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  • The Medical Students Anesthesia Pocketbook

    University of Texas Health Science Center Houston

  • Table of Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......................................................................................................................... 2 ANESTHESIA OVERVIEW ....................................................................................................................... 3

    INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................... 3 PREOPERATIVE HISTORY AND PHYSICAL ................................................................................................ 3 IVS AND PREMEDICATION ....................................................................................................................... 6 ROOM SETUP AND MONITORS .................................................................................................................. 6 INDUCTION AND INTUBATION ................................................................................................................... 9 MAINTENANCE ........................................................................................................................................ 10 EMERGENCE ............................................................................................................................................ 11 PACU CONCERNS ................................................................................................................................... 12

    COMMONLY USED MEDICATIONS ................................................................................................... 13 VOLATILE ANESTHETICS ........................................................................................................................ 13 IV ANESTHETICS ..................................................................................................................................... 14 LOCAL ANESTHETICS ............................................................................................................................. 15 OPIOIDS ................................................................................................................................................... 15 MUSCLE RELAXANTS .............................................................................................................................. 16 REVERSAL AGENTS/ ANTICHOLINERGICS ............................................................................................. 16

    PHARM CHARTS ..................................................................................................................................... 18 INHALATIONAL ANESTHETICS ................................................................................................................ 18 MAC ........................................................................................................................................................ 18 INTRAVENOUS ANESTHETICS ................................................................................................................. 19

    IV FLUIDS .................................................................................................................................................. 20 ASA CLASSIFICATION ........................................................................................................................... 21 MALLAMPATI CLASSIFICATION ....................................................................................................... 22 QUICK REFERENCE/REVIEW ............................................................................................................. 23 PROCEDURE CHECKLIST .................................................................................................................... 27

    INTUBATION ............................................................................................................................................ 27 IV LINE PLACEMENT ............................................................................................................................... 27 BAG MASK VENTILATION ....................................................................................................................... 27 VENTILATOR SETTINGS .......................................................................................................................... 28 ARTERIAL LINE PLACEMENT ................................................................................................................. 28 CENTRAL LINE PLACEMENT .................................................................................................................. 28 SPINAL ..................................................................................................................................................... 29 EPIDURAL ................................................................................................................................................ 29

    RESOURCES .............................................................................................................................................. 30 NOTES ........................................................................................................................................................ 31

    Contributors: Trent Bryson MS4, Tanner Baker MS4, Claudia Moreno MS4, Darrell Wilcox MS3, and Allison DeGreeff MS3

  • Acknowledgements We the contributors would first and foremost like to thank the faculty at the University of Texas at Houston for their support, guidance, and teachings in helping us create this pocket book. We would also like to thank the residents for their contributions to our learning and skill development as well as in helping us revise the content to be as detailed, succinct, and accurate as possible.

    2

  • Anesthesia Overview Adapted from A Medical Students Anesthesia Primer by Roy G. Soto, MD (roysoto@ucla.edu)

    Introduction In many programs across the country, medical students are only exposed to two weeks of anesthesiology during their third or fourth year. The student often attends daily lectures and might be told to "read Miller's Basics of Anesthesia", but often by the time the student has finally figured out why we are doing what we're doing, the rotation is over, and he or she leaves with only a minimum of anesthesia knowledge. This primer is intended to give a brief overview of what we do, when we do it, and why we do it for standard, uncomplicated cases ... the types that you are bound to see during your rotation. By no means is the information contained comprehensive, or intended to allow you to practice anesthesia solo, but it is intended to give an overview of the "big picture" in a format that can be quickly read in one sitting, and then referred to as needed. Keep in mind that there are many ways to accomplish the same thing in anesthesia, and you will undoubtedly see techniques that differ from what we've written here, but our goal again is to present you with a simple overview. Anesthesia is a challenging and exciting specialty, but can also be extremely frustrating if not taught clearly during the short exposure that many medical students get to the field. Preoperative History and Physical Unlike the standard internal medicine H&P, ours is much more focused, with specific attention being paid to the airway and to organ systems at potential risk for anesthetic complications. The type of operation and the type of anesthetic will also help to focus the evaluation. Of particular interest in the history portion of the evaluation are: Coronary Artery Disease - What is the patient's exercise tolerance? How well will his or her heart sustain the stress of the operation and anesthetic? Asking a patient how he feels (i.e. SOB, CP) after climbing two or three flights of stairs can be very useful as a "poor man's stress test". Hypertension - How well controlled is it? Intraoperative blood pressure management is affected by preoperative blood pressure control. Asthma - How well controlled is it? What triggers it? Many of the stressors of surgery as well as intubation and ventilation can stimulate bronchospasm. Is there any history of being hospitalized, intubated, or prescribed steroids for asthma? This can help assess the severity of disease. Kidney or Liver disease - Different anesthetic drugs have different modes of clearance and organ function can affect our choice of drugs.

    3

  • Reflux Disease - Present or not? Anesthetized and relaxed patients are prone to regurgitation and aspiration, particularly if a history of reflux is present. This is usually an indication for rapid sequence intubation (succinylcholine + cricoid pressure). Smoking - Currently smoking? Airway and secretion management can become more difficult in smokers. Alcohol Consumption or Drug Abuse? - Drinkers have an increased tolerance to many sedative drugs (conversely they have a decreased requirement if drunk), and are at an increased risk of hepatic disease, which can impact the choice of anesthetic agents. Endocrine: Steroids patients with recent steroid use may require preoperative steroids to cover secondary adrenal suppression. Diabetes - Well controlled? The stress response to surgery and anesthesia can markedly increase blood glucose concentrations, especially in diabetics. Thyroid Hypo/Hyper metabolic states affect the cardiovascular system, renal clearance, and thermoregulation. Medications - Many medications interact with anesthetic agents, and some should be taken on the morning of surgery (blood pressure medications) while others should probably not (diuretics, diabetes medications). Allergies - We routinely give narcotics an

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