lessons learned from past notable disasters italy part 2: volcanoes walter hays, global alliance for...
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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERSITALYPART 2: VOLCANOESWalter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA
NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN ITALY FLOODSWINDSTORMSEARTHQUAKES VOLCANOESENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGEHIGH BENEFIT/COST PROGRAMS FOR BECOMING DISASTER RESILIENTGOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES
Natural Phenomena that Cause Disasters
Planet Earths heat flow and lithospheric-mantle collision-zone inter-actions cause VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS
GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF 1,500 ACTIVE VOLCANOES
ITALY AND THE REGIONAL TECTONIC PLATES
LITHOSPHERIC-MANTLE INTER-ACTIONS: AFRICA---EURASIA PLATES
VOLCANOES are awesome manifestations of heat flowing as a result of movement along faults located in subduction zones or at hot spots (e.g., Hawaii and Iceland).
Of the 14 volcanoes in Italy, the four best known are: Etna (the largest active volcano in Europe), Vulcano, Stromboli, and Vesuvius (the only active volcano on the mainland of Europe).
A DISASTER is --- --- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community to respond without external helpwhen three continuums: 1) people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., volcanic eruptions, ,..) intersect at a point in spaceand time.
Disasters are caused by single- or multiple-event natural hazards that, (for various reasons), cause extreme levels of mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness, economic losses, or environmental impacts.
THE REASONS ARE . . .The community is UN-PREPARED for what will likely happen
THE REASONS ARE . . .When it does happen, the functions of the communitys buildings and infrastructure that are UNPROTECTED with the appropriate codes and standards will be LOST.
THE REASONS ARE . . .The community has NO DISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for concerted local, national, regional, and international actions.
THE REASONS ARE . . .The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.
THE REASONS ARE . . .The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction because it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.
TOWARDS VOLCANO DISASTER RESILIENCE
ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE RISKRISK
ITALYS COMMUNITIESDATA BASES AND INFORMATIONHAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS
VOLCANO HAZARDS (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS)VERTICAL PLUME ASH AND TEPHRALATERAL BLASTPYROCLASTIC FLOWS
VOLCANO HAZARDS (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS)LAVA FLOWSLAHARSEARTHQUAKES (related to movement of lava)VOLCANIC WINTER
INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKINGEARTHQUAKESSOIL AMPLIFICATIONPERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE)IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF UTILITIES
LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INATTENTION TO NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTSCAUSES OF DAMAGEDISASTER LABORATORIES
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL VOLCANOES PREPAREDNESS FOR THE LIKELY HAZARDS (PDAs) IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL VOLCANOES EARLY WARNING IS ESSENTIAL FOR EVAC-UATION AND DISASTER RESILIENCE
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL VOLCANOES TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
LOCATION: ITALYS FOUR NOTABLE VOLCANOES
LAST ERUPTIONS OF ITALYS FOUR NOTABLE VOLCANOESVULCANO: 1890VESUVIUS:1944ETNA: 2012STROMBOLI: 2013 CONTINUING
ITALYS VULCANO: 1890 - - -
ITALYS VESUVIUS: 1944
ITALYS VESUVIUS: 1944Naples is at risk
ITALYS ETNA: 2012 - - -
ITALYS STROMBOLI: 2013 - - -
THE MOST COMMON FLAWS EXPOSED BY VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS
UNPREPARED FOR WHAT HAPPENEDUN---WARNED; NO EVACUATIONUN---ABLE TO RESPOND EFFECTIVELY; LIVES LOST
ITALYS NEXT VOLCANIC ERUPTION IS INEVITABLEBUT, VOLCANO DISASTER RESILIENCE IS NOT AN IMPOSSIBLE DREAM!
More lectures at Disasters Supercourse -http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/collections/collection52.htm******