Land, Water, and Air Resources Conserving Land and Soil Waste Disposal and Recycling Water Pollution and Solutions Air Pollution and Solutions Global Changes.

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  • Slide 1
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Conserving Land and Soil Waste Disposal and Recycling Water Pollution and Solutions Air Pollution and Solutions Global Changes in the Atmosphere Table of Contents
  • Slide 2
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Main Idea Detail Identifying Main Ideas As you read the section Types of Land Use, write the main idea in a graphic organizer like the one below. Then write three supporting details that give examples of the main idea. Three uses that change the land are AgricultureMiningDevelopment Conserving Land and Soil
  • Slide 3
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Conserving Land and Soil Types of Land Use Pg. 633 1. Concept Map: Agriculture Mining Development 2. Why can less than a third of Earths land be farmed? The rest is too dry, wet, salty, or mountainous 3. List three ways that new farmland can be created. A.Clearing forests B.Draining wetlands C.Irrigating deserts 4. The construction of buildings, roads, bridges, dams, and other structures is called _____. development
  • Slide 4
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Conserving Land and Soil 5. Choices that is are a result of development. Decrease in farmland Decrease in wildlife habitats 6. the removal of nonrenewable resources from the land is called ____. mining 7. Venn Diagram: Strip Mining Underground Mining 8. Strip mining involves carrying minerals up through shafts dug in the ground. False
  • Slide 5
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Conserving Land and Soil The Structure of Soil Pg. 634 9. The way people depend on soil. To provide plants with nutrients To store and filter water to break down wastes to recycle chemical substances needed for life 10. Part of the structure of fertile soil. Litter Topsoil Subsoil Bedrock
  • Slide 6
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Conserving Land and Soil 11. Litter B- Dead leaves and grass. 12. Topsoil C- Rock fragments, nutrients, water, air, and decaying animal and plant matter. 13. Subsoil A- Rock fragments, water, and air 14. The rock that makes up Earths crust is called ____. bedrock
  • Slide 7
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Conserving Land and Soil 15. It takes about ten years to form a few centimeters of new soil. False 16. How is bedrock broken down to form soil? Freezing and thawing break apart the bedrock. Both plant roots wedged between rocks and chemicals released by lichens break the rocks into smaller pieces. Animals such as earthworms and moles help grind the rock into even smaller particles.
  • Slide 8
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Conserving Land and Soil Soil Management Poor soil management can result in erosion, nutrient depletion, and desertification. The advance of desert-like conditions into areas that previously were fertile is called desertification.
  • Slide 9
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Conserving Land and Soil Soil Management Pg. 635-637 17. List three problems that can result from poor soil management. A.Erosion B.Nutrient depletion C.Desertification 18. The process by which water, wind, or ice moves particles of rocks or soil is ____. erosion 19. List the soil conservation practice that is shown in the drawing. Terracing
  • Slide 10
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Conserving Land and Soil 20. The process of soil becoming less fertile is called ____. nutrient depletion 21. Leaving fields fallow C- Leaving fields unplanted 22. Applying fertilizer A- Adding nutrients that help crops grow better 23. Crop rotation B- Planting different crops in a field each year
  • Slide 11
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Conserving Land and Soil 24. What is desertification? It is the advanced of desert-like conditions into areas that previously were fertile. 25. In the past 50 years, a large amount of land is undergone desertification. true 26. Flowchart: Drought occurs Crops fail Soil blows away
  • Slide 12
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Conserving Land and Soil 27. The process of restoring land to a more natural, productive state is called _____. land reclamation 28. Land reclamation is currently underway all over the world. True 29. It is easier to restore damaged land and soil than it is to protect them. False
  • Slide 13
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Conserving Land and Soil 30. How can an open mine be restored to agricultural land? The mining cuts are smoothed out, then the subsoil and topsoil that had been removed before mining are replaced. Finally, grass and trees are planted.
  • Slide 14
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Soil Click the Video button to watch a movie about soil. Conserving Land and Soil
  • Slide 15
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Links on Erosion Click the SciLinks button for links on erosion. Conserving Land and Soil
  • Slide 16
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources End of Section: Conserving Land and Soil
  • Slide 17
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Before you read, preview the red headings. In a graphic organizer like the one below, ask a why, what, or how question for each heading. As you read, write the answers to your questions. Question Answer Asking Questions What is the problem with waste disposal? Each disposal method has advantages and disadvantages. What is recycling? Reclaiming raw materials and reusing them to create new products How can people help control the solid waste problem? Reduce, reuse, and recycle. Why are some wastes hazardous? Some are explosive, flammable, corrosive, or radioactive. Waste Disposal and Recycling
  • Slide 18
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Waste Disposal and Recycling The Problem of Waste Disposal Billions of tons of municipal solid waste are created in the United States each year. More than one third of that waste is paper.
  • Slide 19
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources The Problem of Waste Disposal A sanitary landfill holds municipal solid waste, construction debris, and some types of agricultural and industrial waste. Waste Disposal and Recycling
  • Slide 20
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Waste Disposal and Recycling The Problem of Waste Disposal Pg. 639-640 1.What is municipal solid waste? It is the waste produced in homes, businesses, schools, and other places in a community. 2. What are other sources of solid waste? Other sources include construction debris and certain agricultural and industrial wastes. 3. List three methods of handling solid waste. A.Burning B.Burying C.Recycling
  • Slide 21
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Waste Disposal and Recycling 4. Sentences that are true about incineration. It refers to the burning of solid waste. It can be used to generate electricity. 5. A place where solid waste is buried is called a(n) ____. landfill 6. A polluted liquid that forms when rain water dissolves chemicals in landfill waste is referred to as _____. leachate
  • Slide 22
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Waste Disposal and Recycling 7. How does a sanitary landfill differ from an open dump? Unlike an open dump, a sanitary landfill is constructed to safely hold solid waste. 8. Venn Diagram: Landfills Incinerators Recycling Pg. 641-642 9. What is recycling? It is the process of reclaiming raw materials and reusing them. 10. Recycling reduces the volume of solid waste. True
  • Slide 23
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Waste Disposal and Recycling 11. A substance that can be broken down and recycled by bacteria and other decomposers is said to be ____. biodegradable 12. List the four major categories of products that are recycled. A.Metal B.Plastic C.Glass D.Paper 13. What are some common metal objects that can be recycled? Objects include metal desks, scissors, staples, paper clips, soda cans, house siding, and window screens.
  • Slide 24
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Waste Disposal and Recycling 14. What products can be made from recycled plastic milk jugs and soda bottles? Products include fiber filling for sleeping bags, fleece jackets, carpeting, park benches, shower stalls, floor tiles, trash cans, and dock pilings. 15. Glass is one of the most difficult products to recycle. False 16. Why can paper be recycled only a few times? Each time paper is recycled, the new paper is rough. 17. Sentences that are true about recycling. It conserves resources. It saves energy.
  • Slide 25
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Waste Disposal and Recycling 18. Concept Map: Reduce Reuse Recycle 19. Helping natural decomposition processes break down waste is called ____. composting 20. How can compost be used? It can be used as a natural fertilizer for plants.
  • Slide 26
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Waste Disposal and Recycling Hazardous Wastes Pg. 644-645 21. Hazardous waste is any material that can harm human health or the environment. True 22. Toxic C- waste that poisonous 23. Explosive A- waste that reacts very quickly 24. Flammable D- waste that easily catches fire 25. Corrosive B- waste that dissolves many materials
  • Slide 27
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Waste Disposal and Recycling 26. Some radioactive waste can remain dangerous for thousands of years. True 27. A person can be exposed to hazardous wastes only by eating or drinking them. False 28. Long-term exposure to hazardous wastes can be life threatening. True
  • Slide 28
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Waste Disposal and Recycling 29. List the methods of hazardous waste disposal. A.Burial in landfills B.Incineration C.Breakdown by living organisms D.Storage in deep rock layers 30. Scientists have been able to develop completely safe and permanent methods for disposing of radioactive wastes. False
  • Slide 29
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Waste Disposal and Recycling 31. How are some radioactive wastes currently stored? They are stored in vaults dug hundreds of meters underground or in concrete and steel containers above ground. Liquid radioactive wastes may be stored in deep rock layers. 32. The best way to manage hazardous wastes is to produce less of them in the first place. True 33. What can you do at home to reduce hazardous wastes? You can find substitutes for some hazardous household chemicals such as insect sprays.
  • Slide 30
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Sanitary Landfill Activity Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about sanitary landfills. Waste Disposal and Recycling
  • Slide 31
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources End of Section: Waste Disposal and Recycling
  • Slide 32
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Before you read, preview Figure 13. Then write two questions that you have about the diagram in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, answer your questions. Q. What are some household causes of water pollution? A. Water and human wastes that are washed down sinks, toilets, and showers Q. What is sediment? A. Rock and sand that has been eroded by water Water Pollution and Solutions Previewing Visuals
  • Slide 33
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Water Pollution Wastes produced by households, agriculture, industry, mining, and other human activities can end up in water. Water Pollution and Solutions
  • Slide 34
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Water Pollution and Solutions Water-A Limited Supply Pg. 648-649 1.Sentences that are true about Earths water supply. Water is a scarce resource Salt water cannot be used for drinking or watering crops. About three quarters of Earths fresh water is in the form of ice. 2. Water stored in layers of soil and rock beneath Earths surface is called _____. groundwater 3. How does the water cycle purify water? During the water cycle, water evaporates from oceans, lakes, and rivers. As it evaporates any dissolved substances are left behind. The pure water vapor condenses into droplets that fall as precipitation.
  • Slide 35
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Waste Disposal and Recycling 4. What is a drought? A period when less rain than normal falls in an area. Water Pollution Pg. 649-651 5. Substances that cause pollution are called ____. pollutants 6. How can pollution affect water in areas far from its source? Pollutants dissolve and move throughout a body of water. 7. Most water pollution is the result of human activities. True
  • Slide 36
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Waste Disposal and Recycling 8. List four human activities that produce wastes that can end up in water. A.Agriculture B.Industry C.Households D.Mining 9. The water and human wastes that are washed down sinks, toilets, and showers are called ____. sewage 10. List three kinds of agricultural wastes. A.Animal wastes B.Fertilizer C.Pesticides
  • Slide 37
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Waste Disposal and Recycling 11. Particles of rock and sand in running water are called _____. sediments 12. How do sediments affect organisms in water? They cover up food sources, nesting sites, and eggs of organisms. They also block sunlight, which prevents algae and plants from growing. 13. How can hot water cause pollution? Heated water can change the temperature of a body of water and kill organisms living there.
  • Slide 38
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Waste Disposal and Recycling Keeping Water Clean Pg. 652-653 14. Concept Map: Proper sewage Reduction of Pollutants Effective cleanup of oil and gasoline spills 15. Few communities treat wastewater before returning it to the environment. False 16. Primary Treatment B- Using filters to remove solid materials 17. Secondary Treatment A- Using bacteria to break down wastes
  • Slide 39
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Waste Disposal and Recycling 18. What are two ways industries can reduce pollution? They can recycle wastes to recover useful materials and they can change their processes to produce less waste or less harmful waste. 19. Oil is a pollutant that nature can handle in small amounts. True 20. How do bacteria break down oil in the ocean? When oil is present, the bacteria multiply quickly and feed on the oil. 21. Gasoline or oil that leaks from an underground tank is easy to clean up. False
  • Slide 40
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Waste Disposal and Recycling 22. How can polluted groundwater be cleaned up? Groundwater can be pumped to the surface, treated, and then returned underground. 23. How can individuals prevent water pollution? They can prevent pollution by not pouring household chemicals, such as paint thinners and motor oil, down the drain.
  • Slide 41
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources More on Cleaning Up Oil Spills Click the Planet Diary button for an activity about cleaning up oil spills. Water Pollution and Solutions
  • Slide 42
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources End of Section: Water Pollution and Solutions
  • Slide 43
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources As you read, identify three causes of air pollution. Write the information in a graphic organizer like the one below. Air pollution Factory and power plant emissions Emissions from automobiles and trucks Indoor air pollutants such as toxic chemicals Air Pollution and Solutions Causes Effect Relating Cause and Effect
  • Slide 44
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Air Pollution and Solutions 1.Pollutants that are released into the air are called ____. emission 2. What is the largest source of emissions that cause air pollution today? The largest source is motor vehicles. 3. Name one natural cause of air pollution. One natural cause is an erupting volcano. Smog Pg. 655 4. A thick brownish haze formed when certain gases in the air react with sunlight is called _____. photochemical smog
  • Slide 45
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Air Pollution and Solutions 5. The major sources of photochemical smog are the gases emitted by factories. False 6. What is the major chemical found in smog? Ozone is the major chemical found in smog. 7. What is a temperature inversion? It is a condition in which a layer of warm air prevents cooler rising air from escaping into higher parts of the atmosphere.
  • Slide 46
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Air Pollution and Solutions 8. Which layer of air shown in the drawing is the warmest during a temperature inversion? Layer B is the warmest 9. Why does a temperature inversion make smog more concentrated and dangerous? A temperature inversion traps polluted air and holds it closed to Earths surface. 10. What are the health effects of smog? Smog can irritate peoples eyes and throats, cause breathing problems, and harm the bodys defenses against infection.
  • Slide 47
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Air Pollution and Solutions Acid Rain Pg. 656 11. Precipitation that is more acidic than normal because of air pollution is called _____. acid rain 12. Flowchart: Bottom: Sulfur oxides Right: Nitric oxides 13. What are the effects of acid rain? Acid rain kills many fish and their eggs, damages plants, destroys forests, reacts with stone and metal in buildings and statues, and makes automobiles rust more quickly.
  • Slide 48
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Indoor Air Pollution Some substances that cause indoor air pollution, such as dust and pet hair, bother only those people who are allergic to them. Other indoor air pollutants, such as toxic chemicals, can affect anyone. Air Pollution and Solutions
  • Slide 49
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Air Pollution and Solutions Indoor Air Pollution Pg. 657 14. What substances cause indoor air pollution? Its caused by dust, pet hair, tobacco smoke, glues, and cleaning supplies. 15. Sentences that are true about carbon monoxide. It is colorless and odorless 16. Sentences that are true about radon. It is colorless and odorless It may cause cancer It is radioactive. Reducing Air Pollution pg. 658-659 17. The key to reducing air pollution is to control ____. emission
  • Slide 50
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Air Pollution and Solutions 18. Venn Diagram: Scrubbers Catalytic Converters 19. Why does using less energy reduce air pollution? Using less energy reduces the amount of fuels that are burned, and this reduces air pollution.
  • Slide 51
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Reducing Air Pollution The key to reducing air pollution is to control emissions. A smokestack scrubber removes pollutants such as sulfur dioxide from emissions. Air Pollution and Solutions
  • Slide 52
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources More on Air Pollution Click the Planet Diary button for an activity about air pollution. Air Pollution and Solutions
  • Slide 53
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources End of Section: Air Pollution and Solutions
  • Slide 54
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Outlining As you read, make an outline about global atmospheric changes that you can use for review. Use the red headings for the main ideas and the blue headings for the supporting ideas. Global Changes in the Atmosphere I.The Thinning of the Ozone Layer A.The Source of Ozone B.The Ozone Hole C.Whats Being Done II.Global Climate Change A.The Greenhouse Effect B.Global Warming C.Possible Consequences D.The Difficulty of Predicting Climate Change Global Changes in the Atmosphere
  • Slide 55
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Ozone Cycle Global Changes in the Atmosphere When ultraviolet radiation from the sun strikes an ozone molecule, the ozone molecule splits into an oxygen molecule and a free oxygen atom.
  • Slide 56
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Global Changes in the Atmosphere The Thinning of the Ozone Layer Pg.663-665 1.A layer of the upper atmosphere that protects people from the effects of too much ultraviolet radiation is the _____. ozone layer 2. Ozone is constantly being made and destroyed. True 3. What is the major cause of the ozone hole? The major source is a group of gases called chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, that were used in many household products.
  • Slide 57
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Air Pollution and Solutions 4. What products contained chlorofluorocarbons? Products include refrigerators, air conditioners, fire extinguishers, and aerosol spray cans. Global Climate Change Pg.666-667 5. What is the greenhouse effect? It is the trapping of heat near Earths surface in the atmosphere 6. Drawing:
  • Slide 58
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Global Climate Change The trapping of heat near Earths surface is called the greenhouse effect. Global Changes in the Atmosphere
  • Slide 59
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Air Pollution and Solutions 7. What is the theory of global warming? The theory predicts that increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will cause Earths average temperature to continue to rise. 8. Sentences that are true about consequences of global warming. There might be more severe storms. Parts of the polar ice cap would melt, causing increased flooding. It would affect climate patterns all over the world.
  • Slide 60
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Air Pollution and Solutions Key Terms: 1. Fertilizer 2. Development 3. Subsoil 4. Leachate 5. Groundwater 6. Pollutant 7. Pesticide 8.Erosion 9. Recycling 10.Bedrock 11. Topsoil 12. Incineration
  • Slide 61
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Calculating a Concentration Levels of pollutants are often written as concentrations. A concentration is a ratio that compares the amount of one substance to the amount of another substance. For example, suppose that the concentration of ozone in part of the atmosphere is 3 parts per million. This means that there are 3 molecules of ozone in 1,000,000 molecules of air. This ratio can be written in three other ways: 3:1,000,000 3 to 1,000,000 Global Changes in the Atmosphere
  • Slide 62
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Calculating a Concentration Practice Problem Express each of these concentrations in three different ways. 7 parts per hundred 7 : 100 7 to 100 Global Changes in the Atmosphere
  • Slide 63
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Calculating a Concentration Practice Problem Express each of these concentrations in three different ways. 25 parts per billion 25 : 1,000,000,000 25 to 1,000,000,000 Global Changes in the Atmosphere
  • Slide 64
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Chlorine Levels The line graph shows a scientist's measurements and predictions of how the ban on CFCs might affect chlorine levels in the atmosphere. The red line shows the levels of chlorine without the ban on CFCs. The blue line shows the levels with the ban on CFCs. Global Changes in the Atmosphere
  • Slide 65
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Chlorine Levels Year; chlorine level Reading Graphs: What variable is plotted on the horizontal axis? What variable is plotted on the vertical axis? Global Changes in the Atmosphere
  • Slide 66
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Chlorine Levels The red line; the blue line shows gradually diminishing chlorine levels. Interpreting Data: Which graphed line shows rising levels of chlorine? What trend does the other line show? Global Changes in the Atmosphere
  • Slide 67
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Chlorine Levels The ban did not exist in 1985, so prediction of the levels without the ban could not be made before then. Inferring: Why do the two lines start at the same point? Global Changes in the Atmosphere
  • Slide 68
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Chlorine Levels The difference in chlorine levels becomes greater over time. Drawing Conclusions: How does the relationship between the two lines change? Global Changes in the Atmosphere
  • Slide 69
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Ozone Hole Click the Video button to watch a movie about the ozone hole. Global Changes in the Atmosphere
  • Slide 70
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Links on Changes in Climate Click the SciLinks button for links on changes in climate. Global Changes in the Atmosphere
  • Slide 71
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources End of Section: Global Changes in the Atmosphere
  • Slide 72
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources Graphic Organizer Indoor Dust is caused by Toxic chemicals Radon Carbon monoxide Cigarette smoke Pet hair Ozone Outdoor Acid rain Smog includes is caused by Sulfur oxides Nitrogen oxides can be Air pollution
  • Slide 73
  • Land, Water, and Air Resources End of Section: Graphic Organizer

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