Landscape as an arena for applied environmental studies

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<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [Universitat Politcnica de Valncia]On: 24 October 2014, At: 09:34Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: MortimerHouse, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK</p><p>Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift - Norwegian Journal ofGeographyPublication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:</p><p>Landscape as an arena for applied environmentalstudiesLouise Simonsson aa Department of Earth Sciences, University of Uppsala , Villavagen , SE-752 32 , SwedenE-mail:Published online: 28 Jan 2014.</p><p>To cite this article: Louise Simonsson (2003) Landscape as an arena for applied environmental studies, Norsk GeografiskTidsskrift - Norwegian Journal of Geography, 57:1, 40-48, DOI: 10.1080/00291950310000811</p><p>To link to this article:</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the Content) containedin the publications on our platform. However, Taylor &amp; Francis, our agents, and our licensors make norepresentations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose ofthe Content. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors,and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be reliedupon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shallnot be liable for any losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and otherliabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to orarising out of the use of the Content.</p><p>This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematicreproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in anyform to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &amp; Conditions of access and use can be found at</p><p></p></li><li><p>Norsk G</p><p>eograji.1k Tid</p><p>sskriji-N</p><p>orvoegian Journal of' Geography V</p><p>ol. 57,40--48. Oslo. ISSN</p><p> 0029-1951 </p><p>Landscape as an arena for applied environm</p><p>ental studies </p><p>I.OliiS</p><p>L S</p><p>IMO</p><p>NS</p><p>SO</p><p>N </p><p>Sim</p><p>on</p><p>"on</p><p>. L 2tK</p><p>U. L</p><p>andscape as an arena for applied environmental studies. N</p><p>orsk GeoK</p><p>rafisk Tidsskriji-N</p><p>orweK</p><p>ian Journal of </p><p>(;,ographl Vol. 57 . ..\t}-4X</p><p>. Oslo. IS</p><p>SN</p><p> 1Xl29-1951. </p><p>The concept o</p><p>f lancbcapc is discussed in relation to environmental studies and landscape assessm</p><p>ents. It is argued that the separa-tion of. fam</p><p>bcape nlto natural and ~:ufturaf has hampered m</p><p>terd"c1phnary syntheses and understandings of com</p><p>plex ecological rela-tiO</p><p>nships. The Im</p><p>portance of per&gt;pect1vc and v</p><p>arym</p><p>gw</p><p>ays of v</p><p>~ewmg and thus assessing the landscape is em</p><p>phasized. It is argued that the lack of ~mde~standmg of landscape as a hohsll, S</p><p>E-7</p><p>52</p><p> 3f&gt; Upp.m</p><p>la. Swt~den. -mail: louise.sim</p><p>onsson@;' </p><p>' </p><p>Introduction </p><p>Landscape is a w</p><p>ord that evokes feelings in most people, has </p><p>an air of m</p><p>ystique and contains a great deal of sym</p><p>bolism. </p><p>Yet it is a concept that is seldom</p><p> fully utilized. This m</p><p>ay be because it </p><p>is used by </p><p>so many and for so m</p><p>any different purposes, </p><p>How</p><p>ever, O</p><p>lwig </p><p>(1993) argues </p><p>against the </p><p>elimination o</p><p>f such polyvalent words and their replacem</p><p>ent by supposedly m</p><p>ore neutral, univalent concepts. Still, w</p><p>hen a landscape is assessed for practical environm</p><p>ental projects or </p><p>planning, it is </p><p>the visual, rational, quantifiable param</p><p>eters that receive the m</p><p>ost attention. Therefore, there is a need for </p><p>a com</p><p>mon </p><p>arena and </p><p>a practical, </p><p>useful concept </p><p>for environm</p><p>ental studies where m</p><p>any different disciplines and levels o</p><p>f expertise are involved, and where the term</p><p>inology and technical language differ w</p><p>idely. T</p><p>here is some resistance tow</p><p>ards words and concepts that </p><p>are com</p><p>plex and </p><p>complicate </p><p>the com</p><p>partmentalization </p><p>of </p><p>thought. Often people think in term</p><p>s of opposites, at least in </p><p>western society. N</p><p>ature and culture are examples o</p><p>f such a dichotom</p><p>y. When 'natural' is perceived as pure, an ideal, that </p><p>humankind and its techniques have desecrated, then virgin </p><p>land or w</p><p>ilderness arc term</p><p>s used w</p><p>here hum</p><p>ans are not recognized as a part o</p><p>f nature and the environment (S</p><p>oper 1995, A</p><p>dmns &amp;</p><p> McS</p><p>hane 1996, Darier 1999). N</p><p>evertheless, changes in subsistence strategies, dem</p><p>ography or perception </p><p>have, through time, resulted in both intended and unintended </p><p>modification o</p><p>f the global environment (C</p><p>rumley 1994). A</p><p>n exam</p><p>ple from T</p><p>anzania is given by Schm</p><p>idt ( 1997), who has </p><p>shown </p><p>that cultural </p><p>perceptions have </p><p>affected landscape </p><p>managem</p><p>ent over </p><p>the last </p><p>2500 years </p><p>in the </p><p>Usam</p><p>bara M</p><p>ountains area. D</p><p>espite a widely accepted construction o</p><p>f a eo-evolving past, w</p><p>estern scicn</p></li><li><p>~ORSK G</p><p>EO</p><p>GR</p><p>AF</p><p>ISK</p><p> TID</p><p>SS</p><p>KR</p><p>IFT</p><p> 57 120031 </p><p>cially, for </p><p>example </p><p>by the </p><p>tourist industry, </p><p>but also </p><p>in guidelines for landscape assessm</p><p>ents, wh</p><p>ich often coincide </p><p>or overlap with visual im</p><p>pact assessment (e.g. C</p><p>ountryside C</p><p>omm</p><p>ission I YY I). A</p><p>cademics have discussed the concept </p><p>widely </p><p>and further </p><p>divided the </p><p>term </p><p>into subclasses </p><p>and categories, such as natural landscapes, cultural landscapes, political landscapes, m</p><p>ental landscapes, etc. How</p><p>ever, I will </p><p>argue that by breaking do</p><p>wn</p><p> into narrow com</p><p>partments one </p><p>of the few</p><p> concepts that actually describes a totality, where </p><p>all processes </p><p>-physical, </p><p>cultural, rational, </p><p>political and </p><p>mental -</p><p>are present, </p><p>we dim</p><p>inish o</p><p>ur chances o</p><p>f under-standing </p><p>the com</p><p>plex reality </p><p>that w</p><p>e try </p><p>to explain </p><p>and m</p><p>anage. L</p><p>andscape thus enco</p><p>mp</p><p>asses both the conceptual and the physical. </p><p>This is o</p><p>f course not a new idea. M</p><p>einig ( 1979, 21</p><p>8-2</p><p>19</p><p>) listed the key feature o</p><p>f J. B. Jack</p><p> son</p><p>'s idea of landscape as: </p><p>'landscape is </p><p>a unity </p><p>of </p><p>people and </p><p>env</p><p>iron</p><p>men</p><p>t w</p><p>hich opposes in its reality the false d</p><p>icho</p><p>tom</p><p>y o</p><p>f man and nature.' </p><p>Hi.igerstrand ( 1991) argues that in co</p><p>mp</p><p>arison</p><p> with hum</p><p>an ecology there is an </p><p>'old</p><p>er concept, wh</p><p>ich does not im</p><p>ply a division </p><p>between </p><p>natural an</p><p>d </p><p>human, </p><p>between </p><p>living and </p><p>manufactured.' T</p><p>his concept is landscape, understood as the m</p><p>ixture of everything that is present an</p><p>d spatially distributed </p><p>ov</p><p>er the surface of the earth, but it is absolutely not a static </p><p>concept. A</p><p>lthough the concept of en</p><p>viro</p><p>nm</p><p>ent has been defined b</p><p>y </p><p>the World B</p><p>ank (19</p><p>98</p><p>) as a unity of nature and culture, the </p><p>idea of 'lan</p><p>dscap</p><p>e' has a utility and flexibility that is easier to understand as an ev</p><p>eryd</p><p>ay reality than 'en</p><p>viro</p><p>nm</p><p>ent' (B</p><p>ruun 1998, B</p><p>ell 1999). Landscape is that part o</p><p>f the env</p><p>iron</p><p>men</p><p>t that is the h</p><p>um</p><p>an habitat, perceived an</p><p>d understood by us </p><p>through the medium</p><p> of o</p><p>ur perceptions. T</p><p>his aw</p><p>areness has m</p><p>any implications fo</p><p>r planners, designers and managers o</p><p>f landscape. </p><p>Landscape as form</p><p> an</p><p>d process </p><p>Cart S</p><p>auer ( 1925) defined 'lan</p><p>dscap</p><p>e' as an area made up o</p><p>f a distinct association o</p><p>f forms, both physical and cultural. H</p><p>e noted: </p><p>An inevitable difficulty w</p><p>ith a purely genetic morphology o</p><p>f relief form</p><p>s is that most o</p><p>f the actual relief features of the </p><p>earth are of very m</p><p>ixed origin. Behind the present form</p><p>s lie processal </p><p>associations, previous </p><p>or ancestral </p><p>forms, </p><p>and alm</p><p>ost inscrutable expressions of tim</p><p>e (Sauer 192.'i. ~~). </p><p>Later geographers (e.g. O</p><p>lsson 1994, W</p><p>idg</p><p>ren </p><p>1999) have recognized that geom</p><p>etric form d</p><p>oes not necessarily associ-</p><p>ate with one given process. W</p><p>idg</p><p>ren (1</p><p>99</p><p>9) has su</p><p>mm</p><p>arized </p><p>the form</p><p>-pro</p><p>cess discussion: landscape is, on</p><p> the one hand, a form</p><p> which at a given m</p><p>om</p><p>ent and in a given context can b</p><p>e represented in a landscape painting o</p><p>r recorded and inter-preted in satellite im</p><p>agery; on</p><p> the oth</p><p>er hand, landscapes can only be understood as continual processes, flow</p><p>s of energy </p><p>and matter, thoughts and actions. H</p><p>ence, landscape is form, </p><p>but it is also an o</p><p>ng</p><p>oin</p><p>g process, as </p><p>well as the result o</p><p>f previous processes. </p><p>Therefore </p><p>it can</p><p>no</p><p>t b</p><p>e treated exclu-sively as either process o</p><p>r form. H</p><p>ence landscape ceases to </p><p>Lu</p><p>nd</p><p>lcllf"' u</p><p>s llll llrt'llll ji1r llflf'linl t'lll"il"llllllll'llltlf ,./tu</p><p>/it' 41 </p><p>be a static concept that merely c</p><p>omprise~ everything prc~cnt </p><p>and recorded visually today. </p><p>Perspectil'e a</p><p>nd</p><p> percetJtion </p><p>Cosgrovc ( 1990, 199X</p><p>) ha~ di~cu~~cd in depth the importance </p><p>of perspective </p><p>for the concept of lalllbcapc. w</p><p>here land-</p><p>scape mainly is som</p><p>ething to be seen</p><p>-a picture. H</p><p>e write~: </p><p>The landscape idea represents a w</p><p>ay of ~eein)! </p><p>-a w</p><p>ay in </p><p>which som</p><p>e Europeans h</p><p>aw rcprc~entcd to thcm~elves and to </p><p>others the world ahout them</p><p> and their relati</p></li><li><p>l' I </p><p>\un</p><p>t'll, ,o, </p><p>)Ci"IIJl "' </p><p>il.IIL' iilc </p><p>':IIIIL' nlu</p><p>c:lllllll .111d ll:lllllll)C </p><p>1\lu1</p><p>1 </p><p>I'I'Jl). ((</p><p>'1) </p><p>\\ l11k lilt \1'11lll('k'\ .lllliU</p><p>dc d</p><p>e'll\c'd fro111 </p><p>til.:ir illlllh:r-</p><p>''"11 111 tile lllt.dll~ </p><p>ol th</p><p>e l.llld,c:q</p><p>lL'. l11:111 :lr).!ued I llJ</p><p>74</p><p>) tha</p><p>t </p><p>the </p><p>c'.Jitil', '11il:1ce '' </p><p>lil;:lil~ 1:11icd</p><p>. hu</p><p>t th</p><p>e 11:1~' </p><p>in 1\h</p><p>lc'il </p><p>pellp</p><p>k pc' I CL' I 1 c .111d </p><p>t\lTtll'd</p><p>ll1).! to</p><p> .lon</p><p>e' 1</p><p>1 11'11) th</p><p>e ~C</p><p>) co</p><p>nce</p><p>pt </p><p>i' in</p><p>tcr,u</p><p>hjcc</p><p>-</p><p>lil it). T</p><p>h.: p</p><p>o1nt o</p><p>f d.:p</p><p>:1rtu</p><p>r.: i' th</p><p>at </p><p>r.::dit) </p><p>i' n</p><p>eith</p><p>er'' h</p><p>ull) </p><p>oh</p><p>(ceti\L' IH</p><p>lr 11 ho</p><p>ll) 'Uh(c'l'tilc</p><p>. l.and</p><p>,.:ap</p><p>\c' .111.1) ln1111 </p><p>the '\\'e,t</p></li><li><p>Table I. Characteristics of land systems for the eastern pan of Babati District (see Fig. 2). </p><p>Land System A </p><p>Land System 8 </p><p>Land System C </p><p>Ufiome mountain </p><p>Sangaiwe Hill~ </p><p>Climate </p><p>Average rainfall: 500-700 mm/year </p><p>Temperature: 22-24C </p><p>Average rainfall: 700-1000 mm/year </p><p>Temperature: 18-20C </p><p>Average rdinfaU: 500-600 mm/year </p><p>Average rainfall: 900-&gt; 1000 mm/year </p><p>A vcrage rainfall: 500--7</p></li><li><p>..j..j / . Si11u'""o" </p><p>nunH:ro</p><p>u' n</p><p>a1</p><p>np</p><p>k' i'rnm</p><p> i'rica </p><p>when.: </p><p>peor~c~ pre~cn</p><p>cc </p><p>ha</p><p>' he~n r~nd</p><p>.:r d i111 i'ihl~ 'im</p><p>ply </p><p>b~cau'c th</p><p>eir ecolog</p><p>ical im</p><p>pact w</p><p>a~ no</p><p>t 'ul'li</p></li><li><p>NO</p><p>RS</p><p>K (;IJ</p><p>)(;R,\H</p><p>SK</p><p> TlllS</p><p>SK</p><p>RIIT</p><p> )7</p><p> (~IK1.1J </p><p>Good </p><p>N </p><p>i 0~ _ </p><p>___::2.._,5:.__ _ _:.,5 0 km</p><p>pH 6</p><p>-7 </p><p>A </p><p>pH 7</p><p>-8 </p><p>A </p><p>pH 8</p><p>-9 </p><p> 45</p><p>0-9</p><p>00</p><p> kg matZ</p><p>e/acre </p><p>90</p><p>0-1</p><p>35</p><p>0 kg m</p><p>arze</p><p>/acre</p><p>1350-180</p><p>0 kg m</p><p>aze/acre </p><p> 1</p><p>80</p><p>0-2</p><p>25</p><p>0 kg m</p><p>arze</p><p>/acre</p><p>, .. it:. -1. An iiiL</p><p>hlratiu</p><p>ll or Sallf:ti\\~ \ illa</p><p>gc \\ ith thl...' ltlpog</p><p>r:tph~ </p><p>;I', :I </p><p>'D </p><p>llhllk</p><p>l. ll"</p><p>l..'d a' thL</p><p> h:l'-.j..., ror di,cu</p><p>,,ioth and </p><p>,Jh</p><p>l\\ ing</p><p> both </p><p>pll: ,jcal and 'm</p><p>:ial tbta</p><p>. Thl' p</p><p>i I. IL</p><p>Xtun</p><p> .. am.l </p><p>L'n</p><p>luu</p><p>r \lf</p><p> thL' 'llil \.:an p</p><p>nl\ id..: </p><p>ini"P</p><p>rlllatio</p><p>n </p><p>t\.:garding</p><p> lattd,</p><p>crp~..: hi,to</p><p>ry a-. \\1..'11 a~ l'llTTL'III p</p><p>nh</p><p>_'\..':-.'c'. The i11fo</p><p>rma</p><p>tion</p><p>ttll </p><p>) idd</p><p> 1\!\!.:</p></li><li><p>-lfJ / .. </p><p>Silllo</p><p>/1.\.\o</p><p>ll N</p><p>OR</p><p>SK</p><p> GE</p><p>OG</p><p>RA</p><p>FIS</p><p>K T</p><p>IDS</p><p>SK</p><p>RIFT' 57 (200</p><p>~) </p><p>PAS</p><p>T C</p><p>LIM</p><p>AT</p><p>ES</p><p>, TEC</p><p>TON</p><p>IC EVE</p><p>NT</p><p>S, GE</p><p>OM</p><p>OR</p><p>PH</p><p>OL</p><p>OG</p><p>ICA</p><p>L PR</p><p>OC</p><p>ESS</p><p>ES </p><p>:;; "' _, s: z 0 " ~ m l" s: z 0 c 6</p><p>/'-, </p><p>PO</p><p>PU</p><p>LA</p><p>TI </p><p>urr7:~* "' .m </p><p>GE</p><p>OLO</p><p>GY</p><p>X </p><p>X </p><p>X </p><p>POL</p><p>ICIE</p><p>S LA</p><p>WS </p><p>Interaction between ind</p><p>ividual </p><p>agent and social com</p><p>ext </p><p>PER</p><p>CE</p><p>PTIO</p><p>NS</p><p> &amp; V</p><p>AL</p><p>UE</p><p>S INT</p><p>ER</p><p>PRE</p><p>TE</p><p>D IN</p><p> A SO</p><p>CIO</p><p>-HIST</p><p>OR</p><p>ICA</p><p>L CO</p><p>NT</p><p>EX</p><p>T </p><p>Fig</p><p>. 7. I m p</p><p>orta Ill f:.u</p><p>.:tor' in the 'ha pin</p><p>g and intc.!rprc</p><p>t~llinn of a land</p><p>scape. T</p><p>hi:-. i!-1 a m</p><p>od</p><p>el of th</p><p>e case :-.tucly land</p><p>scape recognisin</p><p>g hum</p><p>ans as an active age</p><p>nt. both </p><p>in the pa'l '"we</p><p>ll"' in the prc&gt;crll. w</p><p>here pcr,pccrivc. inrcrprclalinn and hcru.:c shapin</p><p>g is ba&gt;ed on factors such as :rgc. sex. cu</p><p>llurc. ere .. set in contex</p><p>t with the </p><p>phy"ic:tl and ... ncial m</p><p>ilieu in tim</p><p>e and ... pace:. </p><p>imp</p><p>on</p><p>ance with</p><p>in th</p><p>e village. F</p><p>ig. 4 show</p><p>s how</p><p> land that is p</p><p>rcfcrn.:d and co</p><p>nsid</p><p>ered 'goo</p><p>d' does no</p><p>t necessarily ove</p><p>rlap w</p><p>ith th</p><p>e land used for agric</p><p>ultu</p><p>ral produ</p><p>ction</p><p>. Th</p><p>is can p</p><p>artly </p><p>be expla</p><p>ined by ag</p><p>ricu</p><p>ltura</p><p>l techniques. but also by variatio</p><p>n ove</p><p>r tim</p><p>e in th</p><p>e landscape. </p><p>where </p><p>wild</p><p>life mig</p><p>ration </p><p>and occa~</p><p>iona</p><p>l n</p><p>oodin</p><p>g make som</p><p>e areas too risky in the lo</p><p>ng-</p><p>term pe</p><p>rspective to p</p><p>repare and c</p><p>ultivate. A</p><p>reas consid</p><p>ered va</p><p>luab</p><p>le do </p><p>no</p><p>t co</p><p>inc</p><p>ide </p><p>with </p><p>the </p><p>ones </p><p>perceived </p><p>as 'im</p><p>po</p><p>rtant'. Eve</p><p>n tho</p><p>ugh th</p><p>e Baobab tree (F</p><p>ig. 5) is rath</p><p>er im</p><p>pressive. bo</p><p>th Figs. 5 and 6 show</p><p> that imp</p><p>ortant places do </p><p>not necessa</p><p>rily re</p><p>veal o</p><p>r expose th</p><p>eir imp</p><p>ortan</p><p>ce by bein</p><p>g exce</p><p>ptio</p><p>na</p><p>l in a phys</p><p>icaL materia</p><p>l sense. T</p><p>he ho</p><p>use visible </p><p>in Fig</p><p>. 5 is the v</p><p>illage office</p><p> where the villa</p><p>ge governm</p><p>ent </p><p>officia</p><p>ls have </p><p>their </p><p>mee</p><p>tings </p><p>and thu</p><p>s w</p><p>here im</p><p>po</p><p>rtant po</p><p>litical </p><p>decisions are </p><p>made. </p><p>but it </p><p>is th</p><p>e tree </p><p>that </p><p>wa</p><p>s m</p><p>entio</p><p>ned by m</p><p>ost people d</p><p>urin</p><p>g the interv</p><p>iews. </p><p>Th</p><p>e tree w</p><p>as a mee</p><p>ting pla</p><p>ce before the village w</p><p>as created</p><p>, and the </p><p>village o</p><p>ffice was co</p><p>nstructed at an already im</p><p>po</p><p>rtant place. </p><p>Fig. 4 also sh</p><p>ow</p><p>s anoth</p><p>er place of p</p><p>olitica</p><p>l imp</p><p>ortance o</p><p>n the </p><p>border w</p><p>ith another villa</p><p>ge. Peo</p><p>ple gath</p><p>er here to discuss </p><p>pro</p><p>blem</p><p>s th</p><p>at o</p><p>ccur </p><p>on </p><p>a sca</p><p>le no</p><p>t restricted </p><p>to th</p><p>e adm</p><p>inistrati ve u</p><p>nit itself. </p><p>In F</p><p>ig. 6 </p><p>there </p><p>are no </p><p>easy d</p><p>etectable </p><p>signs </p><p>of </p><p>the </p><p>sign</p><p>ificance </p><p>of </p><p>the area. </p><p>lt is a place </p><p>mostly </p><p>used by </p><p>the </p><p>eld</p><p>ers fo</p><p>r trad</p><p>itional </p><p>religio</p><p>us purposes, </p><p>but also </p><p>for </p><p>celebrations </p><p>of </p><p>harvests, </p><p>etc. N</p><p>o </p><p>remote </p><p>sensin</p><p>g. so</p><p>il sa</p><p>mp</p><p>ling o</p><p>r land cover m</p><p>apping alone w</p><p>ou</p><p>ld have in</p><p>dica</p><p>ted th</p><p>at this is an imp</p><p>ortant feature in</p><p> the land</p><p>scape th</p><p>at wo</p><p>uld</p><p> be cru</p><p>cial to record in an E</p><p>IA. </p><p>lt mu</p><p>st be emphasized th</p><p>at the loca</p><p>l populatio</p><p>n is seld</p><p>om</p><p> a sin</p><p>gle. ho</p><p>moge</p><p>neous g</p><p>roup o</p><p>f people. T</p><p>here m</p><p>ay be oth</p><p>er trib</p><p>es or g</p><p>roup</p><p>s that be</p><p>nefit or su</p><p>ffer from</p><p> de</p><p>velopm</p><p>ent. An</p><p> en</p><p>vironm</p><p>ental featu</p><p>re mig</p><p>ht be valued by one g</p><p>rou</p><p>p, but n</p><p>ot </p><p>by o</p><p>thers. </p><p>Wh</p><p>ile in </p><p>this particu</p><p>lar </p><p>villag</p><p>e </p><p>there </p><p>wa</p><p>s a </p><p>con se</p><p>nsus on th</p><p>e issues investiga</p><p>ted. assessmen</p><p>t mu</p><p>st take in</p><p>to account that o</p><p>ther g</p><p>roup</p><p>s may h</p><p>ave intere</p><p>sts. Fig. 7 su</p><p>mm</p><p>arizes the fin</p><p>din</p><p>gs o</p><p>f the stud</p><p>y and attemp</p><p>ts to cap</p><p>ture th</p><p>e inte</p><p>rrela</p><p>tion</p><p>ship</p><p> between fo</p><p>rm and pro</p><p>cess in th</p><p>e land</p><p>scap


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