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  • 1. Let us Open the Door to Equal OpportunitiesStudy on Investment in Early Child Education in MontenegroIvana PricaLazar oliHana Baronijan

2. Importance of pre- school education 3. Importance of pre-school education3Confirmation in numerous empirical studiesPre-school education plays an important role in child development and has important effects on the societydjeceResult of the PISA tests analysis in 34 countries (Pisa in Focus, 2010) show there is a link between attendance of PE and later success and that which is more important:when PE includes a wider layer of childrenwhen PE lasts longerwhen the ratio between the number of children and the number of educators is smallerwhen more resources are invested per child 4. Importance of pre-school education4397411423393408425403422440NeDa, jedna godina imanjeDa, vie od jednegodineLink between achievement and kindergarten attendance, PISA 2012, MontenegroMatematikaNaukaJezik 5. Return of investment into human capital depending on age5SchoolingPre-school programmeJob training4-5PreschoolSchool After completing schoolingAgeInicijalno postavljene stope povraaja ulaganja u ljudski kapital jednake po uzrastimaRate of return of invetsment into human capitalProgrammes oriented to earliest age0-3Souruce:"The case for investing in young children."(Heckman, 2012)INVESTMENT INTO LEARNING AT AN EARLY AGE YIELDs ACONSIDERABLY HIGHER RETURN THEN INVESTMENT LATER IN LIFE(HECKMAN, 2012)Importance of preschool education 6. Return of investments into human capital at different ages depending onsocial-economic status6Level ofreturn Children from low levelsocial-economicenvironmentChildren from low levelsocial-economicenvironmentEarlychildhoodPrimary andSecond. SchoolHighereducationAdulteducationAgeSource:"Efficiency and equity of European education and training policies." (Woessmann, 2008)Good quality pre-school programmes enable children frommarginalized families to have equal beginning of educationImportance of pre-school education 7. Importance of pre-school education7In a number of countries there has been achange in the role of PEfrom primary role of keeping children safe to the function of educating childrenMontenegro has recognized the importance of pre-school education and upbringing and there is programmebase for extending itBy 2020 a minimum of 95% of children between the age of4 and the age when obligatory primary education begins should participate in the early education programmes (Europe 2020)To provide for all the children in Montenegro, from birth until the time when they start primary school, goodquality services for early development and learning so that they reach their full potential and become active and productive members of the societyStrategiyof Early Pre-school education and upbringing for the period 2010 to 2015 8. Aim of the StudyProject aim: how to extend services of pre-school education to as many children an possible, especially those coming from vulnerable and marginalized groups8Study objective: analysis of the pre-school education funding scenariosFunding scenarios have been analyzed whichEnsure universal coverage of children by pre-school education (one year before startignschool),Ensure gradual increase in coverage bypre-school programmefor children aged 3-5The Project was initiated by UNICEF Office in Montenegro and the Ministry of Education of Montenegro 9. Ontheotherside,manyparentsinMontenegroarenotfamiliarwiththedevelopmentroleofpre-schoolinstitutionsChildren coverage is not high.On one side it is necessary to familiarize parents through a campaign with the benefits of pre-school education, and on the other to provide conditions for all children to attend pre-school education of parents think a child is better off at home, without considering the benefits of PE attendance for child developmentAssessment of knowledge, views and behaviour related to the care of children, UNICEF, 2009, MontenegroThe state of pre-school education in MontenegroCoverage of children from 0 to 6 years of age:33,2% or15.604of childrenCoverage of children 3 to 6 years of age: 52.4% or11.641childrenCoverage varies depending on the age of children and the territoryNumerous pre-school institutions operate beyond their capacities: 3.377 or30% of surplus children aged 3-6 10. The state of pre-schooleducation in MontenegroThe relation between the degree of a municipality development and degree of coverage of children by PE, Montenegro, 2012 11. Assessment of costs of introducing pre-school preparatory programme with general coverage 12. Introducing preparatory pre-school programme (PPP)Recognized importance of pre-school education and long- term benefits of general coveragePre-school preparatory programme (PPP)3 hours per day, 5 days per week and 10 months per year, so that every child has at least 600 hours of PPP per year;Cover all the children who have:One year before starting school in 2015,Two years before starting school in 2017, andThree years before starting school in 2019;PPP is freeProvides one meal (light meal) 13. Total costs of pre-school education (PE), 2015-20, EURPrimary programmes costsPPP costs for children who do not attend PETotal costs of PEShare of PPP in total costs201516.963.657989.24317.952.9006%201616.876.7071.034.12217.910.8296%201716.719.4882.033.03318.752.52111%201816.679.9201.955.43818.635.35810%201916.814.1833.461.93820.276.12117%202016.870.8843.433.72520.304.61017% 14. PE costs and budget expenditures for PE, 2015-20, EURPE costsBudget expenditures for PE (3,8% GDP)Costsbudg. expend.201517.952.90013.209.5064.743.394201617.910.82913.525.0814.385.748201718.752.52113.879.0324.873.489201818.635.35814.257.7914.377.567201920.276.12114.646.8865.629.235202020.304.61015.046.6005.258.010 15. Scenarios of funding the remaining costs from compensations paid by parentsCurrently parents are paying 40 and 20 Euros per month, i.e. 1,8 and 0,9 Euros per dayCompensation for half a day is always 1/2 of the compensation for full day primary programmeOptions:The same compensation for crche and kindergarten or higher compensation for crche in relation to kindergartenCompensation is not changed during 2015-20 or compensation increases in 2017 and 2019Compensation is realized 100% or is realized only 80%Compensation is the same or different per municipalities. 16. Model of different compensations per municipalities:20% higher in municipalities with a high rate of coverage:Budva, Tivat, Kotor, Herceg Novi and CetinjeAverage (median) for municipalities with the average rate of coverage:Podgorica, Kolain, Danilovgrad, Bar, Pljevljaand abljak, Niki, Mojkovac, Ulcinjand Plav20% lower in municipalities with a low rate of coverage:Bijelo Polje, Berane, avnik, Andrijevica, Pluineand Roaje 17. Scenarios of funding the remaining costs from compensations paid by parentsA.The same price for kindergarten and crcheB.Different price for kindergarten and crcheC.Compensation is paid for attendance rate of up to 80%. 18. Scenarios A: The same price for kindergarten and crecheRevenues -expenditures, EURA1A2A3A42015741,464164,110360,68860,44720161,062,746489,220693,470394,6932017526,600242,385164,738164,73820181,004,718721,440649,536649,5362019-202,378-202,378-554,515-256,0032020186,850186,850-160,244139,624A1: 38 Euros per monthA2: 34, 36a 38 Euros per monthA3: median 34 Euros per monthA4: median 32, 34and 36 Euros per month in 2015, 2017 and 2019 19. Scenarios B: Compensation for crche higher than for kindergartenRevenues-expenditures, EURB1B2B3B42015366,778587,899572,726272,4862016693,666912,280907,628608,8512017163,519379,284380,075344,1852018644,441858,959866,083829,9922019-566,385-349,841-336,730-110,8122020-178,10839,06958,763285,629B1: 40 full day crche and 34 kindergratB2: 40 full day crecheand 36 kindergartenB3: median 40 full day crecheand 34 kidergartenB4: median for full day creche38, 39and 40, and 32, 34and 36 Euros for kindergarten 20. Scenarios C: 80% of compensation is charged from parentsRevenues -expenditures, EURC1C2C32015-124,567568,258587,8992016202,458890,688912,2802017-326,045356,071379,2842018154,883834,751858,9592019-1,059,250-373,753-349,8412020-672,86514,90739,069C1: 40 Euros per month for full day programmeC2:46 Euros per month for full day programmeC3:50 Euros for full day crche and 45 Euros for kindergarten 21. Scenarios C: 80% of compensation is charged from parentsRevenues -expenditures, EURC4C5C62015106,375540,83260,4472016431,868872,737355,0022017128,699342,557105,4642018608,128826,963590,3932019-373,753-375,408-375,408202019,67719,67716,534C4:42, 44 and 46 Euros per month for full day programmeC5:median 44 Euros per month for full day programmeC6: median is 40, 42 and 46 Euros per month for full day programmes in 2015, 2017 and 2019 22. Main findingsIn scenario C the rate of collection of 80% causes an increase in the amount of compensation to be paid by parents by around 20%In general programmes where compensation is changed over the years are more efficientOf all A scenarios, scenario A4 shows the lowest difference between total revenues and total expenditures, followed by scenario A2Of all B scenarios, scenario B4 results in the lowest difference between revenues and expenditures and thus is more superiorOf all C scenarios, scenarios C4 and C6 show the lowest degree of aberration of revenues from costsBesides the above quoted, the choice of the scenario depends also on the compensation to be paid in those scenarios 23. Municipalities201520172019Compen.perscenario A2343638Compen.perscenario A4Higher coverge384143Average coverage323436Lowcoverage262729Compen.perscenario C4424446Compen.perscenario C6High coverage485053Average coverage404244Low coverage323435Monthly compensations for full day programmes, EUR 24. Monthly compensations for full day programme in scenario B4, EURMinicipalitieswith higher cover.Minicipalitieswith average cover.Minicipalitieswith low cover.2015creche463830kin


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