Late Nineteenth Century Art

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    Late Nineteenth Century Art

    Movement Dates

    Realism 1848

    1860sImpressionism 18721880s

    Post-Impressionism 1880s1890s

    Symbolism 1890s

    Art Nouveau 1890s to 1914

    1. Historical Backgrounda. The realist art movement was philosophically based on the theory of

    positivism

    b. Japanese art had a profound impact on late 19th century paintingc. Plein air painting dominates much of Impressionist artd. Post-Impressionists reacted against what thez saw as the ephemeral quality

    of Impressionist painting

    e. Symbolist painters seek to portray mystical personal visionsf. In the late 19th century the skyscraper was born as a result of technological

    advances, the invention of the elevator, and the rise of land values

    g. Art Nuveau seeks to create a unified artistic experience combining paitning,sculpture, and architecture; it relies on organic forms and motifs

    h. Revolutions in Sicily, Germany, Austria and Lombardyi. When dust cleared in Franco Prussian war, Germans were the masters of

    continental Europe peace though

    j. Social reformers were influenced by a concept called positivism promulgatedby from proven ideas based on science

    k. Darwin and Marx contributed to positivisml. Artists understood powerful changes by exchanging traditional beliefs for the

    avant-garde, a word coined at this time

    m. Artists used past as inspirationn. Religious subjects goneo. Aristocratic and history paintings as wellp. Themes of great myths of Greece and Romeq. Spirit of modernism prevailedr. Artists chose peasant scenes, landscapes, and still lives2. Patronage and Artistic Lifea. Artists who are rejected by the Salon of Paris, such as Courbet and Manet, set

    up oppositional showcases

    b. Emergence of the art galleryc. Just art lovers, no crowds like in Salond. Galleries featured finest art

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    e. Paul Cezanne misunderstood artist; fought convential aspirations of hisfamily, escaped to a bohemian lifestyle

    f. More he suffered, more people got attracted to him and found artworkintriguing

    g. First to exploit stereotype of the artist as rebel3. Innovations of Realisma. Influenced by influx of Japanese artb. Landscapesc. Japanese art relies on different sense of depth, enhancing a flatness that

    dominates the background

    d. Japonismee. Plein air movement; artists moved their studio outdoors seeking a capture of

    effects of atmosphere and light on given subject

    f. Photographers like Muybridge, took photos in series with device calledzoopraxiscope, illusion of movement

    g. 1798 lithography4. Characteristics of Realisma. Courbets aphorism Show me an angel, and Ill paint one summarizes Realist

    philosophy

    b. Inspired by positivism movement, realist painters believed in painting thingsthat could be experienced with all 5 senses

    5. Works of Realisma. Gustave Courbert, Burialat Ornans

    - 1849- oil on canvas- Musee dOrsay, Paris- Funeral in drab country

    setting

    - Huge scale suggestsmonumentality

    - No aspect of life- S curve of composition- Only cross over group- Unflattering

    characterizations of

    provincial officials

    - Transcendent meaning offuneral and death missing

    b.

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    - Dog is distracted as manyof the people

    c. Honore Daumier, RueTransnonain

    - 1834- lithography- Daumier Register- Worker unrest in Lyon

    was suppressed by

    government

    - Three generations shown- Middle aged man lying on

    top of child; elerly on

    extreme light

    - Critical print meant to stirthe emotions of the viewer

    against the establishment- Lithography used to mass

    produce image

    - French government tiredto suppress distribution

    - When a soldier was shotfrom a workers apartment

    complex, the troops came

    in and killed everyone

    indiscriminately for

    revenge

    d.

    e. Jean-Francois Millet, TheGleaners

    - 1857- oil on canvas- Louvre, Paris- Named after rural town

    that painters settled in

    - Gleaners were the poorestof the poor

    - Picture shows peoplepicking up scraps left over

    after the general harvest

    - Nobility poor, nobilityhard work

    - Figures bent backedbecome part of the

    landscape

    - Not interfere with horizon

    f.

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    - Haystacks and wagonreflect compositional

    pattern of gleaners

    - Seen by the public as asocialist painting

    g. Edouard Manet, Lucheonon the Grass- 1863- oil on canvas- Musee dOrsay, Paris- Manet tried to enter the

    Salon with his painting

    - Rejected- Success of scandal- Figures obviously posing,

    no unity with landscape

    - Influenced by Raphaelcomposition

    - Jarring juxtaposition ofnude woman with

    contemporarily dressed

    men

    - Distortion of perspective

    h.

    i. Edouard Manet, Olympia- 1863- oil on canvas- Musee dOrsay, Paris- Created scandal in Salon

    1865

    - Inspired by Titians Venusof Urbino

    - Figure is cold, uninviting- No mystery- Maid delivers flowers- Olympias frank, direct,

    uncaring, and unnerving

    look startled viewers

    - Simplified modeling- Stark contrast of colors

    j.

    k. Rosa Bonheur, Plowing inthe Nivernais and Horse Fair

    which was 1853-1855 in Museum

    of Arts in New York

    - 1849- oil on canvas

    l.

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    6. Characte

    ristics

    ofImpress

    ionism

    a. Modernis

    t

    movem

    ent

    b. Symboliz

    ed byavant

    garde

    artists

    who

    spread

    it

    c. Shadows

    contain

    color;

    times ofday and

    season

    controls

    object

    basic

    tenets

    of

    Impress

    ionism

    d. Workingin plein

    air,

    using

    wide

    spectru

    m of

    colors

    operation form triangle

    - Patients mother at theright covers face

    - Focus: blood stainedhands

    - Painting celevrates theadvances in medial scienceq. Henry O. Tanner, TheBanjo Lesson

    - 1893, oil on canvas- Hampton University

    Museum

    - Hampton, Virginia- Tanner student of Eakins- Painterly brushwork- Monumentality of forms- Exchange of values from

    one generation to another

    - Poverty no impediment tolife with dignity

    - Deep emotionalexperience

    - Shared intimacy- Painted to answer

    stereotypes of African

    Americans as people who

    boisterously played onfolk instruments, serious

    exchange

    r.

    s. Eadweard Muybridge,Horse Jumping

    - 1878- photograph- Photography advanced- Capture moments human

    eyes cannot

    - Putting pictures of evenlyspaced points along a

    track

    - Sequence effect- Motion studies bridge the

    gap between still

    photography and movies

    - zoopraxiscope

    t.

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    e. Concentrated on landscapesf. Degas and Renoir made the human figure in movement a specialty, Monet

    eventually abandoned figure painting altogether

    g. Influence of Japanese arth. Cassatt, e.g., was struck by the freedom of Japanese artists used to show

    figures from the backi. Impressionism originally prided itself on being both antiacademic and

    antibourgeois

    7. Impressionisma. Claude Monet, Haystack atthe Sunset near Giverny (1891,

    Museum of fine Arts, Boston);

    Rouen Cathedral (1894) and Four

    Poplar Trees (1891, Metropolitan

    Museum of Art, NY)- Series of paintings of same

    subject

    - Different times of day,year

    - Subtle gradations of lighton the surface

    - Forms dissolve anddematerialize, color

    overwhelms the forms

    - Meant to hang together foreffect

    - Haystacks were the firstseries paintings to hag as a

    group

    - Some 30 were painted, 15hung in the original

    exhibition

    b.

    c. Pierre Auguste Renoir, LeMoulin de la Galette

    - 1876- oil on canvas- Musee dOrsay, Paris- Dappling effect of fleeting

    light

    - People do business, noposes

    - Outdoor activities formiddle class

    d.

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    - Clipped figures onextremes of painting

    suggest a photographic

    randomness

    e. Edgar Degas, TheRehearsal on Stage

    - 1874- oil on canvas- Metropolitan Museum of

    Art, New York

    - worked mostly indoors- subjects that suggest

    movement

    - Asymmetricalcompositions

    - drawn bodies contrastwith featherybrushstrokes costuming

    setting

    - influence of Japaneseprints

    - figures often seen fromback

    f.

    g. Edouard Manet, Bar at theFolies Bergere

    - 18811882- oil on canvas- Courtauld Gallery, London- barmaid seems to be

    bored

    - Mirror reflection to theworld

    - uncertainty to what themirror is reflecting

    - Trapeze act in far upperleft corner

    - composition pushes goodsa close to the customer

    h.

    i. Berthe Morisot, Villa at theseaside

    - 1874- oil on canvas- Norton Simon- Los Angeles

    j.

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    - Morisot Wallace sister-in-law of Manet

    - figures are informallyplaced

    - Sketchy, painterly brushwork

    - Instantaneous momentcaught with spontaneity of

    expression

    - reveals habits of middle-class woman

    - Asymmetrical compositionk. Mary Cassat, Mother andChild with the Rose scar