knowledge era paradigms -agile indiaconf2016

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  • Knowledge Era Paradigms:

    Fundamental Rationale behind Agile

    Agile India Conference

    Bangalore, Mar 2016

    Vishu Hegde vishu@pm-powerconsulting.com

  • Why Knowledge Era Paradigms?

    2

    Why? What? How?

    Rationale behind

    Agile Values, Principles, Practices

  • Brief history of civilization

    3

    Agricultural Era

    Labour intensive

    Local

    Mass production / distribution

    Industrial Era

    Mechanization, Mass production

    Globalization, Manufacturing driven economy

    Product Design, innovation

    Knowledge Era

    Extreme Globalization, Anytime-Anywhere (e.g. Internet)

    Knowledge driven Industries, Economies

    Thinking, Collective-wisdom

    Everything in this world is done twice once in the Mind and then in the outside world Stephen Covey Challenge in knowledge era is the first part accuracy & speed of thinking, collective thinking

  • Legacy of Industrial Era

    Current Management, Leadership, Quality Management philosophies in Software industry (e.g. CMM, Six Sigma, PMI) are influenced by the Industrial Era experiences Improper application of mass production principles to design/creation principles

    Knowledge Era products need a different approach on Quality, Management, Engineering Human centric & Knowledge centric

    Industrial Era Product/Business 20% 80%

    Knowledge Era Product/Business 20% 80%

    Design/Creation

    Intensive

    Mass-production &

    Distribution Intensive

    Management, Leadership, Quality Management, CMMI, Six Sigma, PMI,

  • What is the raw material for software?

    Its Knowledge/ Idea

    Where does the transformation from raw material to finished product happen?

    Its in the Minds of people

    Computer is only a tool to capture & facilitate the thoughts

    How do we know then, how the transformation is happening?

    Break the transformation into smaller steps

    Bring visibility (e.g. pictures, documents, models, prototypes)

    What is the measuring equipment to verify whether transformation is happening correctly or not? (the calipers?)

    Another knowledge body (e.g. peers, customers, experts)

    Collective wisdom (Peer Reviews, Brainstorming)

    Knowledge Era Product Engineering

    From raw material to finished product, the object is not physical in nature. There are no Laws of Physics governing the engineering principles, like in Mechanical

    or Civil engineering

    The Paradigm Shift in Knowledge Era

  • Knowledge Era vs Industrial Era Production Systems

    Characteristics Industrial Era Knowledge Era

    Raw Material

    Transformation

    Engines

    Productivity

    Interaction

    The equation

    Input Output

    Intangible in nature: knowledge, Idea Physical in nature

    Machines: Stereotype,

    Repetitive

    Touch time of Tools

    People: Idiosyncratic, changing

    Touch time of Minds

    People work around the

    machines

    People work with people (including

    Customers) High collaboration, communication

    Man-Machine-Material Capable People-Collaborating-with

    Common Protocols

  • PARADIGM SHIFT 1

    Repeatable process to Contextual process

    7

  • What is Process?

    Think of a phrase or sentence to describe Process.

    Typical responses:

    Set of steps to perform to get output from input

    Sequence of operations to be performed

    Standard way of doing things

    Repeatable tasks to be performed

    Clearly documented instructions to do a job

    ..

  • Game with Mathematics

    1 1 1 = 6 2 2 2 = 6 3 3 3 = 6 4 4 4 = 6 5 5 5 = 6 6 6 6 = 6 7 7 7 = 6 8 8 8 = 6 9 9 9 = 6

    Is this possible? What Operations do you perform to get this Consistent output?

  • Repeatable Process ??

    (1 + 1 + 1)! = 6 2 + 2 + 2 = 6 3 x 3 - 3 = 6 4 + 4 + 4 = 6 5 + 5 / 5 = 6 6 + 6 - 6 = 6 -7 / 7 + 7 = 6 8 + 8 + 8 = 6 9 x 9 - 9 = 6

    f (x) = y

    If y needs to be consistent while x is varying, can f() be constant?

    3 3 3

  • Repeatable Process or Consistent Outcome?

    Process Input Output

    In Knowledge Era scenario like Software, Input has high variability people, technology, project contexts

    In order to maintain Output consistent, Process should change

    Contextual Process

    Variable Input

    Consistent Outcome

    Repeatable Process leads to Consistent Outcome is an Industrial Era paradigm

    Because Input is fairly homogeneous

    Focus should be on Contextual Process (not Repeatable Process) and Consistent Outcome

  • PARADIGM SHIFT 2

    Process-driven to Principles-driven

    12

  • How to Manage when Variability & Diversity are high?

    Productivity/Efficiency?

    Quality?

    Consistency/Repeatability?

    Can we define Rules and Dos & Donts for all possible cases?

    Values & Principles are the way

    Agile practices driven by principles & values

    Simple Rules, Rich Relationships

    Contextual Team-Process

    Innovation thrives in diversity

  • Defect Prevention context

    Most Defects relate to Materials & Machines

    Number of Causes are relatively less

    E.g. Poor Soldering

    Defect Fix is mostly physical in nature

    E.g. Tune Temperature, Voltage

    Once fixed the machines stay tuned

    Industrial Era

    Most Defects relate to Human Errors

    Number of Causes are relatively large

    E.g. Poor Coding

    Defect Fix is mostly not physical in nature

    E.g. Thinking, Communication,

    Persons characteristics continuously change

    Knowledge Era

    One of the most important ways of Defect Prevention in Knowledge Era is taking

    people through Experience/Learning: Learn & Adapt cycles in Agile; Short iterations; Retrospective

  • PARADIGM SHIFT 3

    Touch-time of tools to Touch-time of minds

    15

  • Mind Switch Game

    Round 1

    Keep a timer for 30 seconds

    On number 1, keep adding number 3 successively for 30 sec

    Keep a timer for 30 seconds

    On number 1, keep adding number 4 successively for 30 sec

    Note down the total count of numbers

    Round 2

    Keep a timer for 60 seconds

    On number 1, keep adding numbers 3 & 4 alternatively in two tables for 60 sec

    Note down the total count of numbers

    Observe count dropping by about 50% in round 2

    16

  • Most important factor for Productivity, Efficiency, Quality

    Touch-time of Mind Impacted

    Clarity, Vision

    Emotions

    Motivation

    Positive

    Energy

    Workplace

    distractions

    Mind Capacity

    Interactions

    with people

    Who is

    resp

    onsi

    ble

    ?

    Onus on

    Individual

    Onus on

    Others

    Family

    Social

    Managers

    Peers

    Subordinates

    Customers

    Partners

    Onus on

    Organization

    Workplace Design

    Organization Design

    Org Policies

    Self-Managed Individual

    Self-Managed Team

    -Time boxing - Focus - Scrum Master: Prevent interference Remove obstacles

  • Some Facts about Software Projects

    Studies have shown that :

    Almost 80% of Software Defects are human errors oversight, communication gap, lack of collaboration, distractions etc.

    Knowledge Workers Productivity varies as much as 25 times based on their state of Mind

    18

  • PARADIGM SHIFT 4

    Supervised to Self-managed

    19

  • Management/Quality is more Intrinsic in Knowledge Era

    A Construction industry analogy

    A prominent construction company has different supervisory ratios

    One Supervisor for every 25 civil construction laborers

    One supervisor for every 10 mechanical worker

    One supervisor for every 5 electrician

    Moral of the story: Higher the skilled labor, higher the supervision

    needed !

    For Software Engineering ?

    So, by deduction, one supervisor for one engineer !!!

    In other words, PRACTICALLY, each Software Engineer needs to be self-supervised

    Self managed individuals , Self managed teams

  • PARADIGM SHIFT 5

    Measuring to Sensing

    21

  • What Moves the Iceberg?

    Wind

    Current

    20% Visible part

    80% Invisible part

  • What makes Projects successful?

    Hard aspects

    Soft aspects

    20% Visible part

    80% Invisible part

    Effort

    Schedule Cost

    Defects

    .

    . Shared vision

    Motivation Team engagement

    Customer engagement

    Communication

    Collaboration

    Lagging Indicators Effect

    Leading Indicators Cause

  • Measurement Considerations

    Because of idiosyncratic human beings as the transformation engines and dealing with intangibles like knowledge, ideaetc., measurement is a challenge

    What we CAN measure are perhaps not very significant

    E.g.: Defect Removal Efficiency, Effort/Schedule variance, - Mostly Lagging Indicators

    Those which are significant, are not so visible/measurable

    People experience, Motivation, Collaboration, level of engagement of people (touch time of mind)

    Sensing & Sense-making is more impo