Latin America. Regions of “Latin America ” Central America The Caribbean South America South America
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Regions of Latin AmericaCentral AmericaThe CaribbeanSouth America
CitiesMexico CityHavannaPort-au-PrincePanama CitySantiagoLimaBuenos AiresBrasiliaRio De JanieroCaracasBogota
Topography of Latin America
Bodies of WaterAtlantic OceanPacific OceanGulf of MexicoCaribbean SeaAmazon R.Orinoco R.Uruguay R.Magdalena R.Sao Francisco R.Lake TiticacaLake MaracaiboRio de La PlataParana R.
Mountains and PeaksAndes Mts.Sierra Madres Mts.Guiana HighlandsBrazilian HighlandsPatagonian Plateau
Rio GrandeRivers in Latin AmericaThe AMAZON!!The largest river in the world!!Parana RiverOrinoco RiverI'm the Rio de la Plata.Im actually not a river, but an estuary the large water feature where fresh water from a river meets the salt water of the sea.
Latin American Cowboys are called GauchosWere usually found in grassland rancheslike the Llanos in VenezuelaOr the Pampas of Argentina.where the best beef cattle in the world is raised!!Llanos
http://www.ran.org/info_center/about_rainforests.htmlRainforests: Costa Rica and Brazil~ Amazonia (in Brazil) is the largest in the world!
AmazoniaUnfortunately, were being cut down and set aflame to make room for interior farmland and construction!!!!OUCH!!! This is called Slash and Burn Agriculture
Sierra MadresANDES MOUNTAINS: The longest chain and 2nd highest mountains in the world!!Mountains in Latin America can be split into agricultural zones as you move higher up the mountain. This is called vertical zonationTierra Caliente crops that like hot temperatures Tierra Templada crops that like temperate landTierra Fria no crops, just grazing
Another look at Vertical Zonation in the Andes Mts.
Ancient CivilizationsAztecs, Mayans, IncasAdvanced Civilizations before their encounter with the Europeans
MayansLocation: Yucatan Peninsula and GuatemalaComplex agricultural society Built large citiesRigid class systemAchievements:Writing system consisting of hieroglyphicsComplex numbering system with the use of zero365 day calendarArchitecture: large pyramid templesColorful murals
AztecsLocation: MexicoLarge militaryPracticed human sacrificeContributions:Accurate calendarSet bones and treated cavitiesBuilt Tenochititlan 200,000 people lived thereFloating gardens raised corn, squash and beans
IncasLocation: Andes MountainsRuled by EmperorStrong centralized governmentMajor Achievements:System of roads, bridges, and tunnels through the Andes Mts.Terrace farmingQuipus: record keeping systemSurgery, antiseptics
Imperialism In AmericasSpanish Conquistadors Cortes and PizzaroReasons for Spanish successTechnology, horsesAllies among other Native American GroupsDiseases brought by Europeans
Social Structure of the Spanish Colonies (Rigid Class System)PeninsularesPeople born in Spain
CreolesPeople of European descent born in the coloniesMestizos (Native Americans And Europeans) and Mulattoes (African and Europeans)
Native Americans and People of African DescentMost PowerFewest PeopleLeast PowerMost People
Encomienda System Forced system of laborPlantations needed large amounts of laborA conquistador was granted land along with permission to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans in the area.
Columbia ExchangeExchange of goods, diseases and ideas between the Americas and Europe, Asia, AfricaFrom the AmericasCorn, potatoes, beans, peanuts, pumpkins, tomatoes, pineapples, coca, quinine, chili pepper, squashFrom Europe Asia and AfricaCattle, goat, sheep, chickens, small pox, measles, typhus, wheat, sugar, banan, rice, grape, horse, pig, dandelion
1800s Causes of Latin American RevolutionsEnlightenment Ideas writings of John Locke, Voltaire, & Jean Rousseau; Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine. Creole discontent at being left out of government jobs and trade concessions. Inspiration of American and French Revolutions. Preoccupation of Spain & Portugal in fighting the Napoleonic Wars.
1. Enlightenment IdeasLaws of nature [NATURAL LAWS] govern natural science and human society. Give people rights life, liberty, property! Make fair societies based on reason possible. Challenged the theory of Divine Right monarchy.
3. Inspiration of American & French RevolutionsDeclaration of Independence, 1776Declaration of the Rights of Man & of the Citizen, 1789
4. Preoccupation of Spain & Portugal In Fighting Napoleonic Wars
Toussaint LOuveture Leads a Revolution in Haiti (1804)
Simn Bolivar: The Brains of the RevolutionCreole leader of the revolutions in Venezuela.George Washington of Latin AmericaSpent time in Europe and the newly-independent United States.Believe in democracy
Simn Bolivar Meets Jos de San Martin
The Muscle of the RevolutionBolivar coming from the North.Jos de St. Martn and Bernard OHiggins cross the Andes Mountains.
1. Brazil Freed from PortugalThe Portuguese royal family escaped Napoleon by fleeing to Brazil. Pedro I set up a new, independent kingdom in 1821 when his father returned to Portugal. Pedro II assumed full power after Pedro I abdicated his throne.
Instability in Latin AmericaGeographic Barriers: hindered unitySocial Injustice: Power remained in the hands of the creoles and caudillos. OligarchyMilitary Rulers: Local Military Strongmen that challenged and defeated some central governments. Became dictatorsPower of the Catholic Church
Economic ProblemsCash Crop Economies:Export sugar, cotton, and coffeeImport expensive finished goods Economic Imperialism: Foreign Investment in mines, agriculture, and transportation systems Benefitted only the upper classes and foreign investors
Mexican Revolution1910 -1930Rule by General PorfirioBrutal dictatorshipMost people were left uneducated , landless and poorKey FiguresEmiliano Zapata an Indian Leader (south)Pancho Villa (north)Venustiano Carranza elected President in 1917 approved new constitution; still in effect today
Effects of the RevolutionConstitution of 1917: land reform, more rights for workers and womenSocial reforms: education, librariesEconomic nationalism: nationalized some industriesCultural nationalism:
Revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batista's regime on January 1, 1959Led by Fidel and Raul CastroWas finalized in January of 1959Castros rule began
Fluctuating economyHigh unemployment ratesBatista ran a military dictatorshipOverall, citizens became rebellious because of economy and the direction of Cuba
Bastista soldiers put on trial for Human Right abusesMost of them were killed by firing squadRaul Castro executed 70 regime soldiersCuba was official atheist and Bishops were exiledinitiated Committees for the Defense of the Revolution with the responsibility of keeping "vigilance against counter-revolutionary activity."
The country is now CommunistNow thought of as secular not atheist and does not ban religionCastros government was depended on Soviet Aid. Once the Cold War Ended so did Soviet aid to Cubastill lead by a Raul CastroStruggling economy and world relations
Political And Economic Changes in Latin AmericaSocial and political factors have led to unrestNations have struggled to establish democracy and improve their economiesDrug trafficking has continued to be a major problemThe US has often intervened in the politics of Latin America causing resentment among many Latin AmericansMonroe Doctrine and Roosevelt Corollary OAS: Organization of American States
Sources of UnrestArgentina Juan PeronImport substitution, higher wages, labor unions, social welfare programsOppressive government1976 military government takes over fight dirty war. As many as 20, 000 to 30,000 people just disappearedMothers of the Plaza de Maya1983 democratic electionsGuatemalaUS helps overthrow government in 1954
PanamaManuel Noriega Took control of Panama1st supported by USHis brutality and involvement in the drug trade turned American leaders against him1989 President George Bush sent in US troopsNoriega was arrested and sent to prisonJan 1 2000 the control of the Panama Canal was turned over to the Panamians
Nicaragua1936 to 1979 the Somoza family governed Nicaragua.Supported by US1979 over thrown by the SandinistasReform mined nationalists and communismDaniel Ortega sets up a socialist government1980s faced armed opposition from the Contras who were supported by the US
Role of Catholic Church1990s began to support the concerns of the poor and oppressedActive in movements for land reform and opposed dictatorships.
Modern TrendsMovement towards democracyNAFTA: North American Free Trade AgreementPoor working conditionsWorkers earn less than 2 dollars per dayLack fossil fuelsPoor infrastructureLack of capitalLarge international debtPopulation explosion