learning in interdisciplinary teams
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DESCRIPTIONLearning in interdisciplinary teams. UT Health School of Biomedical Informatics Houston. Oct 3, 2012
- 1. 1 School of Biomedical InformaticsDEFINING NEW FIELDS: INFORMATICS AS INTERDISCIPLINARY EDUCATION Jess Ibarra, MD, MMEd, MS Doctoral Student October 3, 2012
2. 2BiographyPractice in the field oftransdisciplinaryknowledge acquisition and health care DOCTORAL STUDENT MASTER OF HEALTH MEDICAL INFORMATICS EDUCATION 2009 current 2001 - 2005 PEDIATRICIAN 1986 - 1990Leader MEDICAL DOCTOR 1979 - 1986University Researcher teacher Physician 3. 3 4. 4M.D.Example:(1976)Development ofB. S. Biomedicalan interdisciplinary Engineering (2003)health care teamPatient,B.S. Nutrition family & Physicianand well being (2004)community MdPhD(2008)B.S. Nursing (2006) Dentistry (2008) B. A.Management.Health Syst. (2007) 5. 5Why is this important to BiomedicalInformatics? Biomedical informatics (BMI) is the interdisciplinary field that studies and pursues the effective uses of biomedical data, information, and knowledge for scientific inquiry, problem solving, and decision making, driven by efforts to improve human health. Faculty should design BMI graduate programs so that every student works collaboratively: Team effectively with partners within and across disciplines 6. 6GoalsTo understand changes in fields as they integrateTo establish differences in multi, inter and transdisciplinary fieldsTo understand how integrated teams function andmeans to improve them 7. 7Outline1. Education and teams formed of multipledisciplines2. How disciplines integrate3. Team processes including barriers andpromoters4. Conceptual framework 7 8. 8Real life situations are complexand require teams educated across disciplines 9. 9The case for transdisciplinary teamwork Growing emphasis in health research, services, education and policy (Choi, 2007) Funding agencies call for research involving multiple disciplines (NIH) Hospitals establish multiple disciplinary teams to provide care (Kessler, 2006) 10. 10Education occurs in silos RespiratoryMDs Nurses Managers Therapists 11. 11Problem There is a mismatch between education and practice. Students learn their professional domains in a mode of silos, but are expected to approach complex problems in real world in a collaborative transdisciplinary fashion. Education is being pursued with disciplines apart from each other. 12. 12Problem of terminology Common terms: multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary (Grossman, 2005) Ambiguous definition, interchangeable use (Whitfield, 2004) 13. 13Levels of Integration Terms not equal Different terms for different integration Progression13 14. 14A comparison (Choi, 2006) Multidisciplinary Interdisciplinary TransdisciplinaryKeywordAdditiveInteractive HolisticMathematical 2+2 = 4 2+2=5 2+2=yellowexampleFood example a salad bowla melting pot a cake 15. 15Integration Ladder (Harden, 2000)1. Isolation 7. Correlation2. Awareness 8. Complementaryprogramme3. Harmonisation9. Multi-disciplinary4. Nesting10. Inter-disciplinary5. Temporalcoordination11. Trans-disciplinary6. Sharing 16. 16Isolation Departments or subject specialists organize their teaching without consideration of other subjects or disciplines Each discipline looks, from the perspective of own discipline, in terms of areas to be covered, depth of coverage, sequence and timing. No attention is paid to other, or related contributing subjects Each subject is seen as an entity in itself. Traditional curriculum (Harden, 2000) 17. 17Integration Ladder (Harden, 2000)1. Isolation 7. Correlation2. Awareness 8. Complementaryprogramme3. Harmonisation9. Multi-disciplinary4. Nesting10. Inter-disciplinary5. Temporalcoordination11. Trans-disciplinary6. Sharing 18. 18What happens steps 2-8 Faculty become aware of the contents from other disciplines Faculty harmonize the contents of the courses There appear nests of contents within the disciplines, coming from other disciplines There is coordination in time There is sharing of contents There is correlation of contents Programs become complementary18 19. 19Multidisciplinarity Draws on knowledge from different disciplines but stays within the boundaries of those fields(NSCERC, 2004) 20. 20Interdisciplinarity Analyzes, synthesizes and harmonizes links between disciplines into a coordinated and coherent whole(Choi, 2006) 21. 21Transdisciplinarity Integrates the natural, social, and health sciences in a humanities context, and in so doing transcends each of their traditional boundaries(Soskolne, 2000)IsolationTransdisciplinarity 22. 22Transdisciplinary EducationShifts in: Goals Identity Products 23. 23So where is informatics? Interdisciplinary What does that mean? New identity New problems to solve New language23 24. 24Moving from education toteams 25. 25Teams not Groups A small number of consistent people committed to a relevant shared purpose, With common performance goals, Complementary and overlapping skills, and A common approach to their work(Loimer and Manion, 1996) 26. 26Challenge (Barr, 2005)Some factors which involve relations among professions and affectservice to clientsPoor ProliferatingCoping withcommunications professionscomplexityCollaboratingImprovingResolving rivalrymore widely quality 27. 27Poor communications (Pietroni, 1992)Each profession develops own language, only insiders know uses different words with same meaning cognitive risks uses a range of languages 28. 28Bridging disciplines requiresreconciling differences in basic assumptions about the nature of the world, beliefs about what constitutes an interesting question for study, methods for generating and analyzing information, and rules about what constitutes evidence or "proof".(Seipel, 2009) 29. 29Conceptual framework 30. 30Dimensions of a team Identification Formation Adaptation(Lei, 2007) 31. 31Identification Team members do a self- assessment to know if they are ready for teamwork, and to approach the problem, They seek information, Set their personal goals, Do strategic planning, and Do self-monitoring.(Lei, 2007) 32. 32Formation Team members set goals for the team, A leadership is established, Roles are identified, Trust is built, Members give each other support, There is feedback from peers, clients or experts, Communication and collaboration tools are used, Information tools are incorporated, Cognitive and knowledge creation tools are used, There is awareness, and There is appreciation for each other.(Lei, 2007) 33. 33Adaptation Goals are aligned, A shared mental model is built, There is understanding, creativity, and innovation.(Lei, 2007) 34. 34Dimensions of a team TeacherTrans-disciplinary Team Collective-Efficacy Team-Outcome Formation 1. Team Goal Setting 2. Leadership 3. Role IdentificationIdentification 4. Trust 1. Self Assessment 5. Interdependence 2. Information Seeking 6. Social Support 3. Personal Goal Setting 7. Peer Feedback 4. Strategic Planning8. Client Feedback 5. Self-Monitoring 9. Expert FeedbackAdaptation 10.Communication & 1. Goal Alignment Collaboration Tools 2. Shared Mental Model 11.Information ToolsIndividual Learner 3. Understanding 12.Cognitive & 4. Creativity Knowledge Creation5. Innovation Tools Self-Efficacy 13.Awareness 14.Appreciation Individual-Process Adapted from Lei, 2007 35. 35Strategies to enhance teamworkT TeamE EnthusiasmA AccessibilityM MotivationW WorkplaceO ObjectivesR RoleK Kinship(Choi 2007) 36. 36Promoters to enhance teamworkStrategyPromoting the promoters (P)TeamP1. good selection of team membersP2. good team leadersP3. maturity and flexibility of team membersEnthusiasmP4. personal commitment of team membersAccessibility P5. physical proximity of team membersP6. the Internet and email as a supporting platformMotivationP7. incentivesWorkplace P8. institutional support and changes in the workplaceObjectivesP9. a common goal and shared visionRoleP10. clarity and rotation of rolesKinship P11. communication among team membersP12. constructive comment among team members(Choi, 2007) 37. 37Dealing with barriersStrategyBarring the barriers (B)TeamB1. avoid poor selection of disciplines and team membersB2. avoid poor process of team functioningEnthusiasmB3. avoid lack of proper measures to evaluate success ofinterdisciplinary workB4. avoid lack of guidelines for multiple authorship in researchpublicationsAccessibility B5. avoid language problemsMotivationB6. avoid insufficient time for the projectB7. avoid insufficient funding for the projectWorkplace B8. avoid institutional constraintObjectivesB9. avoid discipline conflictsRoleB10. avoid team conflictsKinship B11. avoid lack of communication between disciplinesB12. avoid unequal power among disciplines(Choi, 2007) 38. 38Summary Understanding multiple discipline teams is relevant for biomedical informaticians Some issues of learning in transdisciplinary teams have been identified A baseline understanding of how transdisciplinary teams function has been established Promoters and detractors for teamwork have been discussed 39. 39Take home message Informaticians are trained in an integrated way, but they are called to work in teams of professionals that have been trained in silos There are strategies to overcome obstacles and barriers There is a conceptual framework that can help us to understand teamwork 39 40. 40Acknowledgements Amy Franklin, PhD James P. Turley, RN, PhD Juliana Brixley , RN, PhD Craig W. Johnson, PhD Joan Engebretson DrPH, AHN-BC, RN 41. 41Questions?