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Legacy of Henry VIII. The Provinces. Henry VII had attempted to subdue the enemy within . Had wanted to go to war against France in allegiance with Spain. Henry VIII inherited his father’s campaign. Continued to attempt to colonise but not completed until the Act of Union in 1707. Wales - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Legacy of Henry VIII

  • The ProvincesHenry VII had attempted to subdue the enemy within.Had wanted to go to war against France in allegiance with Spain.Henry VIII inherited his fathers campaign.Continued to attempt to colonise but not completed until the Act of Union in 1707.

    WalesHenry VII had been Welsh so had had limited success as he seemed to understand the Welsh.Henry VIII solved the problems of Wales twofold:RuthlessnessExtended English law and administration into Wales. (English language, Wels arts into decline, Welsh customs of tenure and inheritance phased out)Gave peace to a land that had had none.

  • IrelandHenry made friends with the Welsh natives, destroyed the Irish.Decided acts of parliament applied to Ireland and that Irish parliament could only legislate with Kings consent.All seemed well..until Reformation. 1534 a revolt (Earl of Kildare), put down ruthlessly.Personal direct rule, not Lord but King.Destroyed most things Irish but replaced them with nothing.Fermented hatred for the English that continued for centuries.ScotlandHenry VII had signed Treaty of perpetual peace with the ScottishJames IV broke treaty.Battle of Flodden (1513)Scotland turned to France for help. A genuine threat to England.Battle of Solway Moss.James V diedMary Stuart (6 days old)She would be betrothed to Edward, Henrys son.Mary would become scourge of Anglicans as Queen of Scots

  • The Church of EnglandNot ideological split, rather to do with dynastic concerns and social problems.Henry needed a male heir.Catherine couldnt provide.Henry wanted a divorce form Pope Clement VII but couldnt get one.Two reasons:Pope often granted divorces/annulments on matters of state (Queen Margaret of Scotland). Henrys request different. Pope did not want to upset the H.R.E Charles V who happened to be Catherines nephew.Henry tried a different approach. Catherine had been Arthurs wife, when he died she became Henrys wife. Special dispensation from Pope Julius II to do so. Henry argued that this was null and void and wanted Clement VII to say so. Couldnt do so (St.Peter)

  • The Good CatholicFidei DefensorReformation for political/economic reasons NOT doctrinal.Thoroughly CatholicHad heretics (incl. Lollards) burnt at the stake.The problem, in a nutshell, was with the idea that the interests of England should be subject to the Pope/emperor.

  • Reformation ParliamentSummoned over seven years.Power of Rome and the Pope destroyed1530 Act: King final judge in all cases, allowed him to annul his marriage with Catherine1534 Act of Supremacy: The King became the Supreme Head of the Church of England.In 1535 Pope Clement excommunicated Henry VIIIBreak with Rome inevitably led to the Reformation and tolerance of the Protestant faith. all against Henry's wishes (posthumously)Next came the reforms of Church doctrine:The study of canon law was suppressed.Cult of Thomas Beckett reworked.

  • Men of New Learning and the ReformationWould have expected humanists like Erasmus and Thomas More to embrace Reformation,Not so. They believed unity of Christendom to be more important.University of Oxford rejected the reformation, Cambridge embraced it.CambridgeLatimer, Tyndale and Cloverdale were leaders on the intellectual side of the Reformation.They helped translate the Bible into Tudor English, so as to be accessible to all. the boy that driveth the plowArchbishop Cranmer wrote the Book of Common PrayerPriests ordered by Henry to recite the Lords Prayer, Ten Commandments and the Articles of Faith in English

  • The Monasteries100s of monasteries, not only wealthy but governed by a force outside the county.Three forces that merged to dictate the removal of the monasteries:1. Answerable to an external power. The Act of Supremacy made this illegal.2. Henry was bankrupt and needed money, the monasteries had it.3. Henry had to purchase political affiliation away from Rome. Buy the gentrys loyalty. Anti-clericalism not a big factor.1536 Monasteries began to be closed down. By 1539 560 closedWhat happened to this new found wealth? Largely wasted on:WarCourtiersGentry and aristocratsA popular measure with the upper classes - devastating for the poor.No more monastic schools, no more shelter and food in times of need.Left a scar on English cultural history:Artifacts lost.Gold and silver plate melted downBeautiful buildings destroyed or left to collapse.Libraries sacked.In short, licensed vandalism.

  • Churchs Loss, Parliaments GainUnder Henry VII, Parliament more a court of law than a legislative body.Reformation Parliament, however, had been effective.Sat for four consecutive years experience and continuity.The laws it debated, prepared and approved established the supremacy of the State over the Church.Helped build the traditions of the modern day House of Commons.

  • After Henry, Before ElizabethEdward VI a child.Country run by, firstly, Lord Seymour and secondly, John Dudley Earl of Warwick Duke of Northumberland.Edward, through his protectors, tried to establish a Protestant Church based on the foundations laid by Henry.Nine days queen, Lady Jane Grey.Queen BloodyMaryCatholic fanaticTried to reestablish the true faithMarried Philip of Spain (son of Charles V)More concerned with the souls of the English than their lives.Burned more than 300 for heresyEngland seemed to be a vassal of Spain, lost remaining possession in France while supporting the Spanish.When Mary died, fires were lit throughout England to celebrate.

  • England in RuinsOn her death, Mary left England in ruins.Ill-governed, leaderless, disgraced in war and peace, lacking unity and internal peace.

    Though I be a woman, I have as good a courage answerable to my place as ever my father had. I am your anointed queen. I will never be by violence constrained to do anything. I thank god I am endued with such qualities that if I were turned out of the realm in my petticoat, I were able to live in any place in ChristendomElizabeth I to a deputation of Parliament