Linear Motors

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Linear motors theory and operation


<p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Electromechanical Systems &amp; Actuators</p> <p>LINEAR MOTORS</p> <p>CONTENTIntroduction Types of Linear Motors Applications</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>2</p> <p>INTRODUCTION Linear Motors are old motors which date from the 1970s. Were not intensively used because of their difficult</p> <p>control and low performance. Advancements in Power Electronics and Microprocessors have overcome the control difficulties and have revived the use of the linear motors. Linear motors are nowadays emerging as new technologies.</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>3</p> <p>Main Types of Linear Motors Linear Synchronous Motor Permanent Magnet Wound Secondary Type Linear Induction Motor Single-Sided: Long-primary &amp; Short Secondary Short-primary &amp; Long-Secondary Double-Sided or Sandwich Linear Stepper Motor</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>4</p> <p>Linear Synchronous Motor (LSM)Field Yoke Field winding</p> <p>I</p> <p>Passive rail truck</p> <p>Armature winding</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>5</p> <p>LSM (Contd)For an LSM to operate properly the control system must accurately track the position of the moving element in order to properly synchronize the moving field current in the stationary frame (stator). If synchronization is lost or interrupted the motor slips and loss of propulsion can occur. This situation is likely to be encountered by an LSM when external sensors are relied upon to handle motor synchronization. If a sensor becomes dirty or mis-aligned or if fog, smoke or other airborne obstructions are present, the system will experience problems.Dr. Adel Gastli Linear Motors 6</p> <p>LINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR (LIM)Linear Induction Motors (LIMs) are significantly different than Linear Synchronous Motors (LSMs) in the way that they produce electro-motive forces or motion. In a LIM, the motor stator creates an Alternating Current (AC) field that induces currents into the reaction plate, which is typically an aluminum fin. This creates eddy currents in the moving element which react with the moving field in the stator to produce thrust. The induced currents in the aluminum plate manifest themselves in the form of heat. In cases of high duty cycles or in locked rotor conditions (where the moving element is not permitted to move) overheating can occur. In several reported cases at amusement parks, LIM fins have cracked and parts have melted.</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>7</p> <p>LIM (Contd)Cut along xy and enrollx Stator 3 winding Secondary y Primary Rotor Aluminum sheet (conductor)Traveling mmf (or Flux Density) Wave</p> <p>v vs</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>8</p> <p>Traveling mmf waveLINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR</p> <p>FNi/2/20</p> <p>Fundamental F1</p> <p>/2</p> <p>-Ni/2</p> <p>zg</p> <p>Fundamental H1</p> <p>HNi/20 0</p> <p>Ni/2g</p> <p>Fundamental F1 F</p> <p>F: mmf H: Field</p> <p>/2</p> <p>-Ni/2</p> <p>/2</p> <p>-Ni/2g</p> <p>z</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>9</p> <p>Traveling mmf waveLINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR</p> <p>Same Analogy as that of Rotary Machines</p> <p> 2z 3 ib = I m cos(t 120 ) F ( z , t ) = Fmax cos t 2 ib = I m cos(t + 120 ) ia = I m cos t Fmax =v=Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>4</p> <p>kw</p> <p>N ph I m 2m</p> <p>Nph : Number of turns distributed over a length m . kw : winding factor.</p> <p>dz dz d = = = 2Tp f dt d dt 2Linear Motors</p> <p>Tp : Pole pitch f : Exciting frequency.</p> <p>10</p> <p>LIM PerformanceLINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR Slip</p> <p>s=</p> <p>vs v vs</p> <p>v s = 2 Tp f [m / sec]</p> <p>Thrust</p> <p>3 I'22 R '2 / s F= = [N] synchronous velocity, v s vs air gap power, PgR1 l1 M l2 R2/s</p> <p>Thrust, F</p> <p>vsDr. Adel Gastli Linear Motors</p> <p>Speed, v 11</p> <p>Different Types of LIMLINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR</p> <p>DOUBLE-SIDED LIM (DLIM)Secondary Primary</p> <p>SINGLE-SIDED LIM (SLIM)Short Primary Long Primary</p> <p>Long Secondary</p> <p>Short Secondary</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>12</p> <p>End EffectLINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR</p> <p> There is secondary current and secondary loss which is not</p> <p>associated with a corresponding amount of useful thrust. There are reactive volt-amperes drawn from the supply which cannot be accounted for either as being due to magnetization or leakage reactance. The physical nature of this phenomena is thought to be due to the continual removal of magnetic energy at the exit edge of a machine. The exit edge produces a backward thrust on the secondary which subtracts from the thrust performance in the region of a speed-thrust curve.Dr. Adel Gastli Linear Motors 13</p> <p>End Effect on Speed-Thrust CurveLINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR</p> <p> The LIM cannot run lightThrust, F</p> <p>at the synchronous speed vs=2pf. Generally, the running light</p> <p>Short-Primary LIM Equivalent Rotary IMvs</p> <p>speed is lower than vs.</p> <p>Speed, v</p> <p>Effect of the exit edge loss on the speed-thrust curve of a LIM.</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>14</p> <p>APPLICATIONS Transportation (Trains) Robotics &amp; Material Handling Elevators Compressors &amp; Pumps Catapults and Launchers Sliding Doors Closer Cartain pullers etc...</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>15</p> <p>Transportation (Trains)</p> <p>Japan: Linear Chuo ShinkansenDr. Adel Gastli Linear Motors 16</p> <p>Superconducting Magnetically Levitated Linear Motor Car The superconducting Magnetically-levitated</p> <p>Linear Motor Car is a most promising high speed transportation system in the 21st century. It is a vehicle befitting the requirements of the</p> <p>high speed and massive transportation age, as it operates at a stunning 500 Kmph, and has the transportation capacity equivalent to the existing shinkansen. It is a most advanced traffic system, which has</p> <p>less noise and vibration and promises a safe and comfortable ride.</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>17</p> <p>Train Depot</p> <p>Tunnel</p> <p>Control Center Turnout switches Test platform</p> <p>Vehicle Via duct</p> <p>Information cables</p> <p>Feeding section switchgears Feeder Guideway Power conversion substation Dr. Adel Gastli Linear Motors Power converter 18</p> <p>Panel-type Side wall</p> <p>LCX (Leaky coaxial cable)</p> <p>Levitation and guidance coils</p> <p>Feeding cable</p> <p>Propulsion coils</p> <p>Cross-inductive cable</p> <p>Power/ communication cables</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>19</p> <p>What is Superconductivity? When certain metals are cooled below a specific temperature, their</p> <p>electric resistance vanishes. This phenomenon is known as "superconductivity". Once current is applied to a coil made of superconductive metal, it</p> <p>continues to flow permanently and without loss. This coil can generate dozens of times stronger magnetic field than that of permanent magnets. For the Maglev, a bundle of extremely fine niobium-titanium alloy</p> <p>(superconductive metal) wire is embedded in a copper matrix in order to improve the stability of superconductivity. This wire is cooled with liquid helium (ca-269C) to be in a superconductive state.</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>20</p> <p>How does it advance forwards? (Propulsion System) By passing current through propulsion coils on the ground,</p> <p>a magnetic field (north and south poles) is produced, thus the train is propelled forward by the force of attraction between opposite poles and the repulsive force of same poles acting between the ground coils and the superconducting magnets built into the vehicles.</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>21</p> <p>How is it levitated ? (Levitation System) When the superconducting magnets on the vehicles pass</p> <p>through at high speed current flows through levitation and guidance coils on the ground producing electrodynamic levitating force to the vehicles.</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>22</p> <p>Why doesn't it collide with the wall? (Guidance System) The levitation and guidance coils on either side are</p> <p>connected with electric power cables. They keep the vehicles in the center of the guideway at all times by exerting an attractive force on the further side of the vehicle and a repulsive force on the nearer side should the train move off center to either side.</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>23</p> <p>Other Types of Levitation Systems</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>24</p> <p>One-shaft Multicar Ropeless ElevatorsMoving part of linear Synchronous motor Stationary armature coil of motor</p> <p>Elevator car Elevator path</p> <p>Elevator Car</p> <p>Elevator Hall</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>25</p> <p>Decentralized Elevator Cars Group Control Means maximum operating time. Each elevator controller can act as the</p> <p>group controller. If one controller is taken out of service</p> <p>temporarily, the remaining controllers continue to operate efficiently.</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>26</p> <p>Permanent magnets Yoke Armature coils Suspension bar</p> <p>Rollers</p> <p>Magnet holder</p> <p>Elevator car</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>27</p> <p>38-story tower of terror in Australia</p> <p>38-story tower of terror in Australia</p> <p>Ramp</p> <p>A state-of-the-art linear motor system propels the ride to reach unprecedented speeds of up to 160 km/hour, making it the most technologically-advanced ride in the world. To generate these intense speeds, an incredible 2,200,000 watts (2.2 megawatts) of power, enough to power a small town, is applied for six or seven Linear Motors Dr. seconds. Adel Gastli 28</p> <p>Linear CompressorA linear compressor is a positive displacement, piston-type compressor in which the piston is driven directly by a linear motor, rather than by a rotary motor coupled to a mechanical mechanism as in a conventional reciprocating compressor.</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>29</p> <p>Air Compressor and Vacuum Pumps Linear-motor-driven Free Piston SystemThis design makes these pumps especially appropriate as air sources or vacuum units for various pneumatically operated equipment and apparatus in advanced industries.</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>30</p> <p>Linear motor outperforms steam-piston catapults Replacement for naval-aircraft launch system offers host of</p> <p>tactical and operational benefits. In the rural Massachusetts town, engineers are developing the world's highest-thrust linear motor. For Naval aviation, it may mean the end of the age of steam. By 2005, naval architects may begin replacing the enormous steam catapults on aircraft carriers with EMALS--The Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System.</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>31</p> <p>Linear motor outperforms steam-piston catapults (Contd)EMALS would bring a host of improvements to ship design and Naval aviation. With a maximum design thrust of 132,000 kgf, EMALS offers 28% more thrust than steam catapults. Proposed EMALS could accelerate 45,000-kg aircraft to 60 m/s2 in 100m.</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>32</p> <p>The Launch Loop: a low cost Earth-to-high orbit launch systemLinear motor and deflecting magnet 80 km Loop</p> <p>Maglev train riding on the loopA closed loop made of laminated iron ribbon is continuously launched to space by an asynchronous linear motor. The motor consists of high-frequency electromagnets producing an undulating magnetic field. The field moves at 14 km/s -- only slightly faster than the loop. A 2600 km away from the motor, the loop returns to the Earth, to be accelerated by another motor and deflected by a magnet back to space. Cargo is transported by Maglev trains riding on the loop.Dr. Adel Gastli Linear Motors 33</p> <p>Small Power Linear MotorsExamples of applications textile machinery packaging machines handling machinery robot applications laboratory automation and others...</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>34</p> <p>Linear Stepper Motors Applied in RoboticsMEGAmation has over 350 Linear XY stepper motor robot heads in use throughout the world.</p> <p>Pharmaceutical Automation</p> <p>Automotive drive train assembly</p> <p>Electronic PCB Maker</p> <p>Mechanical Pick &amp; Place Assembly</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>35</p> <p>A Wafer Linear Stepper MotorA wafer stepper is a highprecision chip manufacturing system. Modern wafer steppers are confronted with more severe demands on their performance, due to the ongoing increase of chip capacity, where performance can be defined in terms of speed and accuracy of the positioning mechanism of the stepper.</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>36</p> <p>Linear Motor Drive Men's shaver Triple Blade shaving System 1 Hour Charge Universal Voltage 12,000 Blade strokes a minute</p> <p>Dr. Adel Gastli</p> <p>Linear Motors</p> <p>37</p>