology-enhanced learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 5-23.



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