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LearningandLivingACultureofAppreciativeInquiryOneStoryataTimeJanuary910,2014withMicheleBrielmaier,BradSchloesser,andDenaColemerofSCCCheriTorresandBobLaliberteofInnovationPartnersInternational Your Name 2013 Innovation Partners International, all rights reserved. Permission granted for internal use. WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 2Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com GeneralAgendaTomaximizeourtimetogether,pleaseselfmanagebreaksasneededDay1ThisdayfocusesonlearningaboutAIandunderstandingthepracticeofAI.Intheprocess,participantswillexperienceinterviewsandsmallgroupdiscussionsaimedatsurfacingwhatitmeanstoworkinaculturedefinedbytheAIPrinciplesandpractices.AIwillbeseeninthelightoftheneedfornewwaysofworkingthatenableagility,collaboration,innovationandadaptabilityallimportantinourpresentenvironment.Salientfeatures:theimportanceofstory,framing,inquiry,optimizinghumanperformanceandcreativity.WhatsetsanAIapproachtoactionapartistakingthetimetostepback,inquire,research,disruptbeforedrivingtoaction.Welcome,OpeningandOverviewIntroducingAIPairedInterviewsCreatingConditionsforanAICultureSmallGroupProcessDiscoveringOurStrengthsandPositiveCoreforanAICultureIntentionalCultureTransformation:HumanNature,CreativityandHighPerformanceLunchSmallGroupProcessImaginingOurDesiredCultureKeyAIPracticesPuttingThosePracticesintoActionClose:Sharing,Questions,Review,PrepfortomorrowselectyourstrategyonthewayoutDayTwoThisdayfocusesonusingAIasamethodtogenerateinitialactionplansforthestrategicplan.ParticipantswilllearnaboutCoreTeamresponsibilities,stakeholderengagement,andchoosethestrategytheyaremostinterestedintodevelopaninitialresearchplanand/orsetofprojectstoprototype.Outcomesfromtodaywillbecompletedelectronicactionplansforinitialactiononallstrategiesthatinspireparticipants.Welcomeback,Checkin,OverviewoftheDay,PreparingtoPlanPuttingAItoWorkontheStrategicPlanLunchRapidStressTestingCoreTeam,StakeholderIdentification,andStrategiesforEngagingStakeholdersCreatingtheTimelineandInitialActionPlanReview,Questions,AVerySpecialClosing WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 3Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com EasyReference PagesStrategicPlan 56AppreciativeInquiry(AI) 710Interview 1114OurStoryisFateful&TheNewScience 1617,4245IncreasingYourReturnonCollaboration 19FramingforOutcomes 2021,46CraftingInquiry 2326ApplyingAItoCollegeGoalsandStrategies 28CoreTeamandStakeholderEngagement 29ResourcesandReferences Definitions:ReturnonCollaboration 32EvidenceforAppreciativeInquiry 3334PositiveImagePositiveAction 3536AIPrinciplesinAction 37PositivePsychology&NewScience 3839 FromSWOTtoSOAR 4041 MakingStuffUp,ItsWhatWeDo 4243LadderofInference 4445 Framing&Reframing 46 IdentifyingStakeholders 47 DesigningforEngagement 4854 TheExcellenceParadigm 5556 WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 4Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com OverviewandAgendaWhatwewilldoEngagewiththeoryandpracticeforAppreciativeInquiry,collaborationandstrategicplanningPlay,work,buildrelationshipsWhereitwillgetyouBecomeastrongerteamEnhanceyourabilitytopracticeAppreciativeInquiryandworktogethertoinventyourfutureIncreaseyouragilityandcreativityWhatwillyoubeabletodoasaresultParticipateincreatingandimplementingthestrategicplanBuilddurableandresilientrelationshipsamongdiversegroupsFostercollaborationandinnovationinyourdepartmentsandatSCC WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 5Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com StrategicPlanningGoals201420Fiveprimarygoalsand5subgoalsemergedfromtheStrategicPlanningRetreat.Thefivesubgoalsdirectlysupportthesuccessoftheprimarygoalsandwillbeintegratedinwaysthataligntosupporttherapidachievementoftheprimarygoals. WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 6Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com StrategiesforAchievingGoalsA. AICULTUREGOAL:SCCpracticesappreciativeanddisruptiveinquirygrowingapositivecultureofcollaborationandinnovation.STRATEGIES:1. AIisembeddedinourphilosophyinprincipleandpractice[policy,procedures,andstructuressuchasHRevaluation,hiring,etc.].2. AIispracticedandwearefosteringandenhancingrelationshipsthatinspireequalityandinclusivityforallstakeholders.3. AIispracticedandisinspiringaninclusiveclimateofscholarshipandservice.4. AIandDisruptiveInquiryarepracticedforcontinuousqualityimprovementandexcellenceindeliveringourmission[AI,DI,prototyping,agileactionandperpetualevolution].B.HOLISTICLEARNERSUPPORTSERVICESGOAL:SCCprovidesacomprehensiveeducationapproachthatdevelopsthewholelearnerbody,mindandspiritsupportinglifelongsuccess,enhancingacademicandskillscompetencywithpersonalandprofessionalleadershipandteamworkcompetency.STRATEGIES:5. Innovativesolutionsaddressthediverseneedsoflearnersandsupportgenuineinclusion.6. Ouradvisingmodelinvolvesfaculty,staffandstudentsinthedesignandimplementationofanindividualizedsuccessplanforlearnersthatensureacademic,technology,personalandprofessionalsuccess.7. Weoffercollaborativeandinnovativeprogramsandstrategiesthatmeetthenonacademic/technicalskillsneedsoflearners,withspecialemphasisonpersonalandcareercounselingandprofessionaldevelopment.C.QUALITYEDUCATIONGOAL:SCCdeliversexcellenceinacademicprogrammingthatisrelevant,accessible,andresponsiveandeffectivelyprepareslearnersforlivingandlearninginaglobalmarketplace.STRATEGIES:8. Facultyexcelsintheassessmentofstudentlearninganddevelopment.9. Weprovideeducationaloptionsthatpreparelearnersforentryintotheworkforce,careeradvancement,andacademictransferopportunities.10. Expeditecurriculumdevelopment11. SCCleadsthestateinnew,innovativeandqualityonlineandblendedlearningD.PARTNERSHIPSANDCOLLABORATIONGOAL:SCCcollaborateswithbusinessandcommunitymembers,buildingpartnershipstomeetdiverselearnerandindustryneedsthroughouttheregion.STRATEGIES(Thereweremany,thesearethetoptwo):12. CollaborativepartnershipswithK12arefosteringlearnerpreparedness,enrollmentinSCCprogramsandlifelongsuccess.13. Partnershipsandcollaborationwithbusinessandindustrysupportqualityeducation,facilities,learnersuccessandemployersatisfaction.E.MARKETINGANDBRANDINGGOAL:Consistent,coherentandwellplannedmarketingandbrandingresultsinbroadrecognitionatthelocalandstatelevel,reinforcingpartnershipsandgeneratingincreasedenrollment,completionandplacement.STRATEGIES:14. Acomprehensivemarketingandcommunicationplan,drivenbykeydistinctives,resultsinastrong,positivebrand.F.SUBGOALSTHATCROSSALLPRIMARYGOALS:15. Facultyandstaffdevelopacomprehensiveemployeepersonal/professionalplanthatsupportsindividualsuccesswhilebuildingcollaborativecapacitytoachieveoursharedgoals.16. TechnologyisembeddedinthefabricofSCCinordertosupportthestrategicgoals.17. Educationandprofessionaldevelopmentleadstoculturalcompetenceforallemployeesandlearners.18. Facilitiesareoptimized,supportingthestrategicgoals19. Existingexpertiseandinfrastructurecreatesinnovativeopportunitiesthatgeneraterevenuewhilesupportingthestrategicgoals. WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 7Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com WhatisAppreciativeInquiry?WhatisAppreciativeInquiry(AI)?AppreciativeInquiryisatheoryandpracticeforapproachingchangefromaholisticframework.Basedonthebeliefthathumansystemsaremadeandimaginedbythosewholiveandworkwithinthem,AIleadssystemstomovetowardthegenerativeandcreativeimagesthatresideintheirmostpositivecoretheirvalues,visions,achievements,andbestpractices.AIisbothaworldviewandapracticalprocess.Intheory,AIisaperspective,asetofprinciplesandbeliefsabouthowhumansystemsfunction,adeparturefromthepastmetaphorofhumansystemsasmachines.AppreciativeInquiryhasanattendantsetofcoreprocesses,practices,andevenmodelsthathaveemerged.Inpractice,AIcanbeusedtococreatethetransformativeprocessesandpracticesappropriatetothecultureofaparticularorganization.Groundedinthetheoryofsocialconstructionism,AIrecognizesthathumansystemsareconstructionsoftheimaginationandare,therefore,capableofchangeatthespeedofimagination.Onceorganizationmembersshifttheirperspective,theycanbegintoinventtheirmostdesiredfuture.Watkins,J.M.&BernardJ.Mohr.AppreciativeInquiry:ChangeattheSpeedofImagination,JosseyBass,2001,pagesxxxixxxiiAppreciativeInquirydeliberatelyseekstodiscoverpeoplesexceptionalitytheiruniquegifts,strengths,andqualities.Itactivelysearchesandrecognizespeoplefortheirspecialtiestheiressentialcontributionsandachievements.Anditisbasedonprinciplesofequalityofvoiceeveryoneisaskedtospeakabouttheirvisionofthetrue,thegood,andthepossible.AppreciativeInquirybuildsmomentumandsuccessbecauseitbelievesinpeople.Itreallyisaninvitationtoapositiverevolution.Itsgoalistodiscoverinallhumanbeingstheexceptionalandtheessential.Itsgoalistocreateorganizationsthatareinfullvoice!Cooperrider,D.L.et.al.(Eds),LessonsfromtheField:ApplyingAppreciativeInquiry,ThinBookPublishing,2001,page12.AIinvolves,inacentralway,theartandpracticeofaskingquestionsthatstrengthenasystemscapacitytoapprehend,anticipate,andheightenpositivepotential.Itcentrallyinvolvesthemobilizationofinquirythroughthecraftingoftheunconditionalpositivequestion,ofteninvolvinghundredsorsometimesthousandsofpeople.AIdeliberately,ineverythingitdoes,seekstoworkfromaccountsofthepositivechangecoreanditassumesthateverylivingsystemhasmanyuntappedandrichandinspiringaccountsofthepositive.Linktheenergyofthiscoredirectlytoanychangeagendaandchangesneverthoughtpossiblearesuddenlyanddemocraticallymobilized.Cooperrider,DavidL,et.Al,AppreciativeInquiry:RethinkingHumanOrganizationTowardaPositiveTheoryofChange,StipesPublishing,2000. WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 8Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com ImageisCompellingPositiveImagePositiveAction ThePlaceboEffectIfyoubelievesomething,yourwholebeingstrivestocomeintoalignmentwiththatbelief. ThePygmalionEffectIfsomeoneelsebelievessomethingaboutyou,yourwholebeingstrivestocomeintoalignmentwiththatbelief. PositiveAffect/EffectOurwholebeingalignsaroundthewordsandquestionsspokentous. RiseandFallofCulturesCommunitiesofpeoplealignaroundimagesofwhatspossible.Whentherearenopositiveimagesofthefutureorconversationsofhope,theculturedecays. AffirmativeCapabilityOurwholebeingalignsaroundtheimageswecarry;wearecompelledtomovetowardsthem.[Note:Researchcitationsareinthereferencesectionpages3536.]BasicAIConcepts Whatyouseek,youfindmoreofThemorepositiveandinspiringyourquestions,themorelikelyyouaretogeneratepositivepossibilitiesforaction. PeoplecommittowhattheyhelptocreateThemoreparticipativeyourconversations,planninganddecisionmaking,themorecommittedpeoplearetocollaboratingonsuccess.Engagingthewholegeneratesorganizationalflourishing. Bold,evocativestoriescompelustoactionWearecompelledtomoveinthedirectionoftheimageswehold.Storyhastheuniquecapacitytoelicitimagesandinformactionwiththefullnessofcontextandcharacter. WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 9Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com KeyAILeadershipConcepts IntentionallyCreateanEnvironmentforCollaborationWhenpeoplefeelsafe,included,valuedandrespectedtheyarefreetoengagefullyandcontributetheirstrengths. OutcomesFocusedWherearewegoing,whatarewestrivingtoachievingtogether,whatdowewanttococreate?Insteadofgettingitright,focusonlearningandexcellence,whichfostergrowthandperpetualevolutioninresponsetoachangingenvironment. InquiryBasedAdoptanattitudeofinquiry;recalltheaweandcuriosityofchildhood.Intentionallyseekopportunitythroughappreciativeanddisruptiveinquiry. WholenessInviteeveryoneandengagepeopleinmeaningfulways.Strengthenrelationshipsandconnectionbydeliberatelybuildingtrust.[Note:Inthereferencesection,seeEngagementinformation,pages4854andtheLeadershipExcellenceModel,pages5556.] WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 10Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com AIPrinciplesConstructionistPrinciple Wejointlyconstructoursocialrealitiesthroughoursharedconversations(verbalandbody)andrelationships. Whenwechangethewaywetalktogether,thequestionsweask,etc.,wechangethepresentreality. Wordscreateworlds.PrincipleofSimultaneity Changehappensthemomentweaskthequestion,themomentweact. Inquiryisintervention.PoeticPrinciple Therearemanyperspectives,multiplewaysofknowingandunderstanding. Howweunderstandasituationorapersonandwhatstorywetellaboutitimpactseverything.AnticipatoryPrinciple Wemoveinthedirectionofourthoughtsandtheimagesthatwehold. Weseewhatweexpecttosee;whatwelookfor,wefind. Whatwefocusonexpands. Whetheryouthinkyoucanoryoucant,youreright!ThePositivePrinciple(orPrincipleofGenerativity) Thequestionsweaskandwhatweinquireintoaregenerative. Themorepotentandpositivethequestions,themorepositiveandgenerativetheoutcome.[Note:IntheReferenceSection,seewaystoputPrinciplesintoaction,page37.] WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 11Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com InterviewProtocolAsaninterviewer,yourroleistoguidethepersonyouinterviewthroughaseriesofquestionsthatwillgeneratetheirbestthinkingonourthemeandtopics.Astheinterviewer,activelylisten,engagewiththestoryandthestoryteller,drawoutspecificdetailsandexamples,andbegenuinelycuriousabouttheexperiencesthataresharedwithyou.Enjoytheinterviewprocess.Itisanopportunitytohonortheotherbyofferingyourbestlisteningskillsandaskingclarifyingquestions.Appreciatetheverybestofwhothepersoniswithwhomyouarespeakingandthefactthateachpersonsanswersformpartofthefabricofourfuture.Thismaybeamemorableandimpactfultimeforbothofyou.ListenandClarifyAsaninterviewer,yourgoalistoencourageavividandcompletedescriptionofeventsandideas.Encouragethepersonyouareinterviewing,yourpartner,totellaverydescriptiveanddetailedstory/vision/idea.Encourageexpansionofthestorysrichnessbyaskingclarifyingquestionssuchas: Tellmealittlemoreaboutthepartwhen... Whowasinvolved? Whatwasimportanttoyou? Howdidthataffectyou? Whatwasyourcontribution? Whatdoyouthinkwasreallymakingitwork? Whatdidyoucontribute? Whatwereyouthinkingorfeeling?Itisbestifyouactuallyreadthequestionsaloud.Itisimportanttostayontopicandresisttheurgetodialogue.Offeryourverybestlisteningskills.Keepthespotlightonyourinterviewpartner.Allowforsilenceandfortheflowtomoveasyourpartnerwantsit.Ifsomebodydoesnotwantto,orcant,answeraninterviewquestion,thatsOK.Letitgoorcomebacklatertothatquestion.Seekpersonalexperiencesanddetailsinsteadofgeneralities.Letyourpartnertellhisorherstory.Avoidgivingyouropinionabouttheexperiencesthisisaninterviewandinformationgathering,notadiscussion.Listenforgreatquotesandtakegoodnotesofthethemesandquotesthatemerge.Starorhighlightthosequotesordetailsthatstandout. WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 12Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com InterviewInstructionsPurpose:Todiscoverstoriesthatreflectyouandyourcolleaguesworkingtogetheratyourbestwithaneyetowardsyourdesiredculture.INTERVIEWINSTRUCTIONS:Chooseapartner.Lookforsomeoneyoudonotknoworwouldliketogettoknowbetter.Intervieweachother.Usingthequestionsonthefollowingpage,youhaveatotalof45minutestointervieweachother(20minuteseach).Manageyourtimesothateachofyouhasanequalamountoftimetocompleteyourinterview.Itsgenerallybesttocoverallquestionswithonepartnerthenswitchroles.Takenotesinthespacesprovided.Youareresponsibleforyourpartnersanswers.Pleasetakecarefulnotes,anduseyourskillsasaninterviewerasyoulistenandgodeeperintoyourpartnersexperiences,visions,andstories,capturinganykeythemesandquotablequotesthatemerge.Ifyouhearastorythatshouldbesharedbroadly,markitwithanasterisk.Listenandclarify.Offeryourbestlisteningskillssothatyoucanhearsubtlebutimportantdetails.Listenwithfriendlycuriosity.Askclarifyingquestionsifyouwantmoreinformationfromyourpartnertobringback.Helpthemsupplymoredetail,ifnecessary,withthesekindsofquestions:Tellmemore.Whywasthatimportanttoyou?Howdidthataffectyou?Howdidthatcomeabout?Rememberthatthisisaninterview,notaconversation.Resisttheurgetodialogue.Bringoutthebestinyourpartner.Manageyourtime.Itwilltakeabout20minutesforeachinterview.Sitwithyourpartnerinacirclewiththreeotherpairs(circlesofeight). WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 13Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com InterviewGuide1. WhendidyoufirstbeginworkingatSCCandwhatwasitaboutthecollegethatinspiredyoutojointheSCCcommunity?2. ReflectonyourexperiencesworkingwithyourcolleaguesatSCC.Theremaybehighsandlows;fornow,chooseahighpointstory.Atimewhenyouandyourcolleagueswereatyourbestworkingonasharedgoalorprojectthathadasignificantlypositiveimpactonstudentsandotherfacultyand/orstaff.Sharethatstory.3. Whatkeycharacteristicsdescribethewayyouworkedtogethermakingthisahighpointstory?a. Whatstrengthsandbestpracticeswereyouabletocontribute?b. Whatdidyouvalueaboutothers?c. InwhatwaysdidSCChelptomakethisexperiencepossible? WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 14Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com 4. Imaginethatyougohometonight,fallintoadeepsleepandwhenyouwakeuponeyearlateryourworkenvironmenthasbecometheworkplaceofyourdreams.Allaroundyou,youseepeoplewhoareappreciatedfortheworkthattheydo,whoareencouragedtobeinnovativeandgiventhetoolstodoso,andwhereeffective,rapidcollaborationonopportunitiesbigandsmallisthenorm.Tellmewhatyoureseeing,hearing,andfeeling.a. Whatissimilartoyourcurrentworkexperiences? b. Whatsdifferent? c. WhatwastheonesmalleststepthatwastakeninJanuary2014thathadthegreatestimpactonculturetransformation? WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 15Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com SmallGroupDiscussionEachgroupwillmanageitsowndialogueandtime,usingtheguidelinesbelowforselfmanagingthiswork. DISCUSSIONLEADERManagesthecircletask. Assuresthateachpersonwhowantstospeakisheardwithintimeavailable. TIMEKEEPER Keeps group awareof time left. Monitors reportouts and signals timeremainingtopersontalking. RECORDER/REPORTER (2)Writesgroupsoutputonflipcharts/postitsusingspeakerswordsandcontactinfoonpostcards.Helpspostandreportsoutwhenappropriate.Purpose:TodiscoverourstrengthsandcurrentbestpracticesthatwillsupportourdevelopinganAIculture.Goals:1. AtOurBest.Goaroundthecircle.Introduceyourpartnerandbriefly(1minute)sharethehighlightsoftheirstory fromquestion#2;besuretosharethecore imagesoftheirstoryandwhatstoodoutforyouaboutthishighpointstory.Capturewhatstandsoutthatmakesthisahighpointstory.10minutes2. Identify Your Positive Core. Go around the circle a second time, this time share yourpartners responses to Question #3. Capture the workplace practices, characteristics,strengthsandvaluesonflipchartpaper.10minutes3. IdentifyKeyElementsofYourPositiveCore.Reviewallthedataandinformationyouhaveshared.Asagroup,reflectonthethemesthatemergedaswellasanyindividualideasthatreallystandoutasrelevant.Choose23keyworkplacepractices,characteristics,strengthsorvaluesthatyouwouldliketoseedefiningourfutureculture.10minutesa. Writekeyconceptson6x8postits,oneconceptperpage.Usemarkerandwriteboldlysopeoplecanseeitfromadistanceof510feet.b. On a postcard,write down the name, email and phone number of peoplewhosharedstoriesthatshouldbecapturedandsharedwiththebroadercommunity.c. Chooseoneofyourhighpointstoriesthatreflectsyourkeyconcepts.4. PostandShare.Turn toagroupnext toyouandsharedyourchosenstory. Thenyoureyourkeyconceptstotheappropriatespaceonthewall.Affinitize(grouptogetherwithlikeconcepts)asyoupost.10minutes~ReturntotheConferenceCenterifyouarenotalreadythere~ WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 16Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com OurStoryIsFateful[SeeMakingStuffUp,pages4243andtheLadderofInference,pages4445.]AmygdalaSeeingHearingFeelingHigherOrderThinkingFightorFlightFirstwe experience, and thenwemakemeaning. The story wemake up aboutour experience becomes our truth, andthen it becomes The Truth, which weteach to our children. Subsequently, allexperiences are filtered through thesestories.Changing our story often requires asignificant emotional experience thatcreates dissonance, disrupting our storyenoughthatweseekanotherstory. WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 17Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com TheNewScienceTechnologyisimpactingeverythingwedointheworld,includinghowweunderstandwhoweareashumanbeings.Medicaltechnologyhasopenedthedoorsforresearchintoneurophysiologyandhumanpotential,sheddingnewlightontheournature.Thedatasuggestswecanintentionallycreateenvironmentsthatfostercreativity,collaboration,engagementandexcellence.PositivePsychology,NeurophysiologyandHighPerformancePeopleareattheirbestandabletoperformwellunderspecificconditions:BarbaraFredricksonsPositivityRatio(ratioofpositivetonegativeemotions) 3:1DavidRocksSCARF(whateachofusneedstomaximizeourhigherorderthinkingandwillingnesstocontribute) Status Certainty Autonomy Relatedness FairnessMirrorNeurons(importantforcommunity,connection,andrelationships) Wearewiredforempathy Wearewiredtoreflectwhatisaroundus[Note:Researchcitationsareinthereferencesection,pages3839.] WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 18Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com SmallGroupDiscussionEachgroupwillmanageitsowndialogueandtime. DISCUSSIONLEADERManagesthecircletask. Assuresthateachpersonwhowantstospeakisheardwithintimeavailable. TIMEKEEPER Keeps group awareof time left. Monitors reportouts and signals timeremainingtopersontalking. RECORDER/REPORTER (2)Writesgroupsoutputonflipcharts/postitsusingspeakerswordsandcontactinfoonpostcards.Helpspostandreportsoutwhenappropriate.Purpose: To create imagesofourdesired culture and a roadmap for guidingus into thatfuture.Goals:1. ImagesofOurDesiredCulture.Eachpersonshouldhaveapieceofpapertoworkwith.GoaroundthecircleandbrieflyshareyourvisionsfromInterviewQuestion#4[page14]forthewaywework and teach one year from now.As you hear peoples vision, allow images,symbolsormetaphorstocometomind.Sketchimagesandconceptsthatstandoutonyourpieceofpaper.10minutes2. OneSmallStep.GoaroundthecircleandsharetheonesmallstepthatwecouldtakeNOWthatwouldhavethegreatestimpactonourfuture.Captureonflipchartpaper.5minutes3. CreateaShared Imageof theFuture.Shareanddiscussyourcollective imagesand ideasanddevelopasharedvisionforthefuture.Drawasketch,metaphororsymbolonflipchartpaperrepresentingyoursharedimageforthewayweworkaroundhere.10minutes4. IdentifyKeyRoadways,SignpostsandMileMarkers.Reflectonyoursmallstepsandanyconceptsthathaveemerged.5minutesa. Select andwrite the top 23 small steps that your group believeswill create thegreatest impact inmovingyou towardyourdesired cultureon6 x8postits,onestepperpostitinboldlettering.5. ShareandPost.Shareyour imageand23smallstepswithadifferentgroup that isnearyou.Postyour ImageoftheFutureontheRoadmapWallattheendofthe journey. Postyoursmallstepsalong theRoadmap. If thereareother ideas thataresimilar,post themtogether(affinitizeasyougo).5minutes WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 19Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com IncreasingYourReturnonCollaborationThefollowingguidingprincipleshelpgenerateaculturewherecollaborationandinnovationarenaturaloutcomesofthewayyouwork.CreateanEnvironmentforCollaborationandInnovation Createasafeandgenerativespacethatenablesideation,experimentationandeventuallythecreationofsomethingtheworldhasneverseenbefore. Supportselforganizingaroundsharedoutcomesinordertosparkindividualcreativityandstrategiccollaboration. Livebyvaluesthatgeneratemutualrespectandcommunitybecausethejourneyintothefuture,theunknown,requireshighlevelsofsocialbondingandgoodwill. Integratedeliberatepractices,processesandsystemsthatgeneratesafetyandtrust,whicharethefoundationforcollaborationandinnovation.IntentionallySeekOpportunity Lookintowhatalreadyworkswellandlookforwhatisemerging. Dontstopattryingtofixwhatyoudontwant.Reframequestionsandgoalsintermsofwhatyoutrulywant. Gatherawiderangeofperspectivestogenerateviablepossibilities. Invitedisruptiveinquirytochallengeassumptionsandordinarywaysofthinkingtomakewayforunseenpossibilities.StrengthenRelationshipsandConnection Bedeliberateaboutbuildingpositive,trustfilledrelationships. Communicateinwaysthatenhanceengagementandbuildthecapacityforcocreation. Usesocialtechnologythatmakesiteasytocollaborateandconnect.InviteEveryonetoEngage Engagepeopleinmeaningfulwaysinworkthataffectsthem. Usehighengagementstrategiestogatherpeopleandtapcollectivewisdom. Supportpeopletotakeresponsibilityfortheirpassionandselforganizewithotherstotakeactiononbehalfofthewhole.ExperimentandLearn Usesimple,rapidtestingprocessestosupportlearningandinnovation. Rewardrisktakingencourageideationandexperimentation. Integratepracticesthatmakelearningfromfailureandcelebratingsuccessthenorm. WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 20Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com FramingforOutcomesFraming/Reframingisallaboutsteppingbackbeforesteppingforward:1. Pause!2. WhatsthecontextandthegreatersystemgoodI/wewanttoimpact?3. Whatsthedesiredoutcomeof(thisconversation)(thischangeeffort)(thisplan)?FromNeedtoChange/ActtoDesiredOutcome(forthoseinvolved)NeedtoChangeorActRealIssue(s) DesiredOutcomeAffirmativeorGenerativeTopicInquiryQuestionsProblemorissueObstacleChallengeExternalpressuresDontWantNotworkingIdentifytheresultantissue;whatsatstakeinthecontextofthebigpictureWhyisitaproblem?(Thebusinesscaseforchange)Howisthisimpactingtheperson,organization,stakeholders,success?DowantsBigpictureoutcomethatwouldhavegreatestvalueforallconcernedWhatthestudent,faculty,customerultimatelywantsWhatthesystemneedstoflourishThebestpossibleoutcome:bold,provocative,positiveDiscoveryQuestionsto:IdentifyrelatedcorestrengthsDiscoverpositivedevianceEvokehighpointstories/examplesofthistopic/outcomeChallengeassumptionsandordinarypatternsofthinkingStimulatecreativityandinnovationDiscoverbestpracticesandinnovationintheexternalfield(relatedandunrelated) WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 21Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com FramingandReframingTopicsandQuestionsIfyouarenotusetothinkingfromanunconditionallypositiveorgenerativeframe,itcanbeachallengetofigureoutappreciativequestions.Followthestepsforframing/reframingandaddoneadditionalstep:1. Pause!2. WhatsthecontextandthegreatersystemgoodI/wewanttoimpact?3. Whatsthedesiredoutcomeof(thisconversation)(thischangeeffort)(thisplan)theaffirmative/generativetopic4. ThinkDiscovery(Research):WhatquestionscanIaskthatwillsurfacedata,information,storiesandknowledgerelevantforourdesiredoutcome?Masterytakes10,000hoursofPractice:thisisanewskill,requiringnewneuralpathways! Followsteps14andstresstestyourquestions. Writedownoneofthequestionsyouthinkyoudliketoasksocanstresstestit. Answerthequestionyourself;reflectonthekindofansweryouwillgetwhenyouaskothers.Willitprovideyouwithpositiveinformationaboutthetopicorhelpyoumovetowardyourdesiredoutcome? Ifyes,great!Ifnot,reframethequestionsoyoucanansweryesto#3.Theoddsareyouaregoingafterimportantinformation;continuetoquestionhowcanyouaskitinawaythatsurfacesconstructiveinformation.Averysimpleexample:Issue:Onepersononmystaffisalwayslateformeetings.HesapositivecontributorsoIwanthisinputbutitsnotfairtoeveryoneelsetoalwaysstartlatewhentheyareontime.1. STOP2. Contextandgreatergood:Wewanteveryonetofeelrespected,wewanttobuildtrustinoneanotherandwewanteveryonetobeabletofullycontributeatmeetings.3. Desiredoutcome:Thestaffmemberunderstandstheimpactofhisactionsandfreelydecidestobetomeetingsontime.4. Firstattempt:Doyourealizetheimpactyouhaveonotherswhenyouarelatetomeetings?5. Reflect:Iwillputhimonthedefensiveandheslikelytojustgivemeexcusesratherthanreallyreflectontheimpact.6. Reframe:ImgoingtodoanAppreciativeInquiryinournextmeetingandinviteeveryonetoparticipateandattheendcommit.Frame:Iwanttomakesurethatwearereinforcingourcommitmenttomutualrespectandtrustinourmeetings.Todothat,Idlikeeveryonetohelpdefinehowwecandothat.Letsbeginbyinterviewingoneanother.Question:Imsureyouveparticipatedinmeetingswhereyoufeltthateveryonetrustedandrespectedoneanother.Meetingswherethatrespectshowsupinavarietyofways,fromstarttofinishofthemeetings.Pleasethinkbackovermeetingsyouveattendedandtellmeaboutahighpointmeeting.Whatbehaviorsandactionsaffirmedmutualrespectandtrust? WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 22Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com PracticeReframingEachgroupwillmanageitsowndialogueandtime,usingtheguidelinesbelowforselfmanagingthiswork. DISCUSSIONLEADERManagesthecircletask. Assuresthateachpersonwhowantstospeakisheardwithintimeavailable. TIMEKEEPER Keeps group awareof time left. Monitors reportouts and signals timeremainingtopersontalking. RECORDER/REPORTER Writes groups output on flip charts/postits, using speakerswords.Deliversreporttolargergroupinallottedtime.Purpose:Topracticereframingproblemsorconcernsintoopportunitiesorgenerativetopics.Goals:1. IdentifyObstacles.Takeafewminutestoidentifyanumberofchallengesorobstaclesthatmightgetinthewayoflivingyourdesiredculture.Thesecanbepersonal,relational,ororganizational.5minutes2. SelectandReframe.Chooseoneoftheseandreframeit.Writetheobstacleatthetopofaflipchartpaperandreframeasanopportunityorgenerativetopic.Hint,think:a. Whatisitwewouldliketohavehappeninsteadoftheobstacle?b. Whatwouldneedtobeinplaceforthisobstacletonotshowup?c. Howmightthisobstacleactuallyhelpustointentionallyworkinnewways?15minutes3. RapidStressTest.Stresstestyourreframeswiththecirclenexttoyou.Askforquickcomments:Whatdoyoulikeaboutourreframes?Whatsuggestionsdoyouhave?10minutes WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 23Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com CraftinganAppreciativeInquiryCraftingbold,provocative,positivequestionsisattheheartofAppreciativeInquiry.Craftingintriguingdisruptivequestionsisattheheartofinnovation.Thepowerofengagingothersliesintheunconditionalpositiveorgenerativequestion,whichinvitespeopletodiscoverstrengthsandbestpractices,tochallengeassumptionsandhabitsandengageincollaborativethinking.Therearenoneutralquestions;everyquestionmovespeople.Yourquestionswillbeusedtointerviewpeople,searchforliterature,videosandgames,reviewandengageinonlinedialogueandtoinspireconversationanddiscussion.Thishelpsexpandwhatspossiblebeforeyoubegintomovetowardssolutionsandoutcomes.Carefullycraftquestionssothatyou: Gatherstoriesandnotjustbulletpoints.Storiesconveysomuchmorethanalistofwords.Theyinform,engageourimaginations,tapouremotionsandpassions,anddeepenourunderstandingofwhatspossible. Gatherdataaboutthestrengthsofyourcurrentsystemrelatedtoyourtopic.Youwanttobesuretocarryforwardandbuildonthosestrengths. Gatherdataandinformationthatbroadensyourunderstandingofotherperspectives,missinginformation,andassumptionsthatnarrowyourfocus.Youdontknowwhatyoudontknow;becuriousaboutwhatyoumightbemakingupandwhatyouremissing. Gatherstoriesanddatafromthefieldexploretrends,discoverwhatothers(evenfromunrelatedsectors)aredoingrelatedtothetopic,whatopportunitiesthereare,andwhataspirationsandresultspeoplewantforthefuture. Disruptordinarywaysofthinking,challengeassumptionsandquestionthestatusquoinordertomakeroomforinnovativeideas.Lookfromdiverseperspectives:whatdoesnaturehavetooffer(Biomimicry),whatwouldachildsay,arethereTEDtalksonrelatedtopics(TED.comhostsexceptional18minutepresentationsthattypicallydisruptordinarywaysofthinkinganddoing). Imaginepossibilitiesinlivingcolorandsurroundsound.StandardAppreciativeInquiry1. ElicitsaHighpointStory.Tellmeastoryaboutatimewhenyouwereatyourbestandfeltmostaliveincontributingto..2. Surfacesstrengths,valuesorkeysuccessfactors.Whatwasitaboutthesituationthatcontributedtoyourbeingatyourbest?Whatdidyouvalueaboutyourself?Others?Theorganization?3. Elicitsimagesofthefuture.ImagineyouwakeupanditsayearfromnowIfyouhadthreewishesIfyoucouldwaveamagicwand WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 24Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com DisruptiveInquiry(DI)DisruptiveInquiryissimplyaskingquestionsthatchallengeyourordinarypatternsofthinkinganddoing.Adisruptivequestioninvitesyoutothinkagain,topauseandwonder,toaskifsomethingelsemightbepossible.Istheresomethingweremissing,notseeing,visibleifonlyweaskedtherightquestion?DIdoesnothaveanagenda;ithaspositiveintent.DIintentionallyseekstobroadenpossibilities.Adisruptivequestionchallengesthestatusquo;itsurfaceshiddenassumptionsinordertostimulateawarenessandcuriosity.Thiscanbeassimpleas,Howhaveothersachievedthis?orWhatarewemissing,whatareweassumingthatmaynotbetrue?Itcanbeasrandomas,Whatcanwelearnfromfrogsthatmighthelpusout?(LateralThinking)EmbraceAmbiguityandEntertheUnknown Challengeordinarythinkingthroughcuriosity,wonder,andsquirrelyattention Viewlimitedresourcesasacatalystforinnovation Lookwithneweyestoexposetheinvisible Connectthesamethingsinnewways:mixthingsup,turnthemupsidedownandbackwards Changeyourpositiontochangeperspective Thinklaterally Questionassumptions,perspective,andlimits Clarifythedesiredoutcomesandthenstartoverfromscratch Disruptiveinquiry absolutelyhastobeacollaborativeprocess.Thetrulybreakthroughideasrequiresystemicchange,whereanorganizationhastochangethecoreofwhatitisandhowitoperatestoaccommodateacompletelynewwayofdoing.[Chen, N. (May 2011). 4 Steps to design-Inspired innovation: A primer on design values for business leaders. Innovation Management.] WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 25Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com ExamplesofDisruptiveQuestions Whatunderlyingassumptionsareweholding?Whatcanbechallenged?Whatifthoseassumptionsarenottrue? HowdoesMotherNaturehandlethischallenge? Whataretheunshakableindustrybeliefsaboutwhatstudentswant?Whatiftheoppositewastrue? Whatexpectationsareweholding,whatbeliefsaboutthepeopleinvolved?Whatifwerewrong? Ifourclients/customersweredescribingtheoutcomefromtheirownperspective(theimpactonthem),whatwouldtheysay? Whatifthisresultwasjustthenaturaloutcomeofthewayweliveincommunitytogether?Whatcouldwedothatwouldjustnaturallygeneratetheoutcomeswewantasabyproductofouractivity? Ifyoucouldonlyworkononeprojectforayeartotransformourefforts,whatwoulditbeandwhy? Whatistheshortestpathtothecustomer?Howcouldwegettherein6months? Whatsuffersmorebreakdowns:ourproducts,ourprocesses,orourpeople?Howcouldwefixthis? Its2025andwerethebestcollegetoworkforintheworld:Whattwothingsdidwedotoearnthisaward? Whichpartsofyourjobwouldyouliketoeliminate? Whatwouldourdreamtestimonialfromacustomersay? Whatcanweofferforfreethatnooneelsedoes? Howcanourservicesbeturnedintophysicalproducts?Howcanourproductsbeturnedintoaservice? WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 26Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com Ifwehadunlimitedresources(ornone),howmightweachievethis? Howwouldagroupof5yearoldssuggestweachievethisorhowwouldwedesignsolutionsifwewereworkingwith5yearolds? Whatcouldwelearnfromunrelatedindustriesorbusinesseswhoareachievingtheresultswewant? Openabookornewspapertoarandompageandpointtoarandomword.Usethiswordtostimulatecreativityandnewideas.Whatideasdoesthiswordbringtomindandhowarethoseideasrelatedtothetopic?Freeassociate,brainstorm. Whatstrangebedfellowscouldwepartnerwithtoinnovatesolutionsorachieveourgoals? Whatsourultimatepurpose?Ifweweredesigninganewanduniquesystemtoachievethat,whatwoulditbe? Whatifplaywastheanswer? Whatareallcommunitycollegesassumingthatneedstobechallenged?Whatpoliciesareinourway? Whatcouldwedoifwewerecompletelyfreetodoit? WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 27Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com PracticingCraftingQuestionsEachgroupwillmanageitsowndialogueandtime,usingtheguidelinesbelowforselfmanagingthiswork. DISCUSSIONLEADERManagesthecircletask. Assuresthateachpersonwhowantstospeakisheardwithintimeavailable. TIMEKEEPER Keeps group awareof time left. Monitors reportouts and signals timeremainingtopersontalking. RECORDER/REPORTER Writes groups output on flip charts/postits, using speakerswords.Deliversreporttolargergroupinallottedtime.Purpose:Topracticereframingproblemsorconcernsintoopportunitiesorgenerativetopics.Goals:1. IdentifyStructures,ProceduresorPolicies.Createalistoforganizationalpolicies,proceduresorstructuresthatimpactcultureandthereforeshouldbereviewedandrevisedforyoutoachieveyourdesiredculture.5minutes2. ChooseOneandCraftQuestions.15minutesa. Craftthreeappreciatequestionsthatwillhelpyoudiscoverthebestaspectsofthecurrentpolicy,procedureorstructurethatyouidentified,whatyouwanttobringforwardandimaginewhatcouldbe(usethestandardquestionsasaguide,page23).b. Crafttwodisruptivequestionsthatcouldhelpyouthinkdifferentlyaboutyouridentifiedpolicy,procedureorstructure,thatchallengeyourcurrentthinkingorassumptions.3. StressTest.Turntoadifferentcirclesandstresstest.Shareyourtopicandfivequestions.Askforquickcomments:whatdoyoulike?Whatelsewouldyousuggest?10minutes WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 28Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com PracticalApplicationonStrategicGoalsEachgroupwillmanageitsowndialogueandtime. DISCUSSIONLEADERManagesthegrouptask.Assuresthateachpersonwhowantstospeakisheardwithintimeavailable. TIMEKEEPER Keeps group awareof time left. Monitors reportouts and signals timeremainingtopersontalking. RECORDER/REPORTER Writes groups output on flip charts/postits, using speakerswords.Deliversreporttolargergroupinallottedtime.Purpose:Toinquireintoyourstrategyinwaysthatwillexpandpossibilities,opportunitiesforhowtobestimplementyourstrategyinwaysthatmovetowardthegoal.Thinkleveragesmallactionswithbigimpact,lowhangingfruitandquickwins.Goals:1. DiscussionsandOnlineResearch.Breakintogroupsof46andbrieflydiscussthefollowingquestions.Reviewthequestionsgeneratedyesterdayafternoontoseeifanyofthemarerelevantforyourstrategy(handout).Asyoudiscuss,captureconceptsthatyouthinkmightbeimportantonflipchartpaper.a. Whatarethecurrentstrengthsandbestpracticesthatwecanbuildupongoingforward?Whoatthecollegehasexpertise,knowledgeoforpracticesamodelwecanlearnfrom?b. Howhaveotheresteemedcollegesororganizationsachievedtheoutcomewewant?c. Whatifourstudentstookaleadershiprole?d. Whatassumptionsarewemaking?Aretheyaccurate?e. Imagineits2020andwehaveachievedtheoutcomeandifwasntaburdentogethere;infactitwasenlivening.Whatistheresultforourstudents?Faculty?Staff?Howdidwegethere?Whatmadeiteasyandnaturalforus?2. GeneratePossibilities.Postyourflipchartpaperstothewall.Inyoursmallgroupsa. Doagallerywalktoseewhatothershavebeendiscussingandthentake5minutesindividuallytoreflectandsketchoutpossibilitiesforimplementingthisstrategy.b. Goaroundyourcircleandshareyoursketches,lookingforhowtheymerge,integrate,andblend.c. Togetheridentifythemostpotentpossibilitiestheonesyoubelievewillmakethisstrategyasuccess.d. Puteachpossibilityona6x8postit.3. ShareandMerge.Everyoneworkingonthestrategycometogether.Eachsmallgroupreportsout,postingtheirpossibilitiestothewall.Affinitize,merge,andmeshpossibilities.Shinethelightofalignmentthroughyourtimelineandselectthemostpotentprojectsandactionsandlowhangingfruit.Sequenceasatimeline. WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 29Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com CoreTeamsandStakeholderEngagementWhatisaCoreTeam?SometimesreferredtoasChampions,acoreteamisasubsetofthelargersetofstakeholdersforanygiventopic.TheCoreTeamisresponsiblefordevelopingtheaffirmativetopic,craftingtheresearchquestionsanddesigningtheengagementprocessthatinvitesallstakeholderstoengage.WhyIsItaSubsetofAllStakeholders?Itsimportantthatallstakeholdersarerepresentedfromtheoutsetbecauseitisthestartingpointandwillinfluenceeverythingthatfollows.Thisnotonlyreflectsaninclusiveandcollaborativeculture,italsosavestimeandmoneydowntheroad.WhataretheResponsibilitiesoftheCoreTeam? Frameorreframethetopicifitisnotalreadyagenerativetopic Developappreciativeanddisruptivequestionstoguideresearchanddiscovery Identifystakeholders Determineanengagementprocessandincluderelevantstakeholdersinplanning Analyzeanydatafromresearchandengagement Developplans Implement,championandcelebrateIdentifyingStakeholders:TheFiveIs Impact(thinkimplementation) Information(necessaryforsuccess) Influence(resources,network,connections) Investment(financialoremotional) Interestinthetopic,taskandoutcomes WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 30Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com CreatingaPlantoMoveForwardEachgroupwillmanageitsowndialogueandtime. DISCUSSIONLEADERManagesthegrouptask.Assuresthateachpersonwhowantstospeakisheardwithintimeavailable. TIMEKEEPER Keeps group awareof time left. Monitors reportouts and signals timeremainingtopersontalking. RECORDER/REPORTER Writes groups output on flip charts/postits, using speakerswords.Deliversreporttolargergroupinallottedtime.Purpose:Todevelopyourinitialactionplanforyourstrategy.Goals:UsingtheePlanningTemplate:1. IdentifyStakeholders.Identifystakeholderswhoshouldbeinvitedtoparticipateinexpandingtheactionplan.Theremaybedifferentstakeholderfordifferentactions.Usethe5Is(page47)toguideyourthinking.2. IdentifytheIdealCoreTeam.WhichstakeholderswouldbeidealfortheCoreTeamthegroupthatwillcoordinatethiseffort,leadfurtherresearchorengagementefforts,andbecomeChampionsforthisstrategycreatingcelebrationsformilemarkers,ensuringalignmentbetweenprojectsandactionplans.3. ChooseaCoordinator.Chooseacoordinator,someonewillingtofollowupafterthisworkshoptocoordinateactionuntiltheStrategyTeamisinplace.SelectadateforyourfirstofficialCoreTeamMeetingtoshareinformationwiththem.4. DevelopanInitialActionPlan.Createadraftaction:a. FirstCoreTeamMeetingb. AdditionalInquirythroughinternalengagementorexternalresearch,ifrelevantc. PossibleActionsorProjectsd. Stakeholdersforeachactionitem5. Completetheeplanningtemplate.Savethetemplateasawordfileandgiveitafilenamethatmakesiteasytorecognizewhichgoalandstrategythisfileisfor.Forexample:A4AICultureContinuousImprovement.doc.Emailthefiletodena.colemer@southcentral.eduandsavethefiletooneofthethumbdrivesandturnitintooneofthefacilitators.~ReturntotheConferenceCenterifyouarenotalreadythere.~ WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 31Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com ResourcesandReferences WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 32Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com DefinitionsforMiscellaneousTermsAnumberofthetermsweusearefromtheInnovationPartnersInternationalmodelforIncreasingyourReturnonCollaboration(ROC).Listedhereareallofthetermsalongwiththeirdefinitions.RadicalAppreciationAmindsetthatcontinuouslyseeksopportunityandpossibility.Regardlessofthecircumstancespositiveornegative,problemorsuccessitembraceswhat isand looks forwhat gives life. It invites diversity and inclusion. It celebrates conflict by bridging polarities:invitingcuriosityandsparkingexploration.Itlooksforthebestofwhatis,whereveritcanfindit.Itreplicatesandenhancessuccess.Disruptive InquiryAmindsetthatdelights inuncertaintyandallowsambiguity inordertomakeroom for creativity and innovation. It fosters andexpands the ability to ask greatquestions. Itcelebratesthequestionsthatchallengeassumptionsandordinarypatternsofthinkinganddoing.Itrewardscuriosity,differenceofopinionandwonder. Itholdssystemstructures lightly,makingroomforthemtoevolve.ProvocativePossibilitiesAmindsetthatfostersopenmind,openheartandopenwilland invites generativity, emergence, paradoxical thinking, constructive controversy andplayfulness. Itunderstands that thesepractices increaseengagementandprovide fertilesoil forinnovativethinkingandcollaboration.ElegantDesignAmindset thatseessimplicityas theultimatesophistication. Itseeks tosimplifyrules andmaximize flexibility while clarifying concepts and outcomes. It delights in beautifuldesignthatachievesoutcomeswithsimpleefficiency.AgileActionAmindsetthatseesprototypingasawayofworkinggoodenoughisgoodtogo.Aprototypeisaformoraninstanceofaproduct,serviceorprocessservesasabasisorastandardforlaterstages.Thisevolvesintoanoriginal,fullscaleworkingmodelforaproductorservice.Thismindset fosters an iterative approach to anywork. It identifies and aligns strengths to propelaction, clarifies roles and responsibilities and pairs accountability with agency to inspirecontribution,experimentation,learningandexcellence.Perpetual Evolution Amindset that understands growth and learning as integral to success. Itarticulates measurable results, makes time for reflection and learning, creates room foremergence and intentional delays and celebrates both success and failure. This mindsetunderstandsallproducts,servicesandprocessesasprototypesofoneformoranotherthatmayalwaysbeimprovedupon.TheROC Six Pack offers an underlying framework or paradigm for theway things are donearoundhere. These sixmindsets can alsobeused to create amethodological approach forinnovationaroundaparticularfocus. WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 33Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com AppreciativeInquiry:EvidenceBasedResearchThe21stcenturymedicalandhumansciencestechnologythatemergedinthe1990shasenabledresearchintothehumanbeingthatshedslightonhumancapacityandhighperformance.Itprovidesevidencethatcreatingconditionsforindividualstrengthstoalignaroundpossibilityelevateshumanflourishingandthatlearning,performance,creativity,andresilienceareenhancedinanatmosphereofopenness,inquiry,andpositiveconnection.TheNewScience(e.g.,currentneurophysiology,neuropsychology),positivepsychology,positiveorganizationalscholarship,andsystemsresearchunderlietheeffectivenessofsuchattention.Theresultsaregreateraccesstohumanpotential,greaterengagementandcollaborationacrossanorganizationandgreatercommitmenttotheorganizationslongrangegoals.Whatfollowsisaverybriefrecapofthesalientfeaturesincurrentresearchcoupledwithlinksandreferencesforfurtherinformation.AppreciativeInquiryAppreciativeInquiry(AI),developedinthe1980sbyDavidCooperrider,isgroundedintwodeceptivelysimpleconcepts:1. Whatyouseek,youfindmoreofThemorepositiveandinspiringthestrategydevelopmentprocess,themoreinnovativeideasthatwillbecreatedandpossibilitiesthatcanbeexplored.2. PeoplecommittowhattheyhelptocreateThemoreparticipativetheplancreation,themorecommittedpeoplewillbetoimplementationsuccess.ThefoundationofAIisthenotionthatwecreateourfuturestogetherthroughourconversationsandinsharedmeaningmaking.Yearsofresearchdocumentsthatwhatwepayattentiontogrows,andthatwemoveinthedirectionofthequestionsthatweaskandtheimageswehold.Therefore,itmakessensetoaskquestionsaboutstrengths,whatisofvalue,whatwilladdvalue,andwhatwewantmoreof.Whenweaskquestionsaboutproblems,wedeepenourunderstandingoftheproblem;thisdoesnotnecessarilygiveusanyaccessintosolutions.Italsonarrowsourfocustoseekingsolutionsthatsolvethespecificproblemwhenwhatisneededisashiftinframeorperspective.Inaddition,weknowthatcollectiveintelligenceholdssecretsasmallgroupmayneveraccessandthatpeoplegetexcitedaboutactingonplanstheyhavecreatedtogether.Thereissomethingmagicalabouthavingthewholeintheroomdevelopingasharedunderstanding,sharedmeaningabouttheirfuture,anddesigningwaystobringittolife.TheAIprocessenableslargenumberstocometogethertodojustthat.ThereisawealthofinformationontheAICommonshttp://appreciativeinquiry.cwru.edu. WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 34Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com AkeyelementofAppreciativeInquiryisstoryornarrative.Thisstemsfromtheideathatwecreateourcultureandsocialrealityinourconversationsandthestoriesthathelptoframeourwaysofseeing,thinkingandunderstandingtheworld.Asweshareourstories,weuncoveroursharedbeliefsandperceptionsaswellasourdifferences.Subsequentconversationsandcollectiveexplorationshelpustococreateorganizationalstoriesandnarrativesthathelpusmovetogethertowardsourdesiredfuture.ThisisthegoalofEngagement!Notes: WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 35Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com PositiveImagePositiveActionGoodrelationshipsarecoretoachievingexcellenceinanyhumancommunityendeavor.Overthelast3040yearstherehasbeenawealthofresearchintheareaofhumanpotential.Understandinghowthewordsweuse,thethoughtswehave,thequestionsweask,andtheimagesweholdimpactouremotionsandourcapacitytoactindividuallyandcollaborativelyisvitalforleadershipandeducators.Belowisabriefoverviewofkeyelementsofsomeoftheresearchthattellsusthatimageiscompellingwemoveinthedirectionofthethoughtsandimageswehold.Asaleaderand/oreducator,usingyourwordsintentionallytocreatebold,positiveimagessupportspositiveoutcomesinthefuture.PositiveImagePositiveActionResearchCooperriderarticle:http://www.stipes.com/aichap2.htmPlaceboEffect Ifyoubelievethemedicinewillcureyou,itislikelytotriggeryourownhealing. Between3060%ofpatientswithillnessesrangingfromarthritistodepressionreportasubstantialimprovementintheirsymptomsafterreceivingaplacebo. Whentreatmentwithplaceboreducessymptoms,italsochangesthefunctionofthebrain(Leuchter,etal,UCLA,January2002). InsightfromResearch:Ourbeliefsinfluenceourthinking,feeling,perceptionandneurophysiology.PygmalionEffect Whattheteacher(ormanager)believes,sothestudent(employee)becomes. Rosenthal&Jacobson,1968,1992 TimOShea(teacherhasgreatereffectthantreatmentinallcases) JaneElliotsblueeyed,browneyed(April5,1968)http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/divided WhenthePlaceboeffect(patient)andPygmalioneffect(doctor)areinharmony,placebosareevenmorelikelytobringaboutacure. InsightfromResearch:Yourbeliefsaboutotherpeoplearecommunicatedthroughsubtlebutpowerfulmessages(bodylanguage,tone,wordchoice),influencingtheirbeliefinthemselves.PositiveAffect/EffectandImbalancedInnerDialogue Languagestimulatesboththinkingandfeeling.Deficitbasedquestionsandconversationsgeneratenegativethinkingandfeeling,whichdiminishhumanpotentialOpen,outcomesbasedquestionsandgenerativeconversationsstimulatepositivethinkingandfeeling,whichbroadenandbuildhumanpotential. Broaden&BuildTheory,prosocialaction,increasedrecall,increasedcreativity,improvedproblemsolvinganddecisionmaking,improvedlearning. WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 36Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com Ratioof1:2.911.6generatesbestoutcomes Fredrickson,19982013:http://www.unc.edu/peplab/barb_fredrickson_page.html InsightfromResearch:Frameyourconversationssothat,onbalance,youareaskingandtalkingaboutwhatsworkingandwhatspossibleatleastthreetimesmoreoftenthanyouaretalkingaboutwhatsnotworkingandwhatappearstobeimpossible.Byallmeans,nameproblemsorchallengeandthenturntheconversationtowardssolutions,disruptions(whichinspirecuriosity),andinnovation.RiseandFallofCultures Culturesthatmakeitpossibleforpeopletoengageingenerativeconversations,collaborateoncreatingdesiredfuturesandwhointegratetheartsintotheirlivesareontherise.Culturesthateliminatethoseopportunitiesandqualitiesfall.Wherethereisnohope,thepeopleperish. Underlyingculturalimagesimpactthefateofanation FredPolak,1973:positiveimageofthefutureculturalevolution Positivefuture,whichcanbeinfluenced:valuingcreativeimagination,openquestions,richemotionallife,freedomofspeech Whenhopeandpositiveimagesoffuturedie,theculturedies(Becker,1971) InsightfromResearch:Createopportunitiesforpeopletoengageinmeaningfulconversationsaboutthefutureandempowerthemtocollaborateinbringingthosefuturesintoreality.Findwaystointegratethearts,creativity,andbeautyintotheculture.AffirmativeCompetence Imagesareprocessedbytherightbrain.Abstractlanguageconceptsareprocessedbytheleftbrain.Whenweusethewholebrain,wecanunderstandcomplexsentencesthatincludeboth;however,rightbrainimageswhetherrealorimagineddominateaction,especiallyifitisareaction.Forexample:DontSmoke.Rightbrain:seesasmoker;leftbrainunderstandsdontdothatthingyouareseeing. Ourowncapacitytogeneratepositiveimagesthatcancompelourfutures;thewholebodyrespondsjustlikethewholeculturerespondstoapositiveimage Healingandimagery;virtualworlds Israel,T,2011http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/designmymind/201104/healingimagerythebrainsownnaturalbagvisualtricks Athleticsandimagery,psychotherapyandimagery,imageryandhealing,hypnosisandimagery,andothersrelatedtooverallmetacognitivecapacity Bowlingresearch,Kirschenbaum,1984 Sheikh,1983;Malouff,etal,2008;Plessinger2013(http://www.vanderbilt.edu/AnS/psychology/health_psychology/mentalimagery.html) InsightfromResearch:Carefullycraftrequestsandquestionstogeneratepowerfulpositiveimagesofwhatyouwanttohappen,whereyouwanttogo. WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 37Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com PuttingthePrinciplesintoActionGiventheConstructionistPrincipleHowcanwebeintentionalabout Generatingourculture Bringingoutthebestinoneanother Runningourmeetingssoweareallpleased Creatingsharedmeaning CreatingaworldthatworksforallofusGiventhePrincipleofSimultaneityHowcanwebeintentionalabout Askingquestionsthatmoveustowardsaninclusivefutureweallwant Askingquestionsthathelpususechallengesandproblemsasopportunitiestothrive Askingquestionsthathelpturnconversationstowarddesiredandsharedoutcomes Usinglanguagethatbringsaboutengagementand/oragenerativeresponseGiventhePoeticPrincipleHowcanwebeintentionalabout Reflectingonourexperiencesinwaysthatbuildcapacity,identifystrengths,andfindmomentsofachievementthatwillinformthefuturewecollectivelydesire Payingattentiontowhatsupportsallofus Reframingourrelationshipsandsituationssothatweareempoweredtomoveforwardandachieveourdreamstogether Whatwepayattentionto(AmIfocusingonwhatisworkingoronwhatiswrong?)GiventheAnticipatoryPrincipleHowcanwebeintentionalabout Envisioningtheboldestandmostpositivefuturewecanimaginetogether Lookingforstrengthsandplanningforcollaborationandcooperation Expectingthebestfromoneanother Lookingforthegood,thetrueandthebeautiful LearningandpossibilitiesGiventhePositivePrincipleHowcanwebeintentionalabout Askingboldandpositivequestions Generatingpowerfulconversations,lookingfornewknowledge,possibility,andinnovation Askingquestionsthatgeneratepositiveimagesforourcollaborativeactionsandoutcomes WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 38Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com ThePositivePsychologyMovement&NewScienceDavidRock,2009Present Thesocialnatureofthehighperformanceworkplaceandclassroom ThehumanneedforSCARF(status,certainty,autonomy,relatedness,fairness)anditsrelationshiptohighperformance ManagingwiththeBraininMind,2009YourBrainatWork,2009 NewScienceofLeadership(NeuroLeadership)MartinSeligman,1998Present Thescientificstudyofthestrengthsandvirtuesthatenableindividualsandcommunitiestothrive;thescientificpursuitofoptimalhumanfunctioningandthebuildingofafieldfocusingonhumanstrengthandvirtue. TheCenterforPositivePsychologyattheUniversityofPennsylvania:http://www.ppc.sas.upenn.edu TheAPAwebsiteforPositivePsychology:http://www.apa.org/apags/profdev/pospsyc.html BenShahar,HarvardsmostpopularclassinhistoryBarbaraFredrickson,1998Present PositivityRatio:atleast3:1ratioofpositivetonegativeemotionshelpsoptimizeourcapacity.http://www.positivityratio.com/ PositiveEmotionshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z7dFDHzV36g PositiveEmotionshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hKggZhYwoys Researcharea:functionofpositiveemotions Broaden&buildtheoryofpositiveemotions TakethePositivityTest:http://www.positivityratio.com/single.php Positiveemotionsliterallyundotheeffectsofnegativeemotions FredricksonswebsiteattheUniversityofNCChapelHill:http://www.unc.edu/peplab/barb_fredrickson_page.htmlInstituteofHeartMath,1994Present Researchingheartintelligenceandstressandemotionalmanagement Findings:coherenceinheartrateimpactscoherenceinneurologyofthebrainandhencebrainfunctioning Positiveemotionsincreasecoherence,especiallytheemotionsofappreciation,love,andgratitude. Coherencecorrelateswithimprovedcriticalthinkinganddecisionmaking,increasedcreativity,improvedsocialinteraction HeartMathwebsite:http://www.heartmath.org WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 39Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com PositiveOrganizationalScholarship Researchonoptimalorganizationalstates:thedynamicsinorganizationsthatleadtothedevelopmentofhumanstrength,fosterresiliencyinemployees,makehealing,restoration,andreconciliationpossible,andcultivateextraordinaryindividualandorganizationalperformance(Cameron,Dutton,andQuinn,2003). TheCenterforPOSWebsiteattheUniversityofMichigan:http://www.bus.umich.edu/PositiveNotes: WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 40Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com StrategicPlanningSOARAnalysisFromSWOTToSOARStrengthsWherecanweoutperformothers?WeaknessesWherecanothersoutperformus?OpportunitiesHowmightweexploitthemarket?ThreatsWhat/Whomighttakethemarketfromus?StrengthsWhatareourgreatestassets?OpportunitiesWhatarethetrendsandmarketopportunities?AspirationsWhatisourpreferredfuture?ResultsWhatarethemeasurableresultswewant? WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 41Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com Forstrategicplanning,anorganizationalassessmentisadvisable.ASWOTAnalysishasbeenusedsuccessfullyforyears.WhattheprinciplesofAIsuggestisthatlargescalefocusonweaknessesandthreatshasthepotentialtonarrowavailablethoughtrepertoireamongmembersofanorganizationandtherebylimitcreativityandmotivation.AstrengthsbasedapproachtosuchanassessmentiscalledaSOARAnalysis,aprocessdevelopedbyJackieStavrosofLawrenceTechnicalUniversity.Inthispracticeyouassessstrengths,opportunities,aspirations,andresults.Areasofweaknessmaysurfaceintheassessment,butthefocusisonactionstotakeorresourcesneededtoachievedesiredresults.Thesearedeterminedwithinthecontextofidentifiedstrengthsalreadypresent.Thismaysoundlikesemantics.Theimportantpointtorememberishowlanguageimpactsourphysiology(especiallyourbrainsandnervoussystem),whichinturnimpactsourcapacityforcriticalthinking,innovation,creativity,andmotivation.Anyactionthatincreasesourthoughtrepertoireandopennesstocollaborateisanautomaticwinforanorganization.WeblinktotheStavrosarticle:http://appreciativeinquiry.case.edu/practice/executiveDetail.cfm?coid=5331 WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 42Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com MakingStuffUp:ItsWhatWeDoThereishiddenStuffwithineachofusthatenhancessuccess(...ornot).Byinvitingtransparency,focusingonshared,positiveoutcomesandusingtheartofreflectivepracticetogetherwecansurfacethatStuff(ourownandothers)inwaysthatsupportconnectionandcollaborativeimpact.TelltaleSignsthatStuffisMissingintheConversation Unexpressedemotions(nonverballanguage):fear,anger,hurt,defensiveness,confusion Edgycomments:judgment,(self)criticism,sarcasm,arguing Action:exclusion,withdrawal,avoidance Silence:whenitstimeforquestionsWhereDoesStuffComeFrom? WereallgraduatesofMSU:anticipationandexpectation,habitsofstorymaking Personalperspectiveandperception Fears Assumptionssneakinunlesswepracticeo Specificityandclarityo Givingandreceivingfeedbacko InquiryTakeAction!STOPandTakeaDeepBreathofAIR AffirmReality:o Whatarethefacts?o WhatmightIbemakingup? Inquire:o Areyousayingo Couldsaythatagain,please;ImnotsureIunderstandwhatyoumean.o Howwillthatimpact.o Youlookupset.HowdidyouunderstandwhatIsaid? Reflect:o WhatframeamIbringingtothisandhowisitinfluencingmyperception?o WhathasntbeensaidthatIneedtoaskabout?o WhatinformationdotheyhavethatIneed?o Whatdidtheyactuallymeantosayordo? WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 43Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com ReflectivePracticeFirst:GetinthehabitofchallengingyourselfGrowcuriousaboutyourreactionsandyourownframe;wonderaboutyourassumptions/storyMakeitsafetoask~feedbackandfeedforwardaretrulyvaluable MakeMutualRespectandTrust(MRT)coreprinciplesandacorepractice Invitequestionsandaskthemyourself Encourageandrewardthosewhoinquire:Thanksforaskingthat;thereareotherswhoarenodoubtgratefulforyourcourage! Askwhattheotherunderstoodyoutosayorwhatitmeansforthem Beopen;bewareofdefensiveness Model:asksomeonetosaymorewhenwhattheysayleavesalotofroomforMSUFocusontheOutcome Identifytheoutcome:whatareweaimingfor;wherearewetryingtogotogether? Linkyourconversationtotheoutcome Focusontheoutcome,notthepersonal Engageinreflectivepracticeo Askback,clarify,surfaceassumptionso Includeeveryoneo Linkperspectivestotheoutcomeo InquireCommonquestionsthatsupportthepracticeofAIR Saymoreaboutthat. Whydosaythat? Whydoyouask? ImnotsureIunderstandyou;couldyousaymore? Areyousaying? Howwillthatwork? Howdoesthatconnectwith? Iwouldliketoclarifysomething Usethispracticewheneverandwhereverappropriate: Meetings,especiallywhenfocusedonlearning,innovating,exploring Planning Conflict,Tension Generalconversationwheretheresthepossibilityformiscommunication WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 44Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com TheLadderofInferenceQuickSummary:LadderofInference(developedbyChrisArgyris,Ph.D.)Thismodeloffersaviewofhowourperceptionsinfluenceouractionsandhelpsexplainhowwefilterallthedataintheworldandinthatprocess,cometoaction.Hereswhatitlookslike:ActionsBeliefsConclusionsAssumptionsMeaningMakingSelectedDataAllthedataintheworldReflexive Loop: Our beliefs influence the data we select, the meaning we make of that data, our assumptions and conclusions. Without care, it is easy to experience what we believe we are going to experience because of the data we select, and how we make meaning of it. WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 45Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com Tounderstandthismodel,startatthebottom:Allthedataintheworld.Wehaveanoverwhelmingamountofdataavailabletousatanygiventime,muchmorethanweareactuallyawareof.Argyrissuggeststhatthereissomepersonalprocessbywhichweselectonlycertaindataandmakemeaningfromit.Thatmeaningmakingprocessleadsustomakeassumptions,developconclusions,createbeliefs,andultimatelytakeactionbasedonthosebeliefs.OurpersonalprocessisreinforcedbytheReflexiveLoop,whichsuggeststhatourbeliefsinfluencewhatsubsequentdataweselect.TheLadderofInferenceshowshowquicklywecangofromAllthedataintheworldtoaction...sometimesinatenthofasecond.Thereisevidenceintheresearchthatalsosuggeststhatwetendtoselectdatathatreinforcesourbeliefs,therebymakingouractionsefficient.However,thoseactionsarenotalwaysthemosteffective,especiallyinthesetimesofexponentialchangeandmassiveknowledgegeneration.InquiryandReflectivePracticehelpusslowdownourascentoftheladder.Firsthelpingusaccessmoreofthedataandthenallowingustointentionallyandcarefullymakemeaningofthedatainrelationshiptotheoutcomesweareaimingtoachieve.Thisoftenrequiresunpackingourbeliefs,conclusions,andassumptions.Reflectivepracticeisdesignedtodojustthis. WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 46Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com FramingandReframingWhetheryouarelookingtosolveaproblem,respondtoenvironmentalchangeorbetheinitiatorofchangeitisimportanttoframethefocusofyoureffortinawaythatgeneratesthehighestpossiblevalueforallconcerned.Thebenefitoftakingthetimetodothisistwofold:(1)youdontwastetimesolvingproblemsormakingchangesthatdontsupportyourhighervisionormissionand(2)peoplearemorelikelytogetengagedineffortsthatareincreasingvalueforeveryone,includingthemselves.Framingthefocusortopicforyoureffortsonvaluedoutcomesisthestartingplaceforengagingothersin: Discoveringnewinformation,diverseperspectives,andassumptionsthatinfluenceunderstandingandpossibility Discoveringcurrentexistingstrengthsandtrends Disruptingoldpatternsofthinkinginordertodevelopinnovativeopportunities CocreatingpossibilitiesforactionFramingthetopicorfocuscanbeoneofthemostchallengingtasksandyetitisoneofthemostimportantthingsyoucandorelatedtoeffectiveness,efficiency,andengagingpeople.Atfirstblush,theoutcomemayseemobviousyouhaveaproblem,fixit;thebusinesscaseforchangepointstowhatneedstochange,sosimplyfigureouthowtomakethatchange.Thatistheobviousandhabitualstep.Anappreciativeapproachencouragesyoufirsttostepbackandmakesureyouarefocusingonanoutcomethatisalignedwiththebiggerpicture(organizationalorstrategicgoals)andthatyoumakeroomforinnovationbychallengingassumptions,questioningthestatusquo,andengagingindivergentthinking.Iftheinitialframingoftheissuesfocusesprimarilyonproblemsthatneedtobefixed,pausebeforeyoujumpintoproblemsolving.Itmaybevaluabletoreframeaproblem(Whatwedontwant)toanaffirmativetopic(Whatwedowant),whichshouldincludetheperspectiveoftheultimateenduser(Whattheywant,wheretheymightbestudents,customers,acommunity,anindustry,oranygroup). WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 47Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com IdentifyingStakeholdersForrealandmeaningfulengagement,youwanttomakesuretoincludeallrelevantstakeholdersatappropriatetimesinyourprojectorchangemanagementprocess.ThegreatestnumberofstakeholdersshouldbeincludedinStep1.Itisherethatyouhavetheopportunitytoengageamultiplicityofperspectives,invitecreativityandinnovation,andgatherimportantinformationaboutwhatisimportantforeachstakeholdergroup,essentialforthemtobeonboardwithmovingforwardwiththeprojectorchange.Theywillhelpdesignforsuccess.Whenyouareconsideringstakeholders,thinkofFiveIs.Itsasimple,comprehensive,andeasytouseframeworkthatcanbeusedinidentifyingrelevantstakeholders.1. Interestinthetopic,taskandpotentialoutcomes.Forexample,communitymembersorstudentsmaybeveryinterestedinhavingasayaboutcourseofferingsthatareincludedinyourcurriculum.2. Influence,formalandinformal,toprovideresourcestoachievethetaskoroutcome.Forexample,policymakerswhoinfluencethingsatthestatelevelorcommunitybusinessesthatmaybeinpositiontoprovideinstructors,internships,financialresources,orsupportforpolicychanges.3. Informationoraccesstoinformationneededforsuccess.Forexample,studentshaveessentialinformationabouttheirpreferencesforclasses,productsorservices,employeeswhohavefrontlineinformationorfacultywhomayhaveexternalfieldknowledgethatisrelevant.4. Impactorwillbeimpactedbywhathappensinrelationshiptothetasksoroutcome.Forexample,employeeswhohavetoimplementaplanofactionorstudentswhowillbeserved.5. Investment,financialoremotional,relatedtothetaskandoutcomes.Forexample,facultyorvendorswhoareinstrumentaltotheimplementationoftheoutcome. WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 48Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com DesigningforEngagementEngagementmeansthinkingtogetherandactingtogether,collaboratingtoenvisionthefuture,developingstrategiestoachievethatfutureandthenworkingtogethertoachievestrategicorganizationalgoals.Thereareavarietyofmethodologies,processesandpracticesthatcanbeusedtomaximizeaswellasoptimizeengagement.Belowyouwillfindalistofthem,includingabriefdescription.Thereisalsoacharttohelpyouassessselection.Someofthesemethodsrequireskillfulfacilitation,whichrequiresspecifictraininginordertoeffectivelyfacilitatetheprocessormethod.Basicallyallmethodologies,processesandpracticesthatsupportengagementwillrequireyoutodevelopyourabilitytocreatesafeandopenenvironments,focusonoutcomes,expandyourinquiryskills,practiceandfacilitatedialogue,andmodelleadership/groupbehaviorsthatinviteengagement.Engagementmethods,processesandpracticesfallundersixcategories.1. Gatheringdataandinformation:engagingstakeholdersbyaskingthemtosharedataandinformationthatisrelevanttochangeoraproject.2. Processingdataandinformation:engagingstakeholdersintheanalysis,synthesisorsensemakingprocessneededafterthedataandinformationhavebeengatheredinvitingthemtovalidatethesynthesis.3. Innovation:engagingstakeholdersbydisruptingtheirpatternsofthinkingabouthowtoachievedesiredoutcomesinordertomakeroomforinnovationandcreativity.4. Visioning:engagingstakeholdersincreatingimagesandscenariosaboutthefuturestate.5. Designingandplanningforthefuturestate:engagingstakeholdersinthedesignofstrategiestoachievethefuturestateandinplanningforimplementation.6. Implementationandevolution:engagingstakeholdersintheimplementationandongoingevolutionoftheprojectorchange.Themethodsandprocessesaredescribedbelow.Followingthedescriptionisachart,whichwillhelpyouselectthemethodorprocessthatcanbestsupportyourengagementefforts.Pleasenotethefollowingiconsandwhattheyrepresent:OneonOne SmallGroup LargeGroup Technology WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 49Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com OneonOneInterviewsFormalinterviewsthatcanbeonewayortwoway,dependinguponwhethersomeoneisdoingalotofinterviewstogatherdataortheinterviewsarecompletedduringalargergroupsessionwherepartnersinterviewoneanother.AppreciativeInquiryinterviewsareastandardpracticeforgatheringdataandstories.SelfManagingGroupsSmallgroupsthatcometogethertoworkonasetoftasks,inthiscaseassociatedwithchangeorprojectmanagement.Thegroupmanagesitselfanditsowndiscussionandprocess.Itisimportanttomakesurethepurposeisclear,thediscussionsarestructured,thegoalsarearticulatedandthetimelinepreestablishedinordertosupportaccountabilityandsuccess.FocusGroupAsmallgroupselectedfromawiderstakeholderpopulationthatengagesinadiscussiontoshareideas,opinionsaboutorresponsestoaparticularsubjectorsetofquestions.AIorROCSummitAwholesystemsorlargegroupchangeprocessthatengagesstakeholdersinpromotingpositivechangeinanorganization.Thisstrengthbasedapproachengagesstakeholders,strengthensrelationshipsandgeneratesremarkableresults.Atasummit,peopleengagein1on1interviews,selfmanagingsmallgroupdiscussions,andwholesystemexplorationastheymovethroughaseriesofprocessesdesignedtodeliveractionableresults.ForaSummittobesuccessful,besuretouseaskilledAI/ROCfacilitator.OpenSpaceTechnologyAnapproachforhostingmeetings,conferences,corporatestyleretreats,symposiums,andcommunitysummitevents,focusedonaspecificandimportantpurposeortaskbutbeginningwithoutanyformalagenda,beyondtheoverallpurposeortheme.ThegoalofanOpenSpaceTechnologymeetingistocreatetimeandspaceforpeopletoengagedeeplyandcreativelyaroundissuesofconcerntothem.ForOpenSpacetobesuccessful,besuretouseaskilledOSTfacilitator.OSTisoftenusedduringasummit.WorldCafTheWorldCafisacreativeprocessforfacilitatingcollaborativedialogueandthesharingofknowledgeandideastocreatealivingnetworkofconversationandaction.Inthisprocessacafambianceiscreated,inwhichparticipantsdiscussaquestionorissueinsmallgroupsaroundcaftables.Atregularintervalstheparticipantsmovetoanewtable.Onetablehostremainsandsummarizesthepreviousconversationtothenewtableguests.Thustheproceedingconversationsarecrossfertilizedwiththeideasgeneratedinformerconversationswithotherparticipants.Attheendoftheprocessthemainideasaresummarizedinaplenarysessionandfollowuppossibilitiesarediscussed.WorldCafissometimesusedduringasummit. WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 50Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com Note:Lessengaging,butsometimesappropriatewaystoengagepeopleinthefutureoftheorganization:TheSurveyAsurveyisusedtoaskstakeholdersquestionsinordertocollectdatafortheanalysisofsomeaspectofagrouporarea.Surveysaretypicallydoneonline.Thoughitinvitespeopletoshareandprovideinput,itisnotahighlyengagingmethodologyanddoeslittletobuildrelationship.Ifyoudosurveystakeholders,besuretofollowupandtogroundyourfutureactionsintheinformationthatyougathered.Iftheinputisnotvalued,peoplewillstopcompletingsurveys. WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 51Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com MethodsandProcessesChartGatheringDataandInformationMethod/Process WhentoUse Benefits Challenges SuccessFactorsSurvey Rapidfeedback Notimeorwaytobringallstakeholderstogether Fast Easy Virtual Lowengagement Nonrichinfo Norelationship Needtocycleback Craftingthequestions SharingoutcomesInterviews Identifyingstrengths,trends,opportunities Gatheringstories,futurestateimages&ideas Realengagement Richinfo Storygathering Relationship Fullvoice Time Synthesizingthedata Needtocycleback Craftingthefocusandinterviewquestions Usingthedata SharingoutcomesFocusGroups Identifyingstrengths,trends,opportunities Identifyingfuturestateimages&ideas Richinfo RealEngagement Relationship FullVoice Fasterthan1on1 Synthesizingdataifthereismorethanonegroup Needtocycleback Craftingthefocusandinterviewquestions Strategytocaptureconversation Usingthedata SharingoutcomesWorldCaf Identifyingstrengths,trends,opportunities Identifyingfuturestateimages&ideas Crosspollination Engagement Relationship Voice Chaotic Synthesizingdata Sensemaking Needtocycleback Craftingthequestions Organizingthechaos Gatheringthedata Sharingoutcomes WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 52Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com ProcessingDataandInformationMethod/Process WhentoUse Benefits Challenges SuccessFactorsSelfManagingGroups Afterinterviews,groupsof68synthesizetheirowndata Fast Selfverifying Highengagement Relationship Availabletimeforgroupmembers ClearlystructureddialogueCoreTeamCyclesofactionandreflectioncyclesofengagingstakeholders Highengagementofafew Relationship Time Possiblecomplexity NeedtocyclebackSharingoutcomesforverificationSoftwareTools Surveys Qualitativeanalysisifyouenterstories AtaSummit Fast Noengagement Norelationship NeedtocyclebackShareoutcomesforverificationInnovationSelfManagingGroupsAnytimeyouwantagrouptobeinnovativearoundatopic Fast Highengagement Relationship TapscollectiveintelligenceAvailabletimeforgroupmembers Clearlystructureddialogue EffectivedisruptiveinquiryFocusGroupsYouwantinputbecauseyou(andyourcolleagues)wanttoinnovate Engagement Relationship Tapscollectiveintelligence Time Needtocycleback Effectivedisruptiveinquiry Goodfacilitators Strategytogatherconversation SharingoutcomesExternalinterviewsandresearchDisruptyouownthinkingbyscanningexternally Learnfrombestpractices Crosspollination Relationship Time Identifyingwhotointerview Needtocycleback Carefullycraftedquestions Sharingoutcomes WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 53Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com VisioningFutureStatesMethod/Process WhentoUse Benefits Challenges SuccessFactorsInterviews Identifyingstrengths,trends,opportunities Gatheringstories,futurestateimages&ideas Realengagement Richinfo Storygathering Relationship Fullvoice Time Synthesizingthedata Needtocycleback Craftingthefocusandinterviewquestions Usingthedata SharingoutcomesSelfManagingGroupsFollowinginterviews,theycancocreatesharedimagesofthefutureaswellasscenarios Fast Peoplecommittowhattheyhelpcreate Highengagement RelationshipAvailabletimeforgroupmembersClearlystructureddialogueFocusGroupsYouwantinputbecauseyou(andyourcolleagues)wanttogenerateimagesofafuturestate Engagement Relationship Tapscollectiveintelligence Time Needtocycleback Clearlystructureddialogue Goodfacilitators Waytocaptureideas SharingoutcomesforverificationAISummitYoudliketoengageallstakeholdersinacompleteandfullprocessatthesametime Everyoneisengagedinallstepsatthesametime Ultimatelyfaster Peoplecommittowhattheyhelpcreate Highengagement Relationship FullVoice Gettingthetimeinoneblock Planning Cost,maybe Personalcontrol AIfacilitators CarefullycraftedAIprocess:interviews,structuredsmallgroupdialogueandactivity Strategytogathertheoutput UsingtheresultsOpenSpaceTechnologyStrategicdirectionsetting,envisioningthefuture,audiencescenarios Highengagement Relationship Voice Passionatecommitmentbythoseinthegroups Control Canfeelchaotic Planning OSTfacilitators Conveningtopicclearlyarticulated Awaytogathertheoutput Sharingtheoutcomes Usingresults WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 54Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com PlanningMethod/Process WhentoUse Benefits Challenges SuccessFactorsSelfManagingGroupsWheneverstakeholderswillbepartofimplementingtheplan Peoplecommittowhattheyhelpcreate Highengagement Relationship Timeforgroupmembers Personalcontrol ClearlystructureddialogueAISummitYoudliketoengageallstakeholdersintheplanningprocessatthesametime Everyoneisengagedinallstepsatthesametime Ultimatelyfaster Peoplecommittowhattheyhelpcreate Highengagement Relationship FullVoice Gettingthetimeinoneblock Planning Cost,maybe Personalcontrol AIfacilitators CarefullycraftedAIprocess:interviews,structuredsmallgroupdialogueandactivity Strategytogathertheoutput UsingtheresultsOpenSpaceYouwanttohelpplanastrategytoachievethevisionandyouarewillingtoletpeoplerunwithanidea Highengagement Relationship Voice Passionatecommitmentbythoseinthegroups Control Canfeelchaotic Planning OSTfacilitators Conveningtopicclearlyarticulated Awaytogathertheoutput Sharingtheoutcomes UsingtheresultsImplementation&EvolutionInterviewsAwayofdoingvaluationandfeedback/feedforward Buildsrelationship Tieseffortintoongoingevolutionofaprojectorchange Engagement Iftheinterviewgoesbothways,itcanrequirecouragefromamanager Carefullycraftedquestions SufficienttimeSelfManagingGroupsWheneverstakeholdersareaccountableand/orimpactedbyaneffort Highengagement Relationship Continuedcocreation/evolution Time Metrics/measurablegoals Clearlystructureddialogue Measureablegoalsandmeasures WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 55Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com TheExcellenceParadigmEvolvingthroughUncertainty,Ambiguity,andChange Perfection ExcellenceDefinitionofsuccess Nomistakes! Continuouspursuitofqualityandknowledge(includinginsightsfrommistakes).Dominantmotivator Fearofmakingmistakes,ofbeingwrong. AnticipationofacquiringnewskillsandinsightsUnderlyingassumption IshouldknowallIneedto(also,ImayfearIcantlearnwhatIdontknow). Thereisonlyoneperfectanswerand,byextension,therearelimitedpossibilitiesandresources. Knowledgeevolvesandlearningiscontinuous.Iwilllearninthewaymostusefultome. ThereareinfinitepossibilitiesandresourcesIhaveyettouncover.BasisforselfesteemTheinternal(pathological)critic.IfImright,Imbrilliant;ifImwrong,Imflawed.Explorersmindset.Asenseofwonder,awe,humilityatlifescomplexity.Iseektoincreasemycapacitytounderstandandlearn.ConsequencesofmistakesFeelingoffailure,resultinginnegativeemotions/actions(e.g.,defensiveness,blameattribution,contrition,anger,resentment).Realizationthatwhateverhappensisaresultofpeoplesknowledgeandawarenessatthetime.Hence,adeepinterestinexploringwaystoincreaseknowledgeandawareness.Interpersonalmanifestations Advocateouropinions,seektopersuade. Aneedtojudgeothersrelativetoourselves.Eagernesstopointoutothersmistakes;pleasureinothersmisfortunes(shadenfreude) Inquireaboutothersopinions,seektounderstand. AnticipationthatIwilllearnsomethingfromeveryoneIinteractwith.AnappreciationforthevalueofdiverseperspectivesConsequencetoourselvesandothers Ourselves:selfesteemdependsonwhetherwearerightorwrong.Wedontseekothersopinions/ideas.Little,ifany,learningoccurs. Others:Win/loseoutcomes.Ouractionsbreedresentment,ournegativityinfectsothers. Ourselves:Welearnandthereforemaintainahealthyselfesteem.Weseekoutandappreciatethegoodness,skills,andtalentsinothers. Others:Win/winoutcomesregardlessofsuccess.Ourappreciativeapproachinfectsothers.Wehelpothersachievethe3universalneeds:tobeheard,tofeelessential,tobeseenasuniqueandexceptional.OrganizationalmanifestationsFearoffailureandunwillingnesstotakeonanyrisks.Fascinationwithlearning.Willingnesstotakeonreasonablerisksaslearningopportunities.Whichleadto... Controlstopreventundesirableoutcomes. Informedspontaneity,cocreationWhichcreatesaworkenvironmentthatis...Stressful,painful,hard Fun,exciting,dynamicAndwhich,inarapidlychangingworld,resultsinUntimelyresponses,isolation,irrelevance,andobsolescence(i.e.,extinction)Responsiveness,connectedness,andcontinuousevolution(i.e.,adaptation) WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning 56Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com ManifestationsofaFearDrivenvs.OpportunityDrivenMindsetFearDrivenThinkingBehavior OpportunityDrivenThinkingBehaviorProblemfocusedWhatsnotworking?Seeksincrementaladvances.ImprovementfocusedWhatsworkingandhowcanwedoitbetter?Seeksevolutionaryadvances.PastFocusedWhatwentwrong?Whostoblame?FutureFocusedWhatdidwelearn?Howandwhencanweapplyit?SelfOrientedHowdoIbecomearecognizedexpert?HowdoIprotectmyreputation/advancemycareer?OtherOrientedHowdoIdevelopothersexpertise?HowdoIhelpothersexcel?(ServantLeader)FragileSelfImageThreatenedbydiverseviewsAdvocatesopinionsforcefullyCoercesotherstoadvanceathis/herpaceStrongSelfImageValuesdiverseviewsInquirestounderstandothersMeetspeoplewheretheyareandstretchesthemAvoidsConflictfearspainanddisruption PursuesConflicttoClosureseesitasanopportunityforenhancingmutualunderstandingRiskAversefearsfailure TakesCalculatedRisksseeksempiricallearningIgnores/DeniesChangeEnvisionslossesFostersfearandresistanceLeadsChangeEnvisionsgainsHelpsothersidentifyopportunitiesLeftColumnIronyFeardrivenbehaviorsoftenbringabouttheveryoutcomesthepersonistryingtoavoid.Note:UsedwithPermission,Elstein,K.(2008).EPAORD,Training&Development.

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