Post on 11-Nov-2014
Embed Size (px)
- 1. COST EFFECTIVE AND NATURE FRIENDLY BUILDING TECHNIQUES BY LAURIE BAKER!
2. LAURIE BAKERSWAY OF ARCHITECURE REVIE W : 1 3. SCHEDULE OF DESSERTATION REVIEW BASIC INTRODUCTION OF BAKERS CONCEPTS. MUD AND BRICK CONSTRUCTIONS ,CASE STUDIES SPATIAL PLANNING & INFERENCE WITH A COMPARISION STUDY 4. CONTENTS LAURIE BAKER PRINCIPLESAND MOTTO TECHNIQUES INTRODUCT ION TECHNIQUES CHARACTERISTICS INNOVATIONS IN DETAIL 5. WHO IS LAURIE BAKER? LAWRENCE WILLFRED ( MARCH 2, 1917 APRIL 1,2007 ). BRITISH BORN INDIAN ARCHITECT. RESIDENCE THE HAMLET,TRIVANDRUM. ONE OF (20)AWARDS PADMASRI (1990). NOMINATED FOR PRITZEKER (2006). 6. Laurie Baker Living for a causeOur perceived thought that architecture is a profession that can be practiced only with enough money, has limited this noble profession to metropolitan cities. While doctors, on the other hand, are practicing in rural areas and have made their profession well known all over the country, irrespective of the economical background of the people. Construction could be a means to achieve fame, records and grandiosity irrespective of its location, and this has been proved by the great Indian 7. As the youngest child with two elder brothers Leonard and Norman and a sister Edna. His father was the chief accountant with the Birmingham Gas Distribution Authority. At the age of 15, he passed out from the Edward Grammar School in Aston, England; he was an ordinary student with an adventurous life. He would accompany his father to visit cathedrals and other old buildings and then he would build models and draw pictures of what he had seen. CHILDHOOD 8. The principal of his school persuaded his father to make Laurie Baker opt for architecture as profession and send him to the Birmingham School of Architecture. Bakers adventure continued and while he was doing his architecture, he went on a cycling tour of Europe with his friends.The unfolding vistas of nature, landscape, cities, the different life patterns of people and the differences in the houses from place to place fascinated him, and that tour proved to be a turning point in his life. 9. WHAT MADE MYSELFTO CONNECT HUMANITY AND LOVE TOWARDS 10. CHINA : As a doctor, nurse, pharmacist and pathologist. He graduated in 1937, and thereafter became an associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA).In 1939, the Japan-China war was at its peak and Baker went to China to help the wounded as a volunteer with a group called Quakers, after resigning from RIBA. In the 1930-40s leprosy was a much-feared disease. So much so that lepers were frequently burnt or buried alive for fear of contamination and spreading of the disease. Naturally, the sisters had not found anyone willing to go and look after the leper colony.When Laurie heard of the plight of the lepers he agreed to go until the sisters could find someone permanent. He dressed their ulcers, gave them medicines when available. On Sundays he was even the parson at their church! 11. India and Gandhi ji One day while on a walk through the city he happened to see a board that said, Mission to Lepers Baker's interest and curiosity were aroused,The Mission had been in dire need of an architect. Advances in medicine meant leprosy was no longer an untreatable disease. Instead of the existing asylums and colonies they now needed to build many new hospitals to treat these leprosy patients. For Laurie, this was finally a chance to use his architectural skills to help people in need. Laurie had no second thoughts and true to his word he arrived in India in 1945. 12. Through Quaker associates, he was introduced to Gandhi Ji who at that time was there; Gandhi Ji expressed his concern over the state of Indian architecture and asserted that much good could be done in rural India by committed architects. Gandhi Jis philosophy and his charismatic personality thrilled Baker. For the first three years he travelled all over the country helping the leprosy mission, and in the process he got exposed to indigenous architecture and was amazed at the way in which simple materials could be exploited to produce buildings with refined aesthetics and lasting qualities.These formative years laid the foundation of Baker's approach to architecture. 13. Baker met and married an Indian medical doctor, Elizabeth Jacob, and the two of them worked for years in the Himalayas, building and operating schools and hospitals, working with lepers and the poor. In 1963, Baker and his wife moved to the southern state of Kerala, Elizabeths homeland, establishing themselves in the city ofTrivandrum in 1970.Working with local materials and exploring indigenous architectural traditions, Bakers adventure in architecture started realizing. Baker has been able to transform the Gandhian philosophy through architecture by practicing it for people who actually needed it. His every project is like a small scale industry within itself, changing lives of people. Laurie Baker has been committed to not only learning from and using traditional Indian architectural techniques and technology, but also building with traditional Indian materials. 14. ARCHITECTURAL PRINCIPLES COST EFFECTIVENESS USE OF LOCALLY AVAILABLE MATERIALS RESPECT FOR NATURE AVOIDANCE OF ENARGY INTENSIVE MATERIALS ELIMINATION OF REDUNDANT DETAILS WASTAGE MINIMIZATION SPATIAL PLANNING 15. LAURIES MOTTO LOW COSTRY A HABIT AND A WAY OF LIFE , BY REUSING EVERYTHING , FROM BRICKTO GLASS BOTTLES, AS BUILDING MATERIALS. 16. WHAT HE SAYS. I DONTTHINK IVE EVER BEEN INSPIRED BYWHAT OTHER ARCHITECTS HAVE DONE BUT MORE BYWHAT ORDINARY CRAFTSMEN HAVE CREATED. COST-EFFECTIVE HOUSES ARE NOT JUSTT FORTHE POOR,THEY ARE FOR EVERYONE.THE EQUATIONTHAT A COST EFFECTIVE HOUSE IS A HOUSE FORTHE POOR, IMPLYING A BAD LOOKING HOUSE, CAN DEFINITELY BE PROVED WRONG. THE PRACTICE OF AN ARCHITECT CANNOT BE DIVORCED FROM THAT OF A BUILDER. 17. BAKERS GREAT SORROW ABOUT INDIAN GOVERNMENT POLICY MAKERSWASTHAT THEY HAVENTTHE FAITH INTHEIR OWN MATERIALS. 18. HIS POPULAR CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES USE OF RATTRAP BOND FILLER SLABS ARCHES TERRACOTTA ROOFING FRAMELESS DOORS AND WINDOWS 19. MORE INNOVATIVE METHODS HE ADOPTED. DIFFERENT BONDINGTECHNIQUES FOR BRICKS. PERFORATED BRICKWALLS.S USE OF DISCARDED BOTTLES , INSET INWALL. USE OF BRICKS INSPITE OF LINTELS CURVEDWALLS RUBBLE MASONRY 20. THESE MEHODS ANDTECHNIQUES LEDTO CHARACTERISTIC ELEMENTS OF BAKER'S STYLE. JALIS TRADITIONAL ROOFS STEPPEDARCHES, OVERHANGING EAVES SKYLIGHTS BUILT-IN FURNITURES 21. WHAT IS RATTRAP BOND? This double-wall technique uses bricks on edge with a cross brick between each and produces a 9-inch thick wall with an insulating air cavity in between. 22. HOW A COMPLETED MASONRY LOOKS... 23. COMPLETED RATTRAP BOND MASONRY THE MANGO HOUSE 24. Surprisingly, this technique reduces the number of bricks required by 25%, thereby reducing material used, including mortar (1:8 mix), and overall cost. Rat-trap technique is equal to the strength of a solid 9-inch wall in either Flemish or English bond. 25. WHAT IS A FILLER SLAB ???? Lightweight, inexpensive materials such as low-grade Mangalore tiles, bricks, coconut shells, glass bottles, etc. are used as filler materials in filler slabs to replace the redundant concrete in tension zones. 26. WHY FILLER SLABS??? The reason why, concrete and steel are used together to construct RCC slab, is in their individual properties as separate building materials and their individual limitation. Concrete is good in taking compression and steel is good in tension.Thus RCC slab is a product which resists both SIMPLY SUPPORTED SLAB CROSS-SECTION. 27. The fig. indicates the neutral axis and also tension concrete in the bottom fibres of the slab which is in tension but the top fibres will be in compression. Tension in a slab is on the bottom fibre and compression on the top fiber. that means if we want to optimise the structure we can remove concrete from the tension zone where it is not much needed. thats the key behind filler slab construction. 28. FILLER MATERIALS ADVANTAGES OF FILLE SLAB Bricks Tiles Cellular Concrete Blocks Pots Waste bottles 29. FILLER SLABS IN LAURIES BUILDINGS. LAURIE BAKER BUILDING CENTER, TRIVANDRUM. COSTFORD,TRIVANDRUM 30. ARCHES THE ARCH IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT PROVIDES A STRUCTUREWHICH ELIMINATESTENSILE STRESS IN SPANNINGAN OPEN SPACE. THIS IS USEFUL BECAUSE SEVERAL OFTHE AVAILABLE BUILDING MATERIALS SUCH AS STONE, CAST IRON AND CONCRETE CAN STRONGLY RESIST COMPRESSION BUT AREVERYWEAKWHEN TENSION, SHEAR ORTORSIONAL STRESS IS 31. TYPES OF ARCHES.!!! CORBELARCH FLAT ARCH SEMI-CIRCULAR ARCH SEGMENTALARCH 32. ARCHES IN BUILDINGS COSTFORD, TRIVANDRUM THE SALIM ALI CENTRE FOR ORNITHOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY AT ANAIKATTY NEAR COIMBATORE 33. MANGLORETILES FOR ROOFING Mangalore tiles (also Mangalorean tiles) are a type of tiles native to the city of Mangalore, India. These red tiles, prepared from hard laterite clay, are in great demand throughout Indi These were the only tiles to be recommended for government buildings in India during the British regime. They are a popular form of roofing and are preferred over concrete due to their good quality. They provide excellent ventilation especially during summer and aesthetically as well. 34. Some of them are especially made to be placed over kitchen and bathroom for the smoke to escape. Over a period of time, these tiles become dark to black from constant exposure to soot and smoke. They are unique and are made or available in different size and shapes depending on the users need. 35. MANGLORETILES IN BAKERS BUILDINGS. NIRMITI KENDRA, TRIVANDRUM THE HAMLET,TRIVANDRUM 36. MANGLORETILE AS AN INFILL FOR ROOFING!!!! These tiles are not only eco- friendly but also cheap, durable and costs only one third that of cement. Some of the buildings which are 100 yrs. old