lessons learned from past notable disasters italy part 2: volcanoes walter hays, global alliance for...

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  • LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERSITALYPART 2: VOLCANOESWalter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA

  • NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN ITALY FLOODSWINDSTORMSEARTHQUAKES VOLCANOESENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGEHIGH BENEFIT/COST PROGRAMS FOR BECOMING DISASTER RESILIENTGOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES

  • Natural Phenomena that Cause Disasters

    Planet Earths heat flow and lithospheric-mantle collision-zone inter-actions cause VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

  • GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF 1,500 ACTIVE VOLCANOES

  • ITALY AND THE REGIONAL TECTONIC PLATES

  • LITHOSPHERIC-MANTLE INTER-ACTIONS: AFRICA---EURASIA PLATES

  • VOLCANOES are awesome manifestations of heat flowing as a result of movement along faults located in subduction zones or at hot spots (e.g., Hawaii and Iceland).

  • Of the 14 volcanoes in Italy, the four best known are: Etna (the largest active volcano in Europe), Vulcano, Stromboli, and Vesuvius (the only active volcano on the mainland of Europe).

  • A DISASTER is --- --- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community to respond without external helpwhen three continuums: 1) people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., volcanic eruptions, ,..) intersect at a point in spaceand time.

  • Disasters are caused by single- or multiple-event natural hazards that, (for various reasons), cause extreme levels of mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness, economic losses, or environmental impacts.

  • THE REASONS ARE . . .The community is UN-PREPARED for what will likely happen

  • THE REASONS ARE . . .When it does happen, the functions of the communitys buildings and infrastructure that are UNPROTECTED with the appropriate codes and standards will be LOST.

  • THE REASONS ARE . . .The community has NO DISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for concerted local, national, regional, and international actions.

  • THE REASONS ARE . . .The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.

  • THE REASONS ARE . . .The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction because it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.

  • TOWARDS VOLCANO DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE RISKRISK

  • ITALYS COMMUNITIESDATA BASES AND INFORMATIONHAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS

  • VOLCANO HAZARDS (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS)VERTICAL PLUME ASH AND TEPHRALATERAL BLASTPYROCLASTIC FLOWS

  • VOLCANO HAZARDS (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS)LAVA FLOWSLAHARSEARTHQUAKES (related to movement of lava)VOLCANIC WINTER

  • INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKINGEARTHQUAKESSOIL AMPLIFICATIONPERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE)IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF UTILITIES

    LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INATTENTION TO NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTSCAUSES OF DAMAGEDISASTER LABORATORIES

  • LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL VOLCANOES PREPAREDNESS FOR THE LIKELY HAZARDS (PDAs) IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL VOLCANOES EARLY WARNING IS ESSENTIAL FOR EVAC-UATION AND DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL VOLCANOES TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • LOCATION: ITALYS FOUR NOTABLE VOLCANOES

  • LAST ERUPTIONS OF ITALYS FOUR NOTABLE VOLCANOESVULCANO: 1890VESUVIUS:1944ETNA: 2012STROMBOLI: 2013 CONTINUING

  • ITALYS VULCANO: 1890 - - -

  • ITALYS VESUVIUS: 1944

  • ITALYS VESUVIUS: 1944Naples is at risk

  • ITALYS ETNA: 2012 - - -

  • ITALYS STROMBOLI: 2013 - - -

  • THE MOST COMMON FLAWS EXPOSED BY VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

    UNPREPARED FOR WHAT HAPPENEDUN---WARNED; NO EVACUATIONUN---ABLE TO RESPOND EFFECTIVELY; LIVES LOST

  • ITALYS NEXT VOLCANIC ERUPTION IS INEVITABLEBUT, VOLCANO DISASTER RESILIENCE IS NOT AN IMPOSSIBLE DREAM!

    More lectures at Disasters Supercourse -http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/collections/collection52.htm******

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