lessons learned from past notable disasters egypt part 1: floods

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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS EGYPT PART 1: FLOODS. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA . EGYPT. POLITICAL MAP OF EGYPT (Note: Aswan). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERSEGYPTPART 1: FLOODS Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA

  • EGYPT

  • POLITICAL MAP OF EGYPT (Note: Aswan)

  • Egypt has frequent earthquakes, floods, flash floods and landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

  • NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN EGYPTFLOODSSTORMSEARTHQUAKES DUST STORMSENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGEHIGH BENEFIT/COST FROM BECOMING DISASTER NRESILIENTGOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES

  • Natural Phenomena that Cause Disasters

    Planet Earths atmospheric-hydrospheric-lithospheric interactions create situations favorable for FLOODS

  • THE NILE RIVER

  • THE NILES FERTILE DELTA

  • FLOOD-PRONE COMMUNITIES ALONG THE NILE

  • THE NILE RIVERThe ancient Egyptians thought of the annual floods as the annual coming of the god Hapi.They did not realize that the annual flood cycle happened after rainfall in the mountains to the south swelled the tributaries and small rivers that form the northward-flowing Nile River.

  • FLOODING IS A PART OF THE EGYPTIAN CULTUREThe annual flooding of the Nile River (Arabic: ), a natural cycle, has been a part of Egyptian culture since ancient times.It is celebrated annually as a holiday (known as Wafaa El-Nil) for two weeks starting August 15.

  • THE ANNUAL RYTHMN OF LIFE ALONG THE NILE

  • THE ANNUAL FLOOD CYCLEThe first indications of the rise of the Nile River and the beginning of the flood cycle are typically seen as early as the beginning of June.A steady increase in water level occurs until the middle of July.

    The Nile continues to rise until the beginning of September, when the level remains stationary for a period of about three weeks, sometimes a little less. In October it rises again, and reaches its highest level. From this period it begins to subside, and though it rises yet once more and reaches occasionally its former highest point, it sinks steadily until the month of June when it is again at its lowest level

  • THE ANNUAL FLOOD CYCLE (Continued)The water level in the Nile continues to rise until the beginning of September, then the level remains stationary for a period of about three weeks. In October the water rises again and reaches its highest level.

  • THE ANNUAL FLOOD CYCLE (Continued)From October to June, the water level in the Nile continues to subside until it once again reaches its lowest level in June.

  • ELEMENTS OF RISK AND DISASTER

  • ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE RISK RISK

  • FLOOD HAZARDS (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS)TOO MUCH WATER DISCHARGED WITHIN THE DRAINAGE SYSTEM TO BE ACCOMMODATED NORMALLY IN THE REGIONAL WATER CYCLEEROSIONSCOURMUDFLOWS

  • A DISASTER CAN HAPPENWHEN THE POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS OF A FLOOD INTERACT WITH EGYPTS COMMUNITIES

  • LOSS OF FUNCTION OF STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAINFLOODSINUNDATION INTERACTION WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STRUCTURAL/CONTENTS DAMAGE FROM WATER WATER BORNE DISEASES (HEALTH PROBLEMS)

    EROSION AND MUDFLOWSCONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER CAUSES OF RISKCASE HISTORIES

  • The annual flood cycle of the Nile River has made the difference between living and dying for thousands of years in Egypt.

  • THE NILE AS A SOURCE OF LIFEThe annual floods of the Nile River brought nutrient-rich silt from the mountains to the Nile delta, which produced bountiful crops.

  • ABOUT THE RIGHT AMOUNT OF WATER

  • THE NILE AS A SOURCE OF DEATHWhen the water levels in the Nile River are too high, flooding prevents deposition of the nutrient-rich silt in the Nile delta, reducing agricultural output.When water levels are too low for flooding, the result is low agricultural output and possible starvation.

  • TOO MUCH WATER

  • A DISASTER is --- --- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community to respond without external helpwhen three continuums: 1) people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., floods, earthquakes,) intersect at a point in spaceand time.

  • Disasters are caused by single- or multiple-event natural hazards that, (for various reasons), cause extreme levels of mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness, economic losses, or environmental impacts.

  • THE REASONS ARE . . .When it does happen, the functions of the communitys buildings and infrastructure will be LOST.

  • THE REASONS ARE . . .The community is UN-PREPARED for what will likely happen, not to mention the low-probability of occurrencehigh-probability of adverse consequences event.

  • THE REASONS ARE . . .The community has NO DISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for early threat identification and coordinated local, national, regional, and international countermeasures.

  • THE REASONS ARE . . .The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND in a timely and effective manner to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.

  • THE REASONS ARE . . .The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction because it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.

  • FLOODS IN EGYPT ARE INEVITABLE AND DAMAGING---SO, DONT WAIT FOR ANOTHER REMINDER OF THE IMPORTANCE OF BECOMING FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENT.

  • THE ALTERNATIVE TO A FLOOD DISASTER ISFLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • EGYPTS COMMUNITIESDATA BASES AND INFORMATIONHAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS

  • STRATEGIC COLLABORATION (I.E., WORKING TOGETHER ON A COMMON GOAL) FOR BECOMING FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENT

  • LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL FLOODS PREPAREDNESS FOR ALL OF THE LIKELY HAZARDS AND RISKS IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL FLOODS TECHNOLOGIES THAT FACILITATE STRATEGIC COLLABORATION ARE ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL FLOODS TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL FLOODS PROTECTION OF A COMMUNITYS PEOPLE, BUILDINGS, & INFRASTRUCTURE AGAINST LOSS OF FUNCTION IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • THE ASWAN HIGH DAMAfter ten years of construction, the Aswan High Dam in Egypt was completed on July 21, 1970.

  • The Aswan High Dam, located on the Nile River just north of the border between Egypt and Sudan, was built to control the frequent cycles of flooding and drought within Egypt.

  • THE ASWAN (HIGH) DAM

  • THE ASWAN (HIGH) DAM

  • THE ASWAN HIGH DAMAt 364 feet (111 meters) high and about 2.4 miles (3.8 kilometers) wide, the Aswan High Dam was a marvel of construction in 1970, costing about $1 billion to build.

  • ELECTRICITYIn addition to preventing flooding of the Nile River, the Aswan High Dam brought electricity to households and villages across Egypt that had never had it.This dam's 12 turbines are capable of generating ten billion kilowatt-hours annually

  • FRESH WATERThe reservoir (Lake Nasser) with a gross capacity of 136,927,000 acre-feet (168.9 billion cubic meters). behind the Aswan High Dam provides a source of fresh water for the Egyptian people during drought years.

  • Unfortunately, before the dam could be built, 90,000 of Egypts poor and Sudans Nubian nomads had to be relocated

    More lectures at Disasters Supercourse -http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/collections/collection52.htm******

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