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    Report of the APO Seminar on Linking Main System Management for Improved Irrigation Management heldin Sri Lanka, 3-8 June 2002 (02-AG-GE-SEM-08)

    This report was edited by Dr. C. M. Wijayaratna, Institutional Development Specialist/AgriculturalEconomist, Auckland, New Zealand.

    The opinions expressed in this publication do not reflect the official view of the Asian ProductivityOrganization. For reproduction of the contents in part or in full, the APOs prior permission is required.

    Asian Productivity Organization, 2004



    Part I Summary of Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    Part II Resource Papers1. Issues and Constraints in Linking Main System Management for

    Improved Irrigation Management H. M. Jayathilleke . . . 132. Measures to Improve Linkage between Main System Management

    and Farm-level Management M. M. M. Aheeyar . . . 173. Irrigation Associations and Improved Irrigation Performance Norman T. Uphoff . . . 294. Sustainable Irrigation Development Ian W. Makin . . . 395. Role of Public and Private Sectors, NGOs, Water Users Associations

    and Other Stakeholders in Irrigation Management in the 21st Century C. M. Wijayaratna . . . 48

    Part III Selected Country Papers1. Bangladesh Roxana Quader . . . 692. Republic of China Ming-Daw Su . . . 753. India (1) Phanish Kumar Sinha . . . 814. India (2) Veer Pal . . . 945. Japan Naoya Fujimoto . . 1006. Republic of Korea Sang-Ok Chung . . 1127. Malaysia Anuar Bin Yahya . . 1228. Pakistan Illahi B. Shaikh . . 1289. Thailand Apinon Sonthayanoon . . 133

    10. Vietnam Tran Viet On . . 136

    Part IV Appendices1. List of Participants, Resource Speakers, and Secretariat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1452. Program of Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

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    The Seminar on Linking Main System Management for Improved Irrigation Management was held inColombo from 3 to 8 June 2002 being organized by the Asian Productivity Organization (APO) and hostedby the Government of Sri Lanka. The Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, Sri Lanka and National Instituteof Business Management (NIBM) implemented the program. Fourteen participants from 12 member countriesand one observer from the International Water Management Institute and; five resources speakers from USA,New Zealand and Sri Lanka attended the Seminar. The objectives of the Seminar were to: 1) to discuss issuesinvolved in linking main system management with field level management through water users associations;and 2) to identify measures that could contribute to improved irrigation management in the APO membercountries.

    The Seminar consisted of the presentation and discussion of resource papers and country papers, as wellas field visits to Polonnaruwa. The topics covered by the resource papers were: 1) Issues and Constraints inLinking Main System Management for Improved Irrigation Management; 2) Measures to Improve Linkagebetween Main System Management and Farm Level Management; 3) Irrigation Associations and ImprovedIrrigation Performance; 4) Sustainable Irrigation Development; and 5) Role of Public and Private Sectors,NGOs, Water Users Associations and Other Stakeholders in Irrigation Management in the 21st Century.The country papers, on the other hand, focused on the issues and constraints affecting the management ofirrigation systems, measures for improving irrigation management performance, particularly in terms ofenhancing the linkage between main system management and field level management and future directionof irrigation management in the respective countries.

    The highlights of the Seminar are presented below.


    Issues and Constraints in Linking Main System Management for Improved Irrigation ManagementAn irrigation system consists of a set of interconnected subsystems linked together both physically and

    functionally. The linkage is hierarchical and continuous until water is delivered and applied at the farm levelby the end-user. Hence, each level of these subsystems is dependent on the other and needs to cater for thenext level of operation as best as practicable.

    Management of irrigation systems involves forecasting irrigation supply likely to be available,estimating irrigation demand, matching supply and demand, scheduling and allocation, harnessing waterresources, and distribution in an equitable, efficient, reliable and dependable manner. In addition, theirrigation system needs to be maintained in a reasonably operable condition and all activities need to bemonitored and evaluated. In this process, each level of an irrigation system necessarily becomes amanagement and decision center. However, if the final objectives of irrigation are to be achieved, it isessential that these links are extended up to on-farm level and issues and constraints involved arecontinuously identified to get a best fit in a complex situation.

    The main objective of farmers, in the context of countries like Sri Lanka, is to produce minimum levelof food for subsistence and then to get the family income increased while the objectives of a farmersorganization or Water Users Association (WUA) managing a subsystem could be equity in water distributionand minimizing conflicts between the communities they serve. On the hand, the objectives of the agencymanaging the main system would be appropriate water use and efficiency, while the state will have higherlevel national objectives such as food security, poverty alleviation and so on. The main objectives of otheragencies involved such as agricultural agencies could be maximizing agricultural production of a particularcrop or crops in the area or in the country. Irrigation systems are therefore expected to fulfill a wide rangeof objectives, but they are not always necessarily in harmony with the individual farmers objectives.

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    Sometimes large systems have to carry water over a long distance in earthen canals with a large numberof farmers to be served creating a problem of communication. Variation in demand could be unpredictable,for example, due to a sudden rainfall. Return flows and seepage and percolation too cannot be predicted toa level of accuracy desirable at micro level. Moreover, large-scale irrigation schemes are built with a largenumber of head and flow control structures, and these are sometimes cumbersome to operate and need a largenumber of trained staff. Instances of tampering with these structures by farmers are not rare. This situationis further aggravated in systems like Mahaweli, which consists of an interlinked network of feeder canals andreservoirs. The operational complexity resulting from shared infrastructure is another factor that governsdecisions at farm level.

    Irrigation management is constrained by the changes in land use and watershed characteristics, increasein population in traditional irrigation areas and resulting land fragmentation, as well as increased intra-sectoral(in sectors such as agriculture) and inter-sectoral demands. The demand for domestic water is on the increasein general all over the country with the increasing incomes and associated general improvement of qualityof life. Environmental and ecological issues too are on the increase in most of the river basins with theincreased economic activities affecting irrigation systems. Examples are unregulated sand mining in riverbed,unplanned brickmaking on the riverbanks, silting up of reservoirs, and unregulated well construction. Thus,efficiency improvement in irrigated agriculture both at main system and at on-farm level has become anurgent necessity of the day.

    Effective management of both the main systems and on-farm systems needs accurate and reliable datain time. Further, data and information sharing mechanisms at different levels are also a key issue. New digitaltechnologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) areneeded to be adopted as early as possible as such technologies are now gradually becoming affordable.

    As mentioned earlier, the irrigation system needs to be maintained at certain level of operability to meeton-farm requirements. The Operation and Maintenance (O&M) budgets made available by the governmentsare decreasing over the years in real terms while costs are on the increase. Finding ways and means to bridgethe gap is vital for the very sustainability of irrigated agricultural systems. Cost-effective mechanization ofmaintenance activities is one of the strategies now being tried by the Irrigation Department of Sri Lanka. Costsharing is being tried in different ways, but affordability of farmers needs to be taken into account.

    Mechanisms for communication and coordination between main system management and on-farmoperations were almost non-existent in the past. However, the Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM)practices implemented in Sri Lanka starting from 1978 have paved a way out of these dilemmas. Institutionssuch as farmer organizations and project management committees allow integration of different disciplines,agencies and participation of different stakeholders in the management. These also allow flow of informationboth upwards and downwards though still there are some shortcomings and gaps due to various reasons. Itmay be now time to investigate ways and means of expanding these concepts if they can be of benefit.

    It could be concluded that the ideal system of water delivery at the on-farm level would be an ondemand system where water can be applied based on the soil, crop water requirements and the rainfall. Insuch a system, water delivery will be flexible to coordinate with all farming activities such as landpreparation, planting different crops with different crop water requirements, fertilizer and chemicalapplication, staggering of crops to suit the market, etc. Technical and other interventions such as on-farmstorage, automation in the main system, communication improvement, and planning and managementinterventions can make the gap smaller.

    Measures to Improve Linkage between Main System Management and Farm-level ManagementThe irrigated agriculture sector produces around 60 percent of the value of crop production in Asia.

    Meanwhile the share of water allocated for the agriculture sector has been significantly decreasing, and percapita water availability in the Asian region is the lowest among the regions. With the current trend of wateruse, water demand will outstrip supply before the middle of this century. Therefore, improvement in the wateruse efficiency through proper management strategies is crucial to avoid the envisaged water crisis and to meetthe future food requirement.

    Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) and Irrigation Management Turnover (IMT) are the maincurrent irrigation management policies where main system management and farm-level management are

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    operated by different institutions. Worldwide IMT performance measures shows mixed results. One of themain reasons for the negative results shown is the lack of proper linkages between main system and farm-level management.

    From a review of the literature and past experiences, it is evident that the following factors determinethe degree of linkage between main system and farm-level management: i) building effective Water UsersAssociations (WUAs); ii) bureaucratic reorientation; iii) physical condition of irrigation infrastructure; andiv) support services for irrigation systems and economics of irrigated agriculture. Effective WUAs mustperform well in water management, control structure maintenance, and organizational management activities.

    To achieve these objectives, the WUAs should be strong and viable. The strength of WUAs will dependon the approach adopted for WUA formation (use of social mobilizers, stage of the project in which WUAwas formed, approach adopted for WUA formation), structure of the organization (boundaries of WUA, sizeof the organization, level of vertical and horizontal linkages, mono/multi-objective organizations) and degreeof member participation for organizational activities. All farmers in the watercourse must be members of theWUA without any socioeconomic obstacles, and they should actively participate in irrigation andorganizational management activities, mobilizing resources in the form of cash and kind. WUA should havestrong and transparent legal framework to implement incentives and sanctions. In addition, WUA must havevisionary and dedicated leadership accountable to its entire membership. A successful WUA must befinancially and technically capable to manage its activities and ability to meet internal and external threats.The WUA should be politically neutral and should diversify its activities from mono to multi objectives.

    Bureaucratic reorientation is another essential aspect, which includes the reform of attitudes andobjectives, philosophy, procedures, incentives and structures of the agency to improve the linkages with farmlevel. The government should also allocate necessary resources to fulfill the roles and responsibilities of theagency in main system management. The major challenge here is shifting a conventional and highly technicalagency towards more people-oriented organization.

    The physical condition of the irrigation infrastructure has an effect on timely and reliable supply ofwater. If the irrigation infrastructure is not functional, farmers will have no option other than neglecting theroutine maintenance of the system. The finding shows that rehabilitation of the irrigation system beforeturnover provides better results in terms of agricultural productivity and water use efficiency.

    Irrigation management has to be seen in a holistic manner, considering forward and backward linkagesof agricultural policies. This approach ensures the greater output and income, which provide the incentivefor the sustainable management of irrigation systems.

    Irrigation Associations and Improved Irrigation PerformanceIrrigation management has come to be seen as involving two aspects: the hardware of physical

    structures, and the software of social structures and organization. The latter includes administrativeorganizations and water users associations. It is impossible to see how physical structures by themselves canlead to productive outcomes, just as neither administrative organizations nor water users associations cansucceed without each other and without a well-designed and well-functioning physical system.

    This paper focused on water users associations, which operate at the farm level and can be federatedinto larger organizations. As long as they remain accountable to water users, they differ from administrativeorganizations in terms of whose interests they are expected to serve.

    The paper provided an analytical fr...


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