Late Nineteenth Century Art

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<ul><li><p>7/31/2019 Late Nineteenth Century Art</p><p> 1/20</p><p>Late Nineteenth Century Art</p><p>Movement Dates</p><p>Realism 1848</p><p>1860sImpressionism 18721880s</p><p>Post-Impressionism 1880s1890s</p><p>Symbolism 1890s</p><p>Art Nouveau 1890s to 1914</p><p>1. Historical Backgrounda. The realist art movement was philosophically based on the theory of</p><p>positivism</p><p>b. Japanese art had a profound impact on late 19th century paintingc. Plein air painting dominates much of Impressionist artd. Post-Impressionists reacted against what thez saw as the ephemeral quality</p><p>of Impressionist painting</p><p>e. Symbolist painters seek to portray mystical personal visionsf. In the late 19th century the skyscraper was born as a result of technological</p><p>advances, the invention of the elevator, and the rise of land values</p><p>g. Art Nuveau seeks to create a unified artistic experience combining paitning,sculpture, and architecture; it relies on organic forms and motifs</p><p>h. Revolutions in Sicily, Germany, Austria and Lombardyi. When dust cleared in Franco Prussian war, Germans were the masters of</p><p>continental Europe peace though</p><p>j. Social reformers were influenced by a concept called positivism promulgatedby from proven ideas based on science</p><p>k. Darwin and Marx contributed to positivisml. Artists understood powerful changes by exchanging traditional beliefs for the</p><p>avant-garde, a word coined at this time</p><p>m. Artists used past as inspirationn. Religious subjects goneo. Aristocratic and history paintings as wellp. Themes of great myths of Greece and Romeq. Spirit of modernism prevailedr. Artists chose peasant scenes, landscapes, and still lives2. Patronage and Artistic Lifea. Artists who are rejected by the Salon of Paris, such as Courbet and Manet, set</p><p>up oppositional showcases</p><p>b. Emergence of the art galleryc. Just art lovers, no crowds like in Salond. Galleries featured finest art</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Late Nineteenth Century Art</p><p> 2/20</p><p>e. Paul Cezanne misunderstood artist; fought convential aspirations of hisfamily, escaped to a bohemian lifestyle</p><p>f. More he suffered, more people got attracted to him and found artworkintriguing</p><p>g. First to exploit stereotype of the artist as rebel3. Innovations of Realisma. Influenced by influx of Japanese artb. Landscapesc. Japanese art relies on different sense of depth, enhancing a flatness that</p><p>dominates the background</p><p>d. Japonismee. Plein air movement; artists moved their studio outdoors seeking a capture of</p><p>effects of atmosphere and light on given subject</p><p>f. Photographers like Muybridge, took photos in series with device calledzoopraxiscope, illusion of movement</p><p>g. 1798 lithography4. Characteristics of Realisma. Courbets aphorism Show me an angel, and Ill paint one summarizes Realist</p><p>philosophy</p><p>b. Inspired by positivism movement, realist painters believed in painting thingsthat could be experienced with all 5 senses</p><p>5. Works of Realisma. Gustave Courbert, Burialat Ornans</p><p>- 1849- oil on canvas- Musee dOrsay, Paris- Funeral in drab country</p><p>setting</p><p>- Huge scale suggestsmonumentality</p><p>- No aspect of life- S curve of composition- Only cross over group- Unflattering</p><p>characterizations of</p><p>provincial officials</p><p>- Transcendent meaning offuneral and death missing</p><p>b.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Late Nineteenth Century Art</p><p> 3/20</p><p>- Dog is distracted as manyof the people</p><p>c. Honore Daumier, RueTransnonain</p><p>- 1834- lithography- Daumier Register- Worker unrest in Lyon</p><p>was suppressed by</p><p>government</p><p>- Three generations shown- Middle aged man lying on</p><p>top of child; elerly on</p><p>extreme light</p><p>- Critical print meant to stirthe emotions of the viewer</p><p>against the establishment- Lithography used to mass</p><p>produce image</p><p>- French government tiredto suppress distribution</p><p>- When a soldier was shotfrom a workers apartment</p><p>complex, the troops came</p><p>in and killed everyone</p><p>indiscriminately for</p><p>revenge</p><p>d.</p><p>e. Jean-Francois Millet, TheGleaners</p><p>- 1857- oil on canvas- Louvre, Paris- Named after rural town</p><p>that painters settled in</p><p>- Gleaners were the poorestof the poor</p><p>- Picture shows peoplepicking up scraps left over</p><p>after the general harvest</p><p>- Nobility poor, nobilityhard work</p><p>- Figures bent backedbecome part of the</p><p>landscape</p><p>- Not interfere with horizon</p><p>f.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Late Nineteenth Century Art</p><p> 4/20</p><p>- Haystacks and wagonreflect compositional</p><p>pattern of gleaners</p><p>- Seen by the public as asocialist painting</p><p>g. Edouard Manet, Lucheonon the Grass- 1863- oil on canvas- Musee dOrsay, Paris- Manet tried to enter the</p><p>Salon with his painting</p><p>- Rejected- Success of scandal- Figures obviously posing,</p><p>no unity with landscape</p><p>- Influenced by Raphaelcomposition</p><p>- Jarring juxtaposition ofnude woman with</p><p>contemporarily dressed</p><p>men</p><p>- Distortion of perspective</p><p>h.</p><p>i. Edouard Manet, Olympia- 1863- oil on canvas- Musee dOrsay, Paris- Created scandal in Salon</p><p>1865</p><p>- Inspired by Titians Venusof Urbino</p><p>- Figure is cold, uninviting- No mystery- Maid delivers flowers- Olympias frank, direct,</p><p>uncaring, and unnerving</p><p>look startled viewers</p><p>- Simplified modeling- Stark contrast of colors</p><p>j.</p><p>k. Rosa Bonheur, Plowing inthe Nivernais and Horse Fair</p><p>which was 1853-1855 in Museum</p><p>of Arts in New York</p><p>- 1849- oil on canvas</p><p>l.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Late Nineteenth Century Art</p><p> 5/20</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Late Nineteenth Century Art</p><p> 6/20</p><p>6. Characte</p><p>ristics</p><p>ofImpress</p><p>ionism</p><p>a. Modernis</p><p>t</p><p>movem</p><p>ent</p><p>b. Symboliz</p><p>ed byavant</p><p>garde</p><p>artists</p><p>who</p><p>spread</p><p>it</p><p>c. Shadows</p><p>contain</p><p>color;</p><p>times ofday and</p><p>season</p><p>controls</p><p>object</p><p>basic</p><p>tenets</p><p>of</p><p>Impress</p><p>ionism</p><p>d. Workingin plein</p><p>air,</p><p>using</p><p>wide</p><p>spectru</p><p>m of</p><p>colors</p><p>operation form triangle</p><p>- Patients mother at theright covers face</p><p>- Focus: blood stainedhands</p><p>- Painting celevrates theadvances in medial scienceq. Henry O. Tanner, TheBanjo Lesson</p><p>- 1893, oil on canvas- Hampton University</p><p>Museum</p><p>- Hampton, Virginia- Tanner student of Eakins- Painterly brushwork- Monumentality of forms- Exchange of values from</p><p>one generation to another</p><p>- Poverty no impediment tolife with dignity</p><p>- Deep emotionalexperience</p><p>- Shared intimacy- Painted to answer</p><p>stereotypes of African</p><p>Americans as people who</p><p>boisterously played onfolk instruments, serious</p><p>exchange</p><p>r.</p><p>s. Eadweard Muybridge,Horse Jumping</p><p>- 1878- photograph- Photography advanced- Capture moments human</p><p>eyes cannot</p><p>- Putting pictures of evenlyspaced points along a</p><p>track</p><p>- Sequence effect- Motion studies bridge the</p><p>gap between still</p><p>photography and movies</p><p>- zoopraxiscope</p><p>t.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Late Nineteenth Century Art</p><p> 7/20</p><p>e. Concentrated on landscapesf. Degas and Renoir made the human figure in movement a specialty, Monet</p><p>eventually abandoned figure painting altogether</p><p>g. Influence of Japanese arth. Cassatt, e.g., was struck by the freedom of Japanese artists used to show</p><p>figures from the backi. Impressionism originally prided itself on being both antiacademic and</p><p>antibourgeois</p><p>7. Impressionisma. Claude Monet, Haystack atthe Sunset near Giverny (1891,</p><p>Museum of fine Arts, Boston);</p><p>Rouen Cathedral (1894) and Four</p><p>Poplar Trees (1891, Metropolitan</p><p>Museum of Art, NY)- Series of paintings of same</p><p>subject</p><p>- Different times of day,year</p><p>- Subtle gradations of lighton the surface</p><p>- Forms dissolve anddematerialize, color</p><p>overwhelms the forms</p><p>- Meant to hang together foreffect</p><p>- Haystacks were the firstseries paintings to hag as a</p><p>group</p><p>- Some 30 were painted, 15hung in the original</p><p>exhibition</p><p>b.</p><p>c. Pierre Auguste Renoir, LeMoulin de la Galette</p><p>- 1876- oil on canvas- Musee dOrsay, Paris- Dappling effect of fleeting</p><p>light</p><p>- People do business, noposes</p><p>- Outdoor activities formiddle class</p><p>d.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Late Nineteenth Century Art</p><p> 8/20</p><p>- Clipped figures onextremes of painting</p><p>suggest a photographic</p><p>randomness</p><p>e. Edgar Degas, TheRehearsal on Stage</p><p>- 1874- oil on canvas- Metropolitan Museum of</p><p>Art, New York</p><p>- worked mostly indoors- subjects that suggest</p><p>movement</p><p>- Asymmetricalcompositions</p><p>- drawn bodies contrastwith featherybrushstrokes costuming</p><p>setting</p><p>- influence of Japaneseprints</p><p>- figures often seen fromback</p><p>f.</p><p>g. Edouard Manet, Bar at theFolies Bergere</p><p>- 18811882- oil on canvas- Courtauld Gallery, London- barmaid seems to be</p><p>bored</p><p>- Mirror reflection to theworld</p><p>- uncertainty to what themirror is reflecting</p><p>- Trapeze act in far upperleft corner</p><p>- composition pushes goodsa close to the customer</p><p>h.</p><p>i. Berthe Morisot, Villa at theseaside</p><p>- 1874- oil on canvas- Norton Simon- Los Angeles</p><p>j.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Late Nineteenth Century Art</p><p> 9/20</p><p>- Morisot Wallace sister-in-law of Manet</p><p>- figures are informallyplaced</p><p>- Sketchy, painterly brushwork</p><p>- Instantaneous momentcaught with spontaneity of</p><p>expression</p><p>- reveals habits of middle-class woman</p><p>- Asymmetrical compositionk. Mary Cassat, Mother andChild with the Rose scarf</p><p>- 1908- oil on canvas- Metropolitan Museum of</p><p>Art, New York</p><p>- mother and child theme- specialty of Cassatt- tenderness foreign to</p><p>other impressionists</p><p>- figures from everyday life- The painters world is filled</p><p>with woman</p><p>- no need for men- no posing or acting,</p><p>natural positions- influenced by Japanese art</p><p>l.</p><p>m. James Whistler, - -Arrangement in Gray and Black:</p><p>The Artists Mother</p><p>- 1871- oil on canvas- Musee dOrsay, Paris- curtain designJapanese</p><p>art</p><p>- Large areas of flat color- The composition reflects</p><p>the Protestant New</p><p>England severity of his</p><p>mother</p><p>- creates portrait asarrangement</p><p>- Whistler etching off Black</p><p>n.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Late Nineteenth Century Art</p><p> 10/20</p><p>Lion Wharf hanging in the</p><p>background</p><p>o. James Whistler, Nocturnein Black and Gold: The Falling</p><p>Rocket</p><p>- 1875- oil on wood- Detroit Institute of Art</p><p>Michigan</p><p>- Subtle harmonies ofpainting</p><p>- Japanese signature in thelower right corner</p><p>- effects of fireworks overRiverbank</p><p>- harmonies of colors,shapes, and light</p><p>- Whistler sued an art criticclaiming he damaged his</p><p>reputation</p><p>p.</p><p>8. Characteristics of Post Impressionisma. Postimpressionist's combine the ideals of stressed light, shading, and color</p><p>with analysis of the structure of the subject</p><p>b. Common for postimpressionist's is to move toward abstraction9. Post-Impressionism</p><p>a. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, At the Moulin Rouge</p><p>- 18921895- oil on canvas- Art Institute of Chicago- specializes in scenes of</p><p>Parisian nightlife</p><p>- Titles perspective ofJapanese prints</p><p>- Zigzag compositions- Large areas of flat color- figures appear to be</p><p>joyless</p><p>- Fanciful use of line</p><p>b.</p><p>c. Vincent Van Gogh, TheStarry Night</p><p>- 1889d.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Late Nineteenth Century Art</p><p> 11/20</p><p>- Reed brush drawing- Museum of architecture,</p><p>Bremen, Germany</p><p>- Thick and shortbrushstrokes</p><p>- mountains in the distancethat Van Gogh could seethat his hospital room</p><p>- combination of images:church, Moon, cypress tree</p><p>- forces of nature- Parts of the canvas can be</p><p>seen through the</p><p>brushwork</p><p>- artist didn't need to fill inevery space of the</p><p>composition- strong left to right waiflike</p><p>impulse in the work</p><p>- tree looks like greenflames</p><p>e. Paul Gaugin Vision afterthe Sermon</p><p>- 1888- oil on canvas excellent</p><p>national Galleries of</p><p>Scotland, Edinburgh</p><p>- after the sermon on Jacobwrestling in Angel, the</p><p>worshipers exit the church</p><p>and vision the scene</p><p>- tree trunk separates thereal from the miracle</p><p>- = red Earth- titled perspective- priest at the lower right</p><p>looks like Gauguin</p><p>- Gauguin adds Appletree- cow symbolizes man's</p><p>redemption</p><p>f.</p><p>g. Georges Seurat, SundayAfteroon on the Grand Jatte</p><p>- 18841886- oil on canvas- Art Institute of Chicago</p><p>h.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Late Nineteenth Century Art</p><p> 12/20</p><p>- Pointillist technique nextanalysis of color</p><p>relationships</p><p>- Traditional perspective,alternative patterns of</p><p>light and dark increasedsense of depth</p><p>- figures areuncommunicative, almost</p><p>all our faceless: expression</p><p>of anonymity of modern</p><p>society</p><p>- frozen qualityi. Paul Cazenne, MountSaint-Victoire</p><p>- 19021904- oil on canvas- Philadelphia Museum of</p><p>Art, Philadelphia</p><p>- flats painting, painterwanted rounded and firm</p><p>objects, geometric</p><p>constructions</p><p>- use perspective throughjuxtaposing</p><p>- Nance gave rarely containshumans</p><p>- not the countryside ofImpressionism, more</p><p>interested in geometric</p><p>forms</p><p>- not typical scene ofatmosphere in</p><p>Impressionists work</p><p>- Landscape scene from anelevation</p><p>j.</p><p>k. Paul Cezanne, A Basket ofApples</p><p>- 1893- oil on canvas- Art Institute of Chicago- An exercise in the solidity</p><p>of forms; the contrasting</p><p>nature of round</p><p>l.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Late Nineteenth Century Art</p><p> 13/20</p><p>10.Characteristics of Symbolisma. Symbolist artists felt that the unseen forces of life word guiding influences in</p><p>painting.</p><p>b. Dreams and inner experiences of an artist's life became the source ofinspiration Russeau and Munch</p><p>11.Symbolism</p><p>- strong painterlybrushstrokes</p><p>- contrasts between 2dimensionality of the</p><p>painting surface and 3</p><p>dimensionality of objects-</p><p>a. Henri Rousseau, TheSleeping Gypsy</p><p>- 1897- oil on canvas- Museum of modern Art,</p><p>New York</p><p>- no formal artistic training- primitive artist- Strange ambiguities- titled perspective object of</p><p>Gypsy pose</p><p>- Dario and desert likeenvironment with lying,</p><p>jungle animal, sniffing at a</p><p>gypsy like a curious cat</p><p>- might be a dream, thisgypsy you really sleeping?</p><p>b.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Late Nineteenth Century Art</p><p> 14/20</p><p>12.Characteristics of Art Nuveaua. Developed in a few artistic centers in EuropeBrussels, Barcelona, Paris,</p><p>Viennalasted from 1892 -1914</p><p>b. Sought to eliminate the separation among various artistic media andcombined them into one unified experience</p><p>c. Relies on vegetal and floral patterns, complexity of design, and undulatingsurfaces.</p><p>d. Straight lines avoidede. Designers particularly enjoyed using elaborately conceived ironwork for e.g.</p><p>balconies</p><p>13.Art Nuveaua. Antonio Gaudi, Casa Mila</p><p>- 1907- Barcelona, Spain- undulating twisting forms</p><p>of hand-cut stone</p><p>- Embellishments ofwrought iron</p><p>- Conservative in its use ofcuts the</p><p>b.</p><p>c. Edvard Munch, TheScream</p><p>- 1893- tempera and casein on</p><p>cardboard</p><p>- Munch Museum, Oslo- figure walking along thewharf, boats are at sea in</p><p>the distance</p><p>- a long sick brushstrokesswirl around composition</p><p>- Figure cries out in ahorrifying scream, the</p><p>landscape echoes his</p><p>emotions</p><p>- Discordant colorssymbolize anguish</p><p>- stick figure with schoollike that</p><p>- Prefigures expressionistart</p><p>d.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Late Nineteenth Century Art</p><p> 15/20</p><p>- Interior spaces marked byelastic walls of indefinite</p><p>shape</p><p>- Modern apartmentbuilding for it's time:</p><p>garage for carriages below,elevators to take people up</p><p>their apartments</p><p>c. Gustav Klimt, The Kiss- 19071908- oil on canvas- Austrian Gallery, Vienna- 2 heads, 4 hands, and 2</p><p>feet are seen</p><p>- The bodies are suggestedunder the sea of richlydesigned patterning</p><p>- love, passion, eroticism- space in and in</p><p>determinate location</p><p>against a flat background</p><p>d.</p><p>14.Characteristics of Late 19th century architecturea. Architects and engineers worked in the direction of curtain wall, the building</p><p>that is held up by an interior framework, called skeleton.</p><p>b. Emphasis was on the verticalc. Buildings emphasized their verticality by placing tall pilasters and setting</p><p>back windows behind them, such as at The Guaranty Building</p><p>d. Greatest advances in architecture were made by the Chicago schoole. After the great fire in 1871, demonstrated the weakness of iron and the faults</p><p>of building downtown structures.</p><p>f. Ceramic survived quite nicelyg. Thus, the Chicago window was developed with the centr...</p></li></ul>