Ks4 adaptation

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  • 1. KS4 BiologyAdaptation1 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004

2. ContentsAdaptationWhat is an adaptation?Adaptations for a cold climateAdaptations for a dry climateOther adaptationsAdaptation activities2 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004 3. Different types of habitatIn general, there are three major habitat types in the world.land habitatsfreshwater habitats marine habitatsHow do organisms survive in such different habitats?3 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004 4. What is an adaptation?A habitat is only populated by organisms that areadapted to survive there.Adaptations are special features or behaviours thatmake an organism particularly suited to its environment.Adaptations are a part of the evolutionary process.Why is it important that living things are adapted to theirenvironment?Adaptations increase an organisms chance of survivaland so increase its chance of reproducing.Why is reproduction so important for all living species?4 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004 5. Matching organisms to their habitat5 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004 6. ContentsAdaptationWhat is an adaptation?Adaptations for a cold climateAdaptations for a dry climateOther adaptationsAdaptation activities6 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004 7. How are polar bears adapted?How are polar bears adapted to life in an extremely coldclimate? Small ears help to reduce heat loss. Thick fur and a thick layer of body fat insulate from the cold. White fur acts as camouflage. Large feet spread the bodys weight. The wide paws act as good paddles and snow shoes.7 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004 8. How are polar bears adapted?Other adaptations that polar bears have evolved to copewith conditions in the harsh polar environment are:Eyes have brown irisesto reduce the glare fromsunlight reflection.Greasy fur repels waterand keeps the bear dry.Skin is actually blackto absorb any heattransmitted throughthe hairs.Body surface area issmall compared to volumeto reduce heat loss.8 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004 9. ContentsAdaptationWhat is an adaptation?Adaptations for a cold climateAdaptations for a dry climateOther adaptationsAdaptation activities9 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004 10. Curious camel facts Camels are amazing creatures! Did you know thatcamels have threestomachs....some camels live toover 40 years old.some Bactrian camelscan transport 450 kg.archaeological findsshow that they originatedin North America.Somalia is home toover 6 million camels!10 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004 11. How is a camel adapted? How is a camel adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate?Brown coat for camouflage.Fat is stored in the hump.There is no other body fatto prevent overheating.Loses little water throughsweating or urine.Long, thin legs mean thebody surface area is largecompared to volumeto increase heat loss.Wide feet for spreadingbody weight over softshifting sand.11 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004 12. How is a camel adapted? Other adaptations that camels have evolved to cope with conditions in the harsh desert environment are: Nostrils can closeEars are lined with when needed tofur to prevent sand protect the camel and dust from in sandstorms.getting in. A very varied diet, Long eyelashes ranging from grassprotect the eyes and bark to thornsfrom sand and and bones, is eaten.dust.12 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004 13. How is a cactus adapted? How is a cactus adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate? Thick, waxy surface to reduce water loss.Leaves are narrow spinesthat reduce water loss andprotect from predators.Stores water in fleshy stem.Plant surface area issmall compared to volumeto reduce water loss.Some have shallow,spreading roots forsurface water, othershave deep roots.13 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004 14. How is a kangaroo rat adapted? A kangaroo rat is a mammal that lives in dry desert habitats. How is this small animal adapted to this harsh environment?Brown fur for camouflage Nostrils can closedand only goes out at night when needed towhen it is much cooler. protect the camel in sandstorms. Most water comes fromits diet of seeds.Does not sweat, or pant,to reduce water loss. A very varied diet Large back feet to escape ranging from grass from predators allow it and bark to thorns to hop 2 metres at a time! and bones. Long tail for balancewhen hopping.14 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004 15. Contents Adaptation What is an adaptation? Adaptations for a cold climate Adaptations for a dry climate Other adaptations Adaptation activities15 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004 16. Aquatic adaptations How is this barracuda adapted to an aquatic environment? Streamlined shape to reduce friction when moving through water.Silver colouringallows the fishto be camouflaged. Gills have a large surface area so that oxygen can be extracted from the surrounding water.16 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004 17. Unusual plant adaptations Plants can live in acid or waterlogged soils where there is little nitrate. Some plants have evolved a rather cunning adaptation to obtain the nutrients they need. Pitcher plants have a large hollow filled with fluid that traps insects or other small organisms that may fall in. Hairs on the slippery inside of the plant are angled down to ensure that the victim cannot escape! The plant digests its victims to absorb the nitrates it needs!17 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004 18. Contents Adaptation What is an adaptation? Adaptations for a cold climate Adaptations for a dry climate Other adaptations Adaptation activities18 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004 19. True or false?19 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004 20. Matching adaptations20 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004 21. Multiple-choice quiz21 of 21 Boardworks Ltd 2004