Limited Phase II Environmental Site Assessment for the Proposed

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  • Limited Phase II Environmental

    Site Assessment for the Proposed

    Fairfield County Jail/Public Safety Facility

    334 West Wheeling Street

    Lancaster, Ohio

    Submitted to:

    Fairfield County

    Board of Commissioners

    210 East Main Street

    Lancaster, Ohio 43130

    Prepared by:Bennett & Williams Environmental Consultants, Inc.

    98 County Line Road West, Suite C

    Westerville, Ohio 43082

    (614) 882-9122 July 7, 2014

  • i

    RELIABILITY OF REPORT - DISCLAIMER

    Conclusions reached in this report are based upon the objective data available to

    the CONSULTANTS at the time of forming their opinions and as presented in the report.

    The accuracy of the report depends upon the accuracy of these data. Every effort is made

    to evaluate the information by the methods that generally are recognized to constitute the

    state of the art at the time of rendering the report and conclusions, and the conclusions

    reached herein represent our opinions. Subsurface conditions are known to vary both in

    space and time, and there is inherent risk in the extrapolation of data.

    THE CONSULTANTS are not responsible for actual conditions proved to be

    materially at variance with the data that were available to them and upon which they

    relied, as presented in the report.

    The opinions, conclusions and recommendations shown in the report are put forth

    for a specific and proposed purpose and for the specific site discussed. The

    CONSULTANTS are not responsible for any other application, whether of purpose or

    location, of our opinions, conclusions and recommendations other than as specifically

    indicated in the report.

  • ii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    DISCLAIMER i

    LIST OF TABLES v

    LIST OF FIGURES viii

    LIST OF APPENDICES ix

    1. INTRODUCTION 1

    1.1 Introduction 1

    1.2 Documents Reviewed 2

    1.3 Site Location 2

    1.4 Historical Changes in the Site Vicinity 4

    2. HISTORY OF THE SITE 7

    2.1 Introduction 7

    2.2 Review of Previous Property Ownership 7

    2.3 Review of Historical Land Use 9

    3. SUBSURFACE INVESTIGATION 21

    3.1 Introduction 21

    3.2 Investigation Design 26

    3.3 Drilling and Soil Sampling 28

    3.4 Groundwater Sampling 34

    3.5 Temporary Monitoring Well Abandonment 35

    4. ANALYTICAL RESULTS 36

    4.1 Introduction 36

    4.2 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure in Soils (TCLP) 37

    4.2.1 Introduction 37

    4.2.2 TCLP Metals Results 38

    4.2.3 TCLP Volatile Organic Compounds Results 38

    4.2.4 TCLP Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds Results 41

    4.2.5 TCLP Summary 41

    4.3 Characterization of Soils by Other Methods of Analysis 41

    4.3.1 Introduction 41

    4.3.2 Total Metals Results in Soil 44

    4.3.3 Total VOC Results in Soil 48

  • iii

    4.3.4 Total SVOC Results in Soil 48

    4.3.5 GRO and DRO Results in Soil 55

    4.3.6 Soil Results Summary 55

    4.4 Characterization of Groundwater in the Fill Materials 56

    4.4.1 Introduction 56

    4.4.2 Total and Dissolved Metals Results in Groundwater

    Within the Fill 57

    4.4.3 VOC Results in Groundwater Within the Fill 60

    4.4.4 Groundwater Within the Fill Results Summary 61

    5. RISK ASSESSMENT 62

    5.1 Introduction 62

    5.2 Data Evaluation 62

    5.3 Exposure Assessment 66

    5.3.1 Characterization of Exposure Setting 66

    5.3.2 Potential Receptors and Exposure Pathways 69

    5.3.3 Quantification of Exposure 70

    5.4 Dermal Exposure 75

    5.4.1 Determination of Dermal Absorbed Dose 75

    5.4.2 Non-Cancer Effects 76

    5.4.3 Carcinogenic Effects 79

    5.4.4 Uncertainty in the Dermal Risk Analysis 81

    5.4.4.1 Csoil 81

    5.4.4.2 Event Time (EV) 81

    5.4.4.3 Surface Area 81

    5.4.4.4 Frequency of Exposure 81

    5.4.4.5 Adherence Factors 81

    5.4.4.6 Absorption Factors 82

    5.4.4.7 Toxicity Assessment 82

    5.4.5 Risk from Multiple Chemicals 82

    5.5 Inhalation of Outdoor Air Volatile Compounds 83

    5.5.1 Estimating Concentrations of Chemicals in Air 83

    5.5.2 Non-Cancer Effects 85

    5.5.3 Carcinogenic Effects 87

    5.6 Inhalation of Outdoor Air Particulates 88

    5.6.1 Estimating Concentrations of Chemicals as Particulates

    in Air 88

    5.6.2 Non-Cancer Effects 88

    5.6.3 Carcinogenic Effects 91

    5.7 Uncertainty Associated with Inhalation Risk Analysis 93

    5.7.1 Calculation of Concentrations in Air 93

    5.7.2 Calculation of Exposure Concentrations 93

    5.7.3 Toxicity Assessment 93

    5.7.4 Estimating Carcinogenic Risks 93

    5.7.5 Risk from Multiple Chemicals 93

    5.7.5.1 Inhalation of Volatile Chemicals 94

  • iv

    5.7.5.2 Inhalation of Particulate Chemicals 94

    5.8 Summary of Total Risk to Construction and Excavation

    Workers 95

    5.8.1 Non-Cancer Risks (Dermal Plus Inhalation) 95

    5.8.2 Carcinogenic Risks (Dermal Plus Inhalation) 97

    5.8.3 Total Risk (Dermal Plus Inhalation) 97

    5.9 Indoor Air Risk Assessment 97

    5.9.1 Calculation of Exposure Concentrations 97

    5.9.2 Carcinogenic and Non-Carcinogenic Risks 98

    5.9.3 Uncertainty Associated with Indoor Risk Analysis 102

    5.10 Risk Assessment for Lead 103

    5.10.1 Adult Lead Methodology 103

    5.10.2 Assumptions of Adult Lead Methodology 104

    5.10.3 Managing Risks due to Lead Exposure 106

    6. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK 108

    6.1 Introduction 108

    6.2 Hazardous Waste 108

    6.3 Solid Waste 109

    6.4 Beneficial Use 111

    6.5 Voluntary Action 111

    6.6 Drinking and Ground Water 112

    6.7 Surface Water 113

    6.8 Air 113

    7. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 115

    7.1 Conclusions 115

    7.2 Recommendations 118

    8. REFERENCES 120

  • v

    LIST OF TABLES

    1. Location and depth (in feet below ground) of analytes in soil samples 30

    2. Summary of encountered subsurface conditions 32

    3. Analytical results for TCLP of RCRA metals 39

    4. Analytical results for TCLP VOCs 40

    5. Analytical results for TCLP SVOCs 42

    6. Analytical results for metals in soils compared to VAP generic direct contact

    soil values for construction/excavation activities 45

    7. Analytical results for metals in soils compared to VAP generic direct contact

    soil values for residential exposure 46

    8. Analytical results for metals in soils compared to VAP generic direct contact

    soil values for commercial/industrial exposure 47

    9. Target compound list of VOCs analyzed in soil 49

    10. Analytical results for VOCs in soil compared to VAP generic direct contact

    soil values for construction/excavation, residential, and commercial/industrial

    exposures 50

    11. Target compound list of SVOCs analyzed in soil 51

    12. Analytical results for SVOCs in soil compared to VAP generic direct contact

    soil values for construction/excavation activities 52

    13. Analytical results for SVOCs in soil compared to VAP generic direct contact

    soil values for residential exposure 53

    14. Analytical results for SVOCs in soil compared to VAP generic direct contact

    soil values for commercial/industrial exposure 54

    15. Analytical results gasoline range organics (GRO) and diesel range

    organics (DRO) in soil 55

    16. Analytical results for total metals in groundwater in the fill 58

    17. Analytical results for dissolved metals in groundwater in the fill 59

  • vi

    18. Analytical results for VOCs in groundwater in the fill 61

    19. Analytical results for metals in soil samples 63

    20. Analytical results for VOCs in soil samples 64

    21. Analytical results for SVOCs in soil samples 65

    22. Toxicity values for chemicals of concern 67

    23. Exposure pathways for risk assessment 69

    24. Statistical summary of inorganic sampling results used in the dermal risk

    assessment (0-8 feet) 71

    25. Statistical summary of organic sampling results used in the dermal risk

    assessment (0-8 feet) 72

    26. Statistical summary of inorganic sampling results used in the inhalation risk

    assessment (0-12 feet) 73

    27. Statistical summary of organic sampling results used in the inhalation risk

    assessment (0-12 feet) 74

    28. Dermal absorption fraction from soil for chemicals in the dermal risk

    assessment 77

    29. Hazard quotients for chemicals of concern for the dermal exposure pathway 78

    30. Toxic equivalency factors for PAHs and equivalent calculated concentrations 80

    31. Dermal cancer risk for chemicals of concern 84

    32. Calculation of concentrations of volatile COCs in air 85

    33. Hazard quotients for volatile COCs inhalation pathway 86

    34. Cancer risks associated with the inhalation of volatilized COCs 88

    35. Calculation of concentrations of parti

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