Lessons learnt vpuu whole

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<ul><li> 1. The Challenge: Practical Considerations &amp; Possible Solutions: A. Clear understanding of how facilities are to be used and managed 1. Consider ways of mapping/tracking social processes: not merely a hand-over point but a process as sharedgestation and construction 2. Safety planning must begin at same time as the planning of spatial and design requirements for facilities B. Skills transfer 1. Illustrated through development/ production of mosaics, calcrete facings, planters, tree cages, security screens, landscaping C. Sufficient flexibility for users to adapt space for specific requirements. 1. Retro fixing of shelves etc. by tenants 2. Nails / drilling resulted in punctured water pipes &amp; severed electrical conduits/cables 3. Utilise finishes/decoration to clearly identify where services are situated and where fixing to walls can take place D. Demarcation of public space boundaries 1. Ensure no ambiguity in terms of public/private spaces 2. Need to avoid conflicts between public &amp; private spaces E. Community driven management eg: High mast lighting 1. Management of these to be community driven. 2. Renewable resource e.g. LED lightings needs to be explored User Requirements of Places, 1.1 OWNERSHIP This section concerns the necessary mechanisms for "place management" - promoting community ownership, responsibility, and pride. Furthermore, it takes into consideration how to design for community &amp; public safety with priority on surveillance &amp; visibility as well as special needs groups. Spaces, Buildings, &amp; Facilities </li></ul><p> 2. The Challenge: Practical Considerations &amp; Possible Solutions: A. Incorporating neighbourhood watch/leadership structures into design of all facilities. 1. Impact on previously un-occupied/ un-owned land i.e. questioning of existing boundaries 2. Appreciation of new challenges &amp; conflicts which new facilities may inadvertently foster B. Placing of windows 1. Especially Patrol Rooms require windows to be placed sufficiently low to allow easy surveillance 2. Windows must facilitate surveillance also in sitting-down position C. Sense of safety: lighting &amp; sight lines 1. Adequate lighting and clear sight lines instrumental to sense of safety 2. Crime safety surveillance distance: 25 135m max 3. Face recognition distance: 25m max 4. Person recognition distance: 135m max D. Rows of Trees 1. Consider trees not being placed where they will be an obstruction e.g. cutting out line of sight from pavilion behind E. Vandalism eg: occurance at Harare Square 1. Public Square should be done only after support structures/buildings are in place to enable surveillance 1.2 SURVEILLANCE &amp; VISIBILITY 3. The Challenge: Practical Considerations &amp; Possible Solutions: A. Disabled access 1. Access by physically challenged to upper floors 2. Cost and practicality issues make this most difficult B. Sense of clarity &amp; comfort 1. Public environment to be free of obstructions and utilities C. Burglar guarding 1. Need secure burglar proofing to buildings generally, especially to trading facilities and storerooms 2. Additional considerations to be given to make trading facilities and storerooms burglar proof D. Adequate insulation in habitable rooms 1. Complaints have been received of cold interior to flats in winter 2. In line with sustainable principles flats must be insulated in accord with accepted good building practice E. Recreation facilities for younger children 1. Managing play spaces in partnership with crches to facilitate safe play F. Choices of recreational spaces 1. Recreation for passive &amp; active activities, accommodating a range of age groups 2. Pleasant recreational spaces &amp; seating required for groups/ individuals 3. Variety of spaces within shaded, public/quiet areas 1.3 COMMUNITY &amp; PUBLIC SAFETY 4. The Challenge: Practical Considerations &amp; Possible Solutions: A. Maintenance &amp; repairs 1. Constant maintenance and immediate repairs to damaged elements contributes to positive sense of public environment B. Addition of new spaces/facilities in completed buildings 1. Retrofitting of additional floors/ accommodation has been necessary to several projects 2. Need for flexibility &amp; resilience in all facilities 3. Complexity and high costs are associated with substantial retrofitting e.g. adding of additional floors and services C. Art Works 1. Opportunities to be explored for future artworks: Mosaic works, Sculptures, Metal screens 2. Managing facilities to prevent damage D. Financial sustainability of facilities 1. Each facility needs compelling purpose and adequate space to generate break-even income 2. Activities to be visible to enable presence within as well as surveillance onto surrounding territory E. Curtain Rails to Flats 1. Curtains/curtain rails/blinds to be provided by tenants subject to conditions in leases F. Designing for Community Functions eg: Kitchens 1. Size &amp; position relative to meeting room(s)? 2. Space for food preparation? 3. Food is important part of community functions G. Wind problem in open mesh-screened spaces 1. Open mesh-screens to stairs &amp; light boxes allow wind to blow through 2. Consider enclosing stairwells H. Store rooms/storage spaces 1. Secure/Lockable? 2. Sufficient storage to be provided for tables, chairs, cleaning equipment, materials, etc I. Cupboards 1. Adequate provision? 2. Secure/Lockable? 1.4 ADDITIONAL ITEMS 5. The Challenge: Practical Considerations &amp; Possible Solutions: Pictures: A. Controlling movement of vehicles/off-loading 1. Vehicles often accidentally bump into landscaping elements e.g. seating, litterbins 2. Vehicles often obstruct trading activities &amp; movement of people 3. Bollards limit acces to vehicles 4. Education/co-operation of drivers B. Permitting restricted access of vehicles 1. Service vehicles may require controlled access 2. Use of removable bollards where access is needed C. Preventing encroachment of private developments 1. Provide functional edge wall to define and hold boundary condition 2. Boundary definition/edge walling/ seating D. Off-loading by large trucks e.g. Harare Square 1. Difficulty for large truck to reverse into service yards 2. Requires large turning circles 3. Bollards may prevent damage to other landscaping elements but are likely to get damaged/bumped over Landscaping: Materials &amp; Components 2.1 DEFINED ACCESS &amp; SAFE MOVEMENT This section addresses how landscaping can be used to define access and movement in the interest of community &amp; public safety with the use of physical barriers. The need for safe recreational space is explored &amp; issues of maintenance &amp; management of facilities as well as instances of vandalism are discussed. Furthermore, this section explores the different materials that can be used in landscaping &amp; examines their strenghts and limitations. ! ! ! ! ! 6. The Challenge: Practical Considerations &amp; Possible Solutions: Pictures: A. Play equipment- Risk of public liability in case of injury 1. Display signs to be placed at play equipment in local language stating that use of equipment is at own risk B. Safe choices of multi-functional play spaces/play parks 1. Variety of facilities needed at appropriate safe locations to provide for different age groups of children 2. Consider: Safety, Robustness, Low maintenance C. Lateritesports fields- Surface too rough for playing soccer 1. Surface possibly requires regular raking to remove larger stones. 2. Field extensively used anyway The Challenge: Practical Considerations &amp; Possible Solutions: Pictures: A. Cracks in precast steps/junctions with paving 1. Cracks results in weeds growing through them which are unsightly 2. Ensure structural integrity 3. Fill movement joints with silicon sealant B. Borehole reliability 1. Disruption to borehole irrigation during peak summer months 2. Harvesting of rain water 3. Need for additional water storage tanks 4. Municipal auxiliary connection to top-up tanks are necessary 5. Possibly combination of various solutions is required C. Possible failure of booster pumps 1. Spare Booster Pump needed 2. Cost = approx R11 000.00/pump 2.2 RECREATIONAL FACILITIES 2.3 MAINTENANCE &amp; MANAGEMENT ! ! ! ! ! 7. The Challenge: Practical Considerations &amp; Possible Solutions: Pictures: A. Deliberate vandalism of pre-cast concrete benches 1. Precast concrete steps are difficult to repair 2. Also accidental damage e.g. chips; 3. Use more robust and thicker insitu castings 4. Occupydevelopments around public spaces as soon as possible to allow surveillance B. Vandalism of bubblers &amp; sprinklers - pop-ups &amp; valves 1. Need to identify alternative irrigation system due to vandalism 2. Potentially irrigate directly to roots which will facilitate growth 3. Bubblers to be placed below finished ground level C. Solenoid valves- unauthorized use 1. Unauthorised operation of valves 2. Place valves under lockable covers D. Stealing of bubblers 1. Informal traders believed to be tampering with irrigation system and removing bubblers in order to obtain water to wash fruit and vegetables 2. Provide communal tap for use by traders 2.4 VANDALISM ! ! 8. Material: Practical Considerations &amp; Possible Solutions: Pictures: A. Tree cages (timber triangular cages and square cages) 1. Size to be adjusted to accommodate wider tree canopies 2. Optimal timber cage B. Tree cages (steel cages) 1. Detailing needs review due to buckling 2. Galv. Steel/timber cage C. Trees 1. Time of planting readjusted to May onwards to take advantage of winter rainfall thus reducing stress on plant material D. Limited Calcrete 1. Source not renewable 2. Need to find alternative material E. Water tanks F. Materials generally 1. Need for further investigations on choice of materials 2. Re-assess choice of materials for each new project 3. Maintain character of VPUU projects in general 2.5 MATERIALS &amp; COMPONENTS ! ! ! 9. The Challenge: Practical Considerations &amp; Possible Solutions: A. Use of conventional materials &amp; details recommended 1. Bricks, block, concrete, plaster &amp; paint are cost effective &amp; within capability of small contractors, offering greater scope for use of local labour 2. As far as possible conventional building materials &amp; details to be specified/used B. Minimise use of structural steel 1. High cost of material 2. Difficulty with intricate details 3. Introduces sub-contract element raising costs &amp; resulting in time delay &amp; performance 4. Limits/reduces use of local labour 5. Steel prone to rusting (even when galvanized) 6. Steel external envelope requires cladding externally &amp; internally plus insulation 7) Fencing also prone to rusting 3.1 LABOR &amp; COST CONSIDERATIONS This section explores labor &amp; cost considerations, calling for simple construction details that allow involvement of local labor suitable for community ownership &amp; responsibility, as well as income generating opportunities. It also addresses the practicality &amp; sustainability since easy maintenance &amp; repair work can be undertaken by local labor. This section also lists building materials &amp; comments on their appropriateness in given situations &amp; general strenghts &amp; limitations. It advocates for choosing environmentally friendly, readily available, &amp; robust materials for sustainable developments. Buildings: Materials &amp; Components 10. The Challenge: Practical Considerations &amp; Possible Solutions: A. Ceilings 1. Fixing of plywood ceilings onto purlins causes problems where ceilings and/or electrical fittings were incorrectly installed (ex: Change rooms at Kwamfundo) 2. Ceiling should be installed between purlins or below rafters 3. Standard un-skimmed plaster board or fibre cement fixed to brandering less costly than plywood boarding B. Doors: Timber 1. Structural integrity of panelled doors is questionable 2. Paint is chipping due to knocks 3. Doors slamming in the wind 4. Specify framed, ledged and braced timber doors 5. Specify sealants 6. Introduce door closers or cabin hooks C. Fixings to cladding 1. Fixings rusting 2. All fixing to be galvanized and secured in accord with acceptable good building practice D. Floors:Marmoleumsheeting 1. Floor sheeting is scratched, damaged &amp; stained 2. Specify additional sealant to floor sheeting. 3. Marmoleum floor finish easily 'bubbles' up 4. Consider alternative floor finish E. Galvanised steel 1. Steel elements rust in places 2. Inadequate galvanising suspected F. Granolithic 1. Contractors do not appear to have required skills forgranofinish 2. Consider alternative finish G. Imported products 1. Locally made vs. more environmentally-friendly 2. No right or wrong: debate and research continues H. Ironmongery 1. Problem experience with difficulties in cutting of keys 2. Ironmongery should be standardised as far as possible on all projects I. Floors- Painted finish 1. Paint chipping off grano screed 2. Investigate more robust finish J. Plaster to door reveals 1. Plaster chipped at reveals K. Plaster: internal 1. Damage to plaster walls at chair back height 2. Use face brick to chair back height; 3. Install timber dado rail at chair back height L. Plaster: rough external plaster 1. Easy toengravedecorative plaster 2. Use face bricks for external walls 3. Incident occurred when facility was unoccupied 3.2 BUILDING MATERIALS (Alphebetized) 11. M. Rodding eyes/manholes: plumbing 1. Rodding eyes vulnerable to damage e.g. lawnmowers, ladders 2. Rodding eyes require experts to un-block drains 3. Use of manholes preferable: 4. Investigate pre-cast manholes N. Rodding eyes/manhole covers in trafficable areas 1. Rodding eyes and manhole covers to be placed flush with trafficable surfaces O. Roller shutters vs. glazed doors 1. Roller shutters on their own do not form appropriate fenestration to facilities used also as offices e.g. Live-Work Units. 2. Glazed doors/windows also to be used to external openings P. Roller-shutters 1. Security problem due to ease of breaking securing bolt 2. Need for more secure bolt block Q. Staircase treads 1. Chipping in grano plaster on face of treads 2. Suggestion to use steel angles to protect face of grano 3. Steel angles is costly alternative and could be dislodged and go 'missing' 4. Steel angles could be viable for repair job R. Taps with hose connection 1. Need to allow for manual irrigation and filling of buckets 2. Provide one outside bib tap at convenient place as part of every building project S. Threshold of door frames 1. Thresholds internally wear away 2. Suggestion to use steel angles to secure screed where change in floor level occurs 3. Steel angles costly alternative T. Toilet partitions 1. Must be robust: use correct product 2. 90mm block or 110mm brick walls more robust &amp; probably cheaper U. Windows: Steel framed 1. Consolitesteel windows are of poor quality and manufacturer provides poor service 2. SpecifySymocor epoxy coated steel windows 3. Window openings require stops from safety point of view V. Windows: Timber framed 1. Opening sections have dropped in their frames, do not open &amp; close properly and consequently l...</p>