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Leader Nutrients. The Stuff that makes us move!. 1. Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates fill numerous roles in living things, such as the storage and transport of energy (starch, sugar) and structural components (cellulose in plants or “Fibre”). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Leader NutrientsThe Stuff that makes us move!1. CarbohydratesCarbohydrates fill numerous roles in living things, such as the storage and transport of energy (starch, sugar) and structural components (cellulose in plants or Fibre). Additionally, carbohydrates and their derivatives play major roles in the working process of the immune system, fertilization, pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development.

Types Simple vs. Complex vs. Fiber

1. CarbohydratesSimple Carbs - SugarsFood SourcesRipe fruits, vegetables, honey, corn syrup, candy, jellies and frostingFunctionsUsed by the body for a quick burst of energy.Converted by the body into glucose or blood sugar.

1. CarbohydratesComplex Carbs - StarchesFood SourcesFruits, vegetables, breads, cereals, pasta, dry beans and nutsFunctionsStarches are more complex than sugars and therefore take more time to break down.Starches produce slower burning and longer lasting energy.

1. CarbohydratesFiberFood SourcesLegumes, oats, rye, barley, bran, prunes, plums, berries, root vegetables, others.FunctionsFiber does not supply the body with energy, but absorbs water and aids in digestion.Dietary fiber is more commonly known as roughage.

2. ProteinProteins are broken down in the stomach during digestion by enzymes to provide amino acids for an organism, including those amino acids that an organism cannot create itself. Protein provides the building blocks for the creation of muscle tissue, building DNA and providing the body with antibodies. Protein deficiency plays a part in the disease kwashiorkor.Types Incomplete vs. Complete

2. ProteinIncomplete proteins are proteins found in plants and do not contain one or more essential amino acids. Certain plant protein sources can be combined to create complete proteins.Food SourcesDry beans, dry peas, nuts, seeds.

2. ProteinComplete proteins are proteins found in meat sources which contain all the essential amino acids. Food SourcesMeat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk and other dairy products.

3. FatFats play a vital role in maintaining healthy skin and hair, insulating body organs against shock, maintaining body temperature, and promoting healthy cell function. They also serve as energy stores for the body. Fats are broken down in the body to release glycerol and free fatty acids. The glycerol can be converted to glucose by the liver and thus used as a source of energy.Types Saturated (Trans, cholesterol) vs. Unsaturated (Mono, Poly, Omega-3 fatty acids)3. FatSaturated FatsSaturated and trans fats are less healthy kinds of fats. They can increase your risk of heart disease by increasing your total Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDL or "bad") cholesterol.Food SourcesDairy products, meat sources, coconut oil

3. FatUnsaturatedUnsaturated Fats such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats can lower your risk of heart disease by reducing the total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in your blood. Omega-3s appear to decrease the risk of coronary artery disease. Food SourcesAvocado, nuts, vegetable oils such as soybean, canola and olive. Meat products contain both saturated and unsaturated fats.4. WaterWater, which makes up over one-half of normal body weight, is a vital part of many body fluids. Water forms part of the blood and helps carry nutrients to the cells and takes waste away from the cells. Water also helps to regulate body temperature through perspiration.Food SourcesWater, juice, milk, soup, watermelon, oranges.DeficiencyDehydration

5. VitaminsVitamins are organic compounds that are essential to health. They are required in tiny amounts, but without them deficiency diseases result. Vitamins are involves in regulating the action that takes place in cells.Water soluble vs. Fat Soluble

5. VitaminsSolubility is the characteristic physical property referring to the ability of a given substance (the solute) to dissolve in a liquid (the solvent.)

Therefore: Water soluble means, able to dissolve in water.Fat soluble means, able to dissolve in fat.5. Vitamins - Water SolubleB1 ThiaminFood SourcesOatmeal, brown rice, asparagus, cauliflower, potatoes, eggs, porkFunctionEssential for neural function and carbohydrate metabolismDeficiencyInsomnia, sleep apnea, dementia, depression, impotence, and infertility.5. VitaminsB2 NiacinFood SourcesMeat, dates, tomatoes, leaf vegetables, seeds, mushroomsFunctionInvolved in both DNA repair, and the production of steroid hormones in the adrenal gland.DeficiencyPellagra, slowing of the metabolism causing decreased tolerance to cold.5. VitaminsB3 RiboflavinFood SourcesMilk, cheese, leafy green vegetables, liver, kidneys, legumes, yeast and almonds. Functionplays a key role in energy metabolism, and is required for the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins.DeficiencyCracked and red lips, inflammation of the lining of mouth and tongue, mouth ulcers, etc., etc., etc.5. VitaminsB6Food Sourcesmeats, whole grain products, vegetables, and nuts.Functionmacronutrient metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, histamine synthesis, hemoglobin synthesis and function and gene expression.DeficiencyA bunch of long medical terms that I couldnt pronounce.5. VitaminsB12Food Sourcesmeat (especially liver and shellfish), milk and eggs. Animals must obtain it directly or indirectly from bacteria.FunctionNormal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and for the formation of blood.DeficiencyFatigue, depression, poor memory, mania and psychosis5. VitaminsFolic Acid Vitamin MFood SourcesLeafy vegetables such as spinach, turnip greens, lettuces, dried beans and peasFunctionFertility, memory and mental agility, and battling depression, stroke, cancer and heart disease.DeficiencyDiarrhea, loss of appetite, weight loss, weakness, sore tongue, headaches, heart palpitations, irritability, and behavioral disorders.5. VitaminsC Ascorbic AcidFood SourcesPeppers, citrus fruits, broccoliFunctionHighly effective antioxidantDeficiencyScurvy which leads to the formation of liver spots on the skin, spongy gums, bleeding from all mucous membranes, pale skin, depression, and partially immobilization.5. Vitamins Fat SolubleA - CaroteneFood SourcesCarrots, sweet potatoes, mango, apricots, squashFunctionVision, immune function, bone metabolism, skin health, reducing risk of heart disease and cancer, antioxidant activity DeficiencyBlindness5. VitaminsDFood SourcesFatty fish oils, fatty fish such as herring, catfish, salmon, mackerel, tuna.FunctionMaintenance of organ systems.DeficiencyDepression, impaired bone mineralization, rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults5. VitaminsEFood SourcesNuts, olives, seeds, spinach, asparagus.FunctionAntioxidant, Inhibitor of prostate cancer, heart disease, cancer and cataracts.DeficiencyNeurological problems due to poor nerve conduction5. VitaminsKFood SourcesLeafy green vegetables such as spinach, swiss chard, cabbage, kale, cauliflower, broccoli, and brussels sprouts.FunctionHelps blood to clot properly.DeficiencyExtremely rare unless the intestines are heavily damaged or are unable to absorb the molecule.6. MineralsMinerals are inorganic elements found in the Earths crust, also found in our bodies in small amounts. The body needs minerals to create strong bones and teeth, and are involved in most of the bodies major functions.

6. MineralsIronFood Sourcesred meat, fish, poultry, lentils, beans, leaf vegetables, tofu, chickpeas, black-eyed peasFunctionBuild new red blood cells, burn fuel for energy, and carry oxygen in the blood.DeficiencyIron Deficiency Anemia

6. MineralsCalciumFood SourcesDairy products, seaweedsFunctionBone and teeth formationsDeficiencyBrittle bones and teeth, osteoporosis, cancer prevention.6. MineralsZincFood SourcesMeats, milk, egg yokes, seafood, whole grainsFunctionProtein building, associated with Insulin, wound healing.DeficiencyHair loss, skin lesions, diarrhea, and wasting of body tissues.6. MineralsSodiumFood SourcesTable salt, soy sauceFunctionRegulation of blood and body fluids, transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and certain metabolic functions.DeficiencyHyponatremia, swelling of the brainSourceshttp://en.wikipedia.org/http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/fat/NU00262http://images.google.ca/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi