learning resource metadata on the web (lile workshop)

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  1. 1. Learning Resource Metadata on the Web Phil Barker & Lorna Campbell
  2. 2. Lorna M Campbell @lornamcampbell Cetis / EDINA Phil Barker @philbarker Research Fellow Heriot-Watt University
  3. 3. LRMI PREHISTORY & PRECURSORS Our adventures with LOM, Semantics and Open Education
  4. 4. In the beginning wasthe LOM 1484.12.1 Standard for Learning Object Metadata
  5. 5. Using LOM Facilitating Access to Information on Learning Technology for Engineers 2001. Engineering. Library/Pedagogy/eLearning input RDN / LTSN LOM Application Profile 2003. All subjects UK Learning Object Metadata Core 2003.
  6. 6. IMS Learning Resource Meta-data IMS Meta-data Best Practice Guide for IEEE 1484.12.1-2002 Standard for Learning Object Metadata, 2006 . Bindings and best practice for IEEE LOM.
  7. 7. Semantic technologies & linked data Semantic Technologies in Learning and Teaching (2008 - 2009) A Jisc mini-project / Cetis working group Thanassis Tiropanis et al University of Southampton http://www.semtech.ecs.soton.ac.uk/ The Semantic Web, Linked and Open Data. Lorna M Campbell, Sheila McNeill (2010) A Cetis briefing paper http://publications.cetis.org.uk/2010/39
  8. 8. The development of semantic applications for teaching and learning for HE/FE over the next 5 years could be supported in a number of steps: 1)Encouraging the exposure of HE/FE repositories, VLEs, databases and existing Web 2.0 lightweight knowledge models in linked data formats. Enabling the development of learning and teaching applications that make use of linked data across HE/FE institutions; there is significant activity on linked open data to be considered 2)Enabling the deployment of semantic-based searching and matching services to enhance learning. Such applications could support group formation and learning resource recommendation based on linked data. The development of ontologies to which linked data will be matched is anticipated. The specification of patterns of semantic tools and services using linked data could be fostered 3)Collaborative ontology building and reasoning for pedagogical ends will be more valuable if deployed over a large volume of education related linked data where the value of searching and matching is sufficiently demonstrated. Pedagogy-aware applications making use reasoning to establish learning context and to support argumentation and critical thinking over a large linked data field could be encouraged at this stage from SemTech final report, 2009
  9. 9. DC-Ed 2006 - 2011. Dublin Core Education Application Profile Task Group. Focused on defining resource classes and domain model. Also worked in collaboration with IEEE LTSC. http://dublincore.org/groups/education/
  10. 10. Barker, P., & Campbell, L. M. (2010). Metadata for Learning Materials: An Overview of Existing Standards and Current Developments.Technology, Instruction, Cognition and Learning, 7(3-4), 225243. Retrieved from http://www.icbl.hw.ac.uk/publicationFiles/2010/TICLMetadata/
  11. 11. A brief flirtationISO MLR ISO/IEC JTC1 SC36 ISO 19788 - Metadata for Learning Resources, parts 1 to 11
  12. 12. Eduprog vs edupunk The UKLOM Lies Down by David Kernohan, #Eduprog Grand High Mage.
  13. 13. Open Educational Resources UKOER: 3 year, 15M programme to release HE resources under Creative Commons licences. (2009 2012). Funding for institutional, individual and subject- based consortia projects. 66 projects, >10,000 OERs. Cetis provided strategic technical advice and support to funders and projects.
  14. 14. UKOER guidelines Use openly accessible systems to disseminate resources: Flickr, YouTube, Vimeo, SlideShare, ... Jorum UK HE repository Minimal metadata requirements Title, Author, Subject, Date, Licence ... Facilitate aggregation of resource information, e.g. via RSS / ATOM feeds. Make sure resource has a good textual description and is findable on Google.
  15. 15. LEARNING RESOURCE METADATA INITIATIVE What on earth could justify another attempt at educational metadata?
  16. 16. Motivation Promote the sharing of educational resources by helping people find content that meets their specific needs. Recognising that people will try to find web resources through Google.
  17. 17. Motivation Meet Pam, lets say she wants to teach a lesson about the Declaration of Arbroath (1320) Photo by Vgrigas Tyninghame copy of the Declaration of Arbroath By various Scottish barons
  18. 18. Photo by Vgrigas Motivation She might search Google:
  19. 19. Motivation There are many educational parameters Pam might use to narrow the search results to those which are more appropriate, but Google doesnt support them. She is forced into a fragmented world of specialist search services based on (often siloed) metadata. Photo by Vgrigas
  20. 20. Author J. Cetis? Screen shot from Google Scholar. NB, J CETIS = JISC CETIS, the authors affiliation
  21. 21. Schema.org a joint effort, in the spirit of sitemaps.org, to improve the web by creating a structured data markup schema supported by major search engines. Schema.org FAQ, http://schema.org/docs/faq.html
  22. 22. What the human sees
  23. 23. What the computer sees Learning Resource Metadata Initiative: using schema.org to describe open educational resources

    by Phil Barker, Cetis, School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences, Heriot-Watt University
    Lorna M Campbell, Cetis, Institute for Educational Cybernetics, University of Bolton. April 2014

  24. 24. What the computer needs
  25. 25. What schema.org provides An agreed hierarchy of entity types. An agreed vocabulary for naming the characteristics of resources and the relationships between them. Which can be added to HTML (as microdata, RDFa or JSON-LD) to help computers understand what the strings or text mean.
  26. 26. What schema.org looks like
    Learning Resource Metadata Initiative: using schema.org to describe open educational resources

    Phil Barker, Cetis, School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences, Heriot-Watt University

    Lorna M Campbell, Cetis, Institute for Educational Cybernetics, University of Bolton

  27. 27. LRMI: Learning resource metadata initiative Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 2011 - 2014 Co-led by Creative Commons and AEP (preK-12 learning group division of the Association of American Publishers) Working group including educators, publishers, metadata specialists Aim: make it easier to publish, discover, and deliver quality educational resources on the web
  28. 28. LRMI schema.org didnt have a way of naming the educational parameters that could have helped Pam narrow her search, so LRMI added them. Educational alignment (more later) Educational role (of target audience) Educational use Interactivity type Is based on (url) Learning resource type Time required Typical age range Use rights URL http://www.lrmi.net/the-specification
  29. 29. LRMI schema.org didnt have a way of naming the educational parameters that could have helped Pam narrow her search, so LRMI added them. Educational alignment (more later) Educational use Interactivity type Is based on url Learning resource type Time required Typical age range Use rights URL Educational role (of target audience) http://www.lrmi.net/the-specification *except use rights URL
  30. 30. Educational alignment An alignment to an established educational framework, e.g. Shared curriculum or syllabus Shared framework of competency requirements Set of educational levels Modules making up a program of study Allows encoding of statements like this resource teaches X this resource assess X this resource requires knowledge of Y this resource has reading level N this resource is used in module F29DO
  31. 31. Educational alignment An alignment to an established educational framework
  32. 32. Educational alignment LRMI elements identify something in an educational framework, they do not describe the framework.
  33. 33. CURRENT STATE OF LRMI & FUTURE PLANS and can the linked learning community help?
  34. 34. Implementations Initial implementation by: Connexions Curriki Gooru learning ISME Jorum Merlot Peer2Peer Uni Open Tapestry Learning Registry Awesome stories BBC Bytesize Brain POP Digital Chalkboard (e.g.) CTE Online Learn by cam Learnzillion MIT OCW Nova Southeastern Uni OER Commons Open University, OpenLearn
  35. 35. Google custom search engine https://www.google.co.uk/cse/
  36. 36. Google custom search engine
  37. 37. Google custom search
  38. 38. Implementations Points to note: they exist. not every implementation exposes LRMI metadata, some use it internally. schema.org is a lightweight, loose ontology, implementation is looser. no agreement on value spaces, either terms or meanings (e.g. educational level, 1st Grade, Primary 1). see also Martin Hepp from Ontologies to Web Ontologies https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XE7vQyEk7UY
  39. 39. LRMI Status Gates funding is over, so now what? LRMI is now a Task Group with the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. http://wiki.dublincore.org/index.php/AB-Comm/ed/LRMI/TG LRMI terms are a community specification of DCMI. http://dublincore.org/dcx/lrmi-terms/ (aligned with schema.org terms)
  40. 40. What next? Extending LRMI: Events? Courses? new schema.org extension mechanism Use beyond schema.org scenario stand-alone JSON-LD eTextBooks Recommended value vocabularies Linked data representation of educational frameworks (alignment)
  41. 41. Questions? Does this help with the endeavour to expose lightweight linked data? can you get the data out of web pages? How do we encourage linked data representation of educational frameworks? How much

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