lecture 10 western monasticism dr. ann t. orlando 1 october 2015

Download Lecture 10 Western Monasticism Dr. Ann T. Orlando 1 October 2015

Post on 18-Jan-2018




1 download

Embed Size (px)


The Idea of Spiritual Progress Emphasis on how to follow the Way of Jesus Development of approaches to spirituality Biblically based, usually with a highly allegorical interpretation Intended to be accessible to everyone, Frequently the basis for Patristic homilies Well defined steps in approach to spiritual life Pilgrimages Monasticism


Lecture 10 Western Monasticism Dr. Ann T. Orlando 1 October 2015 Introduction Spiritual progress Early Monasticism Irish Monasticism Benedictines John Cassian and Pelagianism The Idea of Spiritual Progress Emphasis on how to follow the Way of Jesus Development of approaches to spirituality Biblically based, usually with a highly allegorical interpretation Intended to be accessible to everyone, Frequently the basis for Patristic homilies Well defined steps in approach to spiritual life Pilgrimages Monasticism Pilgrimages A way to become closer to Jesus and the martyrs Started with remembrance of acts of martyrs and celebrations at their burial places After Constantine, more far reaching People who could not give up their life to enter monastery Needed some special way to demonstrate their faith Also way to atone for sins Starts with Helena, Constantines mother, in Jerusalem Remember, 5 th C pilgrimage nothing like 21 st C pilgrimage Dangerous: very high probability of death Expensive Very arduous and tedious (lasting year or more) Most famous early record of pilgrimages by Egeria, 4 th C woman Born in Spain or France Spent 3 years on pilgrimage Her journal gives earliest description of liturgies in Jerusalem during Holy Week Development of Christian Monasticism: Egyptian Monasticism Early 4 th C Desert Monks (from Greek for solitary), primarily in Egypt: anchorites withdrawn from society Most famous: Anthony ( ), St. Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, wrote a very influential life of Anthony, example: Augustine Confessions, Book VIII Communal monasticism Many attracted to this way of life, come together in groups Rule of St. Pachomius (286 346) Pachomius sister, Mary, established an Egyptian monastery for women with their own Rule 5 Later 4 th C Monastic Developments Three Cappadocians: Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory Nazianzan Basils Rule for Monks But the smartest, most spiritual one, The Teacher, was Macrina (sister of Basil and Gregory of Nyssa) established a convent in her home Augustine organizes his clergy in Hippo as in a monastery, writes a Rule, late 4 th C Early 5 th C Western Monastic Developments: John Cassian ( ) Born in France, spent time as an anchorite in Egypt Brought Pachomius Rule back with him Made it available in West in his Divine Institutes and Conferences Wrote against Augustine in the Pelagian controversy Revered as a saint in the East, but not the West (except at St. Victor Monastery in Marseilles) Whats a Rule Prescribes the way of life for the community Includes what prayers are said when Defines balance between work, study, prayer Community organization (abbot, monks, novices) and how leaders are selected Process for acceptance into community How new communities are created Relation between community and diocese 6 th C European Monasteries: Religious and Educational Light in the Western Darkness Benedictines Irish Monasticism 9 Roman-English Frontier and Early English Christianity Julius Caesar first to send expedition to England in 55 BC Roman influence in southern Britain, not in Scotland; Hadrians Wall built 122 AD Recall that Constantine the Great was born in England Roman troops brought Christianity with them in 4 th C Native English (Picts, Angles, Scots) population never converted After Fall of Rome in 410, Roman troops leave England Development of Early Irish Christianity Pelagius was an English monk In fact, most of English hierarchy supported Pelagius Pope Celestine (same pope who sided with Cyril over Nestorius) in 430 sent a new bishop to England and one to Ireland, Palladius Palladius is from Gaul Charged with destroying Pelagianism in England and proselytizing Ireland Palladius mission was not successful St. Patrick ( ) Born on Roman-Scottish frontier to prominent Gallic French Roman family Captured by Irish marauders in 406; spends 6 years as a slave in Ireland During this time he has a conversion experience Escapes and returns to family in England Goes to Gaul for training in priesthood Monastery of St. Lerins Noted for study of Augustine Returns to England as part of group headed by St. Germain sent by Pope Celestine after Palladius Patrick begs to be sent as a missionary to Ireland in 433 Has difficulty with Pelagian bishops in England Established many Christian communities in Ireland, monasteries and convents St. Brigit Latin as school language in Ireland Wrote numerous prayers, letters, Confession Died 493 Irish Christianity Bishops in Ireland and England did not become civil administrators after Romans Never were Roman administrators in Ireland Native pagan tribes took over in England; Romans in England were occupiers, not colonizers English (Pelagian) Christianity seems to have disappeared with Roman authorities during the 5 th C Ireland not affected by barbarian invasions until Vikings in 800 Irish communities developed around monasteries with bishop/abbot as leader: Iona is center of learning Developed Christian customs for 150 years nearly completely isolated from Rome Different calculation for Easter Discipline (penance, private confession) Organization: abbots rather than bishops Strong missionary spirit, founded most important Irish monastery at Iona in Scotland led by St. Columba in 563 Monks from Iona evangelize Europe from 7 th through the 8 th C In later 6 th and early 7 th C: St. Columbanus heads a mission to Italy??!! St. Benedict of Nursia ( ) Deeply influenced by Pachomius via John Cassian Lived during the attempted reconquest of Western Roman Empire by Justinian the Great Established an order of Monks, now known as Benedictines, governed by his Rule Founded a monastery outside of Rome, Monte Casino Sister, Scholastica, founded an order of nuns to follow the Rule Most popular religious order in West until 13 th C (Dominicans and Franciscans) Benedicts Rule Note that God brings good works to perfection, not our efforts Focus on Scripture, especially Psalms A school for the Lords service Jacobs ladder and steps of humility leading to perfect love of God Rules for abbot; how abbot is chosen Other positions in monastery Cycle of work and prayer Discipline Reception of guests Late 6 th and 7 th Century Parallel Missionary Activities in Western Europe Parallel, independent missionary activities from Rome going Northwest and Ireland (Iona) going Southeast Irish monks in 6 th and 7 th Century go to France, Germany, Holland to preach Christianity; follow Rhine to Southern Germany then across Alps into northern Italy St. Columban(us) travels extensively through Europe establishing Irish style monasteries, including one in Bobbio, Northern Italy (d. 615) His biography is written by a monk in Irish monastery in northern Italy Meanwhile, missionaries from Rome are also trying to convert Arian and Pagan Germanic tribes in what is now France Conversion of Chlodwech (Clovis) 496 Pope St. Gregory the Great sends Augustine to England 597 Pope Honorius I (625), a Benedictine, grants Monastery at Bobbio exemption from oversight by local bishop Irish refer to Pope as the Abbot of Rome Differences between Irish and Roman Churches resolved at Synod of Whitby, 664, in favor or Roman customs Map of Early Monasteries 17 European Debt Owed to Monasteries Both Irish and Western Mediterranean monasteries preserved literacy for Europe Copying Scripture key work of monks Preserving works of Fathers important tasks Preserving Latin and Greek philosophy Replaced schools as places of learning Missionary zeal flowed out from monasteries Democratic institutions Preserved and developed art Oasis from turmoil of political and social disruption (dark ages) associated with fall of Roman Empire in West During this lecture, a new force in the world: Islam The Pope Who Brought the Two Monastic Movements Together: Pope St. Gregory the Great Pope St. Gregory Great ( ) Benedictine Wrote a life of Benedict Reformed Roman clergy around monastic model Reformed the liturgy and Church music Encouraged Irish monks, St. Columbanus, to found monasteries in northern Italy Earliest extant life of Gregory written by an English nun, 8 th C Feast Day is September 3 19 Important Liturgical Contributions of Pope St. Gregory the Great Standardized and promulgated Latin liturgy Standardized sacramentary used throughout the Middle Ages Set Ash Wednesday for beginning of Lent Encouraged singing of hymns and songs Gregorian chant named in honor of him 20 Assignments Benedicts Rule, available at