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KS4 Chemistry. The Periodic Table. Contents. The Periodic Table. Elements and atomic number. Arranging elements. Patterns of behaviour. Electronic structure. Teacher resources. What are all substances made of?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • KS4 Chemistry The Periodic Table

  • ContentsThe Periodic Table Elements and atomic number Arranging elements Electronic structure Patterns of behaviour Teacher resources

  • What are all substances made of?to gold, an unreactive metal.From chlorine, a poisonous gasFrom sodium, a reactive metalThere are millions of different substances in the world but what are they all made of?Elements the building blocks of all substances.There are about 100 different elements in a variety of forms.to oxygen, a life-giving gas.

  • Can you recognise an element by its properties?You will be given four facts about some everyday substances.

    For each one, choose the key fact that shows whether or not it is an element.

  • 1. Is sawdust an element?Facts about sawdust:a)Sawdust is a poor conductor of electricity.b)You make sawdust by breaking wood into very tiny pieces.c)When you heat sawdust, it changes to charcoal and gives off a flammable gas.d)If sawdust is sprinkled on the soil, it slowly rots away.

    Choose one key fact.

  • 2. Is oxygen an element?Facts about oxygen:a)Animal life on Earth depends on oxygen.b)Oxygen is a gas that is very difficult to liquefy.c)Whatever chemical tests you try, oxygen never breaks down into other substances.d)When oxygen reacts with carbon, it makes carbon dioxide.

    Choose one key fact.

  • 3. Is chalk an element?Facts about chalk:a)When chalk is heated, it changes into lime and carbon dioxide.b)When chalk reacts with acids, it forms carbon dioxide.c)Chalk is a common rock; for example, the white cliffs of Dover are made of chalk.d)Chalk is soft, so it can be used to write with.

    Choose one key fact.

  • 4. Is water an element?Facts about water:a)Water is a liquid at room temperature.b)Fish can live in water by breathing dissolved air.c)When you heat water it boils to make steam; when steam is cooled it condenses and makes water again.d)When an electric current passes through water, it splits it up into hydrogen and oxygen.

    Choose one key fact.

  • 5. Is salt an element?Facts about salt:a)Salt enhances the flavour of other foods, making it an important cookery ingredient.b)Salt is unusual: it is only slightly more soluble in hot water than in cold water.c)Salt melts at quite a high temperature: 801C. d)Molten salt changes into sodium and chlorine when an electric current passes through it.

    Choose one key fact.

  • Can you recognise an element?In the next section you are not told the names of the substances.

    For each one, you have to decide: Whether it is an element.Which is the key fact.

    You get a bonus mark for each substance you can name correctly.

  • 6. Is Substance 1 an element?Facts about Substance 1:a)It is a brown solid that can be polished to a shiny bright finish.b)When heated, it turns black. At 1085C it melts to a shiny, runny liquid.c)The solid and the liquid are very good conductors of electricity.d)When heated, or when it conducts electricity, it does not break down into other substances.

    Is Substance 1 an element?Which is the key fact?What is Substance 1?

  • 7. Is Substance 2 an element?Facts about Substance 2:a)It is a gas at room temperature.b)It is completely unchanged by heat, electricity or other chemical substances.c)It glows blue/green when it conducts electricity in a discharge tube (like a fluorescent light tube).d)About 1% of the Earths atmosphere consists of Substance 2.Is Substance 2 an element?Which is the key fact?What is Substance 2?

  • 8. Is Substance 3 an element?Facts about Substance 3:a)It is a white, crystalline solid that is non-poisonous and has a sweet taste.b)When heated it melts, making a thick brown liquid which bubbles and slowly changes into a black solid.c)Neither the white solid nor the solution conduct electricity.d)It dissolves very well in water.

    Is Substance 3 an element?Which is the key fact?What is Substance 3?

  • 9. Is Substance 4 an element?Facts about Substance 4: a)It is a gas at room temperature. b)Below 183C the gas turns to a liquid. c)The gas is very flammable. d)When it burns, carbon dioxide and water are the only products.

    Is Substance 4 an element?Which is the key fact?What is Substance 4?

  • 10. Is Substance 5 an element?Facts about Substance 5: a)It is a solid at room temperature that can exist in several different forms.b)One form is white, catches fire easily and burns vigorously with a spluttering yellow flame.c)Another form is reddish brown, catches fire when strongly heated and burns slowly with a yellow glow.d)Whatever chemical tests you try, none of the forms ever breaks down into other substances.

    Is Substance 5 an element?Which is the key fact?What is Substance 5?

  • Properties of elementsWhat is a property of an element? A property is any characteristic of an element.For example, here are some properties of sodium:It would be really useful to be able to predict properties of elements instead of having to remember them!metallichighly reactivesolid but melts easilyfeels light (low density)Are there any patterns in the properties of elements?

  • Properties and atomic numberScientists discovered that the properties of elements seemed to depend on atomic number.What is the atomic number of an element?Atoms contain three types of particles:Where are these particles found in an atom?

    particlechargerelative massproton+11neutron01electron-10.0005

  • What is atomic number?Atomic number = the number of protons in an atomprotonelectronneutronheliumnucleusWhat are the particles in this helium atom?What is the atomic number of helium?

  • Atomic number and electronsAtoms of elements contain equal numbers of protons and electrons. Atoms of elements have no charge, they are neutral. What is the charge on a fluorine atom?19F9How are the number of electrons and atomic number related in a neutral atom? 9 protons 9 electrons10 neutrons charge = +9 charge = - 9 charge = 0total charge = 0They are the same. How does this affect the charge of such atoms?

  • ContentsThe Periodic Table Elements and atomic number Arranging elements Electronic structure Patterns of behaviour Teacher resources

  • Atomic number and patternsreactive metalsunreactive gasesreactive gasesWhen scientists arranged elements in order of increasing atomic number they found patterns in their properties.

  • Positions of similar elementsHow many elements are there from one reactive metal to the next?How many elements are there from one reactive gas to the next?88Compare the positions of similar elements.reactive gasesreactive metals

  • Arranging elementsArranging these strips in rowsDivide the elements at set intervals, arrange them according to their properties and what patterns do you see?cut herecut herecut hereK

  • Arranging elementsKHeWhen elements are arranged according to their properties what patterns do you see and what element is missing?reactive metalsunreactive gasesreactive gasesSimilar elements go into the same columns. Hydrogen is an exception. This reactive gas is best positioned above the reactive metals.Hhydrogen is a special case

  • The periodic tableArranging all the elements by atomic number and properties led to the creation ofthe periodic table

  • Columns of elementsHLiNaKRbCsFrBeMgCaSrBaRaGaInTlAlBGeSnPbSiCSbBiPNAsSeTePoOSHeKrNeArRnXeScTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnYZrNbMoTcRuPdAgCdRhHfTaWReOsIrAuHgLaPtRfDbSgBhHsMt??Ac?BrAtClFIWhat are columns of elements called?Groups

  • Rows of elementsHHeLiBeNOFNeBCNaMgAlPSClArSiKScTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeSeBrCaKrAsRbYZrNbMoTcRuPdAgCdInSnSbSrTeRhIXeCsBaHfTaWReOsIrAuHgTlPbBiPoLaAtPtRnFrRaRfDbSgBhHsMt??Ac?PeriodsWhat are rows of elements called?Period number

  • Name the positionHHeLiNaKRbCsFrBeScTiMgVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeSeBrCaKrYZrNbMoTcRuPdAgCdInSnSbSrTeRhBaHfTaWReOsIrAuHgTlPbBiPoLaAtPtRaRfDbSgBhHsMt??Ac?AlPNOSClFNeArRnISiXeBCAsWhat is the Group and Period of this element? MgCGroup 2 Group 4Group 7ClKGroup 1MgCClK76543210234567Period 3Period 2Period 3Period 41

  • Missing elements!H1HeLiNaKRbCsFrBeScTiMgVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeSeBrCaKrYZrNbMoTcRuPdAgCdInSnSbSrTeRhBaHfTaWReOsIrAuHgTlPbBiPoLaAtPtRaRfDbSgBhHsMt??Ac?AlPNOSClFNeArRnISiXeBCAsIn this periodic table the symbols are replaced by atomic numbers. Some of the numbers are missing where?Two more periods of elements fit here but are only shown on some periodic tables. These are called the lanthanides and actinides.

  • ContentsThe Periodic Table Elements and atomic number Arranging elements Electronic structure Patterns of behaviour Teacher resources

  • Patterns 1: Metals and non-metalson the left and centre mostly on the rightWhere are different types of elements grouped together on the periodic table?metalsnon-metalsin between metals and non-metalsmetalloidsMetalloids arent type of rock music fan!

    Metalloids actually have some properties similar to metals and other properties similar to no-metals.

    Can you name a metalloid element?

  • Metals, non-metals and metalloids

  • Metal, non-metal or metalloid?silicon (Si)metalloidfrancium (Fr)metalscandium (Sc)metalkrypton (Kr)non-metalcobalt (Co)metalIs this element a metal, non-metal or metalloid? KrScFrSiCo

  • Patterns 2: Physical stateOnly two elements are liquids at room temperature. Where are elements of different states grouped together on the periodic table?on the left, in the centre and to the right only two elements are liquidsolidsliquidsmostly on the far rightgasesmercurybromineCan you name these two e