kitchen and bathroom renovation guide

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By this guide you can repair your kitchen and bathroom.

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VOL 6THE

REHAB

GUIDE

KITCHENS&BATHS

PATH(PartnershipforAdvancingTechnologyinHousing)isanewprivate/publicefforttodevelop,demon strate,andgainwidespreadmarketacceptancefortheNextGenerationofAmericanhousing.Through theuseofneworinnovativetechnologiesthegoalofPATHistoimprovethequality,durability,environ mentalefciency,andaffordabilityoftomorrowshomes. Initiated at the request of the White House, PATH is managed and supported by the Department of HousingandUrbanDevelopment(HUD).Inaddition,allFederalAgenciesthatengageinhousingresearch andtechnologydevelopmentarePATHPartners,includingtheDepartmentsofEnergyandCommerce,as well as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).Stateandlocalgovernmentsandotherparticipantsfromthepublicsectorarealsopartnersin PATH.Productmanufacturers,homebuilders,insurancecompanies,andlendersrepresentprivateindus tryinthePATHpartnership. TolearnmoreaboutPATH,pleasecontact:

PATH SuiteB133 4517thStreetSW Washington,DC20410 202-708-4250(fax) e-mail:pathnet@pathnet.org website:www.pathnet.org

DISCLAIMERThestatementsandconclusionscontainedinthisreportarethoseofStevenWinterAssociates,Inc.and donotnecessarilyreecttheviewsoftheDepartmentofHousingandUrbanDevelopment.StevenWinter Associates,Inc.hasmadeeveryefforttoverifytheaccuracyandappropriatenessofthereportscontent. However,noguaranteeoftheaccuracyorcompletenessoftheinformationoracceptabilityforcompliance withanyindustrystandardormandatoryrequirementofanycode,law,orregulationiseitherofferedor implied.Theproductslistedinthereportareincludedonlyasexamplesofsomeavailableproducts.No endorsement,recommendation,orevaluationoftheseproductsortheiruseisgivenorimplied.

K I T C H E N S & B AT H SVOLUME 6 OF THE REHAB GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTSFOREWORD3 1.INTRODUCTION4 2.KITCHEN&BATHOVERVIEW6 3.CABINETS10 4.COUNTERTOPS25 5.APPLIANCES36 6.SINKS&LAVATORIES49 7.TUBS&SHOWERS57 8.TOILETS&BIDETS67 APPENDIX:PROFESSIONALASSOCIATIONS&RESEARCHCENTERS73

Preparedfor: U.S.DepartmentofHousing andUrbanDevelopment OfceofPolicyDevelopment andResearch Preparedby: StevenWinterAssociates,Inc. BuildingSystemsConsultants Norwalk,CT ContractDUIOOCOOOOO5956 September1999

CREDITSSTEVENWINTERASSOCIATES,INC.STAFFMEMBERS WHOWEREINSTRUMENTALINTHEDEVELOPMENTAND PRODUCTIONOFTHISGUIDEBOOKINCLUDE: StevenWinter Principal-in-charge MichaelJ.Crosbie,Ph.D.,RA ProjectmanagerandEditor-in-chief MasakiFurukawa Illustrator STAFFMEMBERSOFMARYJOPETERSON,INC., SUB-CONTRACTOR,WHOWEREINSTRUMENTAL INTHEDEVELOPMENTANDPRODUCTION OFTHISGUIDEBOOKINCLUDE: MaryJoPeterson President TerriMcBride DesignConsultant

U.S.DEPARTMENTOFHOUSINGANDURBANDEVELOPMENT OFFICEOFPOLICYDEVELOPMENTANDRESEARCH,AFFORDABLE HOUSINGRESEARCHANDTECHNOLOGYDIVISION DavidEngel Director NelsonCarbonell Seniorarchitect GUIDEBOOKDESIGN AndrewP.Kner ArtDirector MicheleL.Trombley AssistantArtDirector ElizabethRosen Symbols

FOREWORD

PresidentClintonrecognizesthatresearchandtechnologicalinnovationarecrucialifAmericaistomeet itsaffordablehousingneeds.In1998,thePresidentintroducedamajornewinitiative:ThePartnershipfor AdvancingTechnologyinHousing(PATH).Thisinitiativebringstogetherleadersfromthehomebuilding, productmanufacturing,insurance,andnancialindustries,aswellasrepresentativesfromfederalagencies, tospurhousingdesignandconstructioninnovations. Thankstothedevelopmentofnewmachineryandmaterialsandthecreationofnewtechnologies andtechniques,theconstructionindustryhasmadegreatprogress.Butabreakthroughmaterial,alaborsavingtool,oracost-cuttingtechniqueisonlyvaluableifitiswidelyadopted,whichmeanstheconstruction industrymustrstbecomeawareofthesenewdevelopments. TheDepartmentofHousingandUrbanDevelopmentcanhelp.Wehavecommissionedasetof guidebooksthatwillpresentstate-of-the-arttechniques,materials,andtechnologiesforhousingrehabil itation.Thisvolume,Kitchens&Baths,isthesixthofnineguidebooksknowncollectivelyasTheRehab Guidethatwillappearoverthenextfewyears. Wearepresentingtheseguidebooksbecause,likeresearchandtechnologicalinnovation,housing rehabilitationisanessentialcomponentofAmericascommitmenttoprovideaffordablehousing.Iam pleasedtopresentthisimportantpublicationinthehopethatitwillbecomeavaluableresourcethatleads toaffordable,highqualityrehabilitation,andthustobetterhousingforallAmericans.

AndrewCuomo,Secretary U.S.DepartmentofHousingandUrbanDevelopment

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INTRODUCTIONThisseriesofguidebookshasbeenproducedbytheU.S.DepartmentofHousingandUrbanDevelopment tokeepthedesignandconstructionindustryabreastofinnovationsandstate-of-the-artpracticesinhome rehabilitation.Asistoooftenthecase,innovativetechniques,materials,technologies,andproductsare slowtomaketheirwayintoacceptedpractice. Itisevidentthatsuchinnovationswillnotadvanceunless theindustryismadeawareofthemandtheyaretested. TheRehabGuide isintendedtoacceleratethis processbyinformingbuilders,architects,engineers,andotherhousingrehabilitationprofessionalsabout suchinnovationsandstate-of-the-artpractices. TheRehabGuide wasalsopromptedbythelackofacomprehensivepublicationtomakethedesign and construction industry aware of innovative and cost-saving developments in housing rehabilitation. Professionaltrademagazines,conferences,andtradeshowsoffersomedisseminationofthisinformation,but theyarerarelyfocusedexclusivelyonhousingrehabilitation,asthisseriesis,noraretheycomprehensive.

FOCUS OF THE REHAB GUIDEThefocusofthisseriesisonhousingrehabilitation,whichisdifferentthanhomeimprovement.Rehabilitate meanstorestoretogoodcondition,notnecessarilytoimprovetoastatethatissignicantlydifferentthanthe original.Thisisaneline,butitdistinguishesthisseriesfromhomeimprovementbookswrittenfortheama teur.TheRehabGuide focusesonbuildingtechnology,materials,components,andtechniquesratherthan projectssuchasaddinganewroom,convertingagarageintoaden,ornishinganattic.NorisTheRehab Guide intendedtobeadiagnostictool;anumberofsuchbooksarealreadyavailabletotheindustry. Thecontentforthisguidebook,Kitchen&Baths,hasbeengatheredfromprofessionalsinthe housingrehabilitationeld;manufacturersandsuppliersofinnovativetechnologies,materials,compo nents,tools,andequipment;tradeshows,conferences,reports,andpublicationsconsideringsuchissues; tradeorganizations;andbuildingresearchcenters.

A NOTE ON SOURCESAvarietyofexcellentresourcesexistsforinformationonkitchenandbathroomsystemsandissues. The KitchenandBathIndustryTechnicalManuals,publishedbytheNationalKitchenandBathAssociation, includeresourcebooksthataddressmechanicalsystems,constructionconsiderations,function,designele ments,equipment,andproductsrelatingtokitchensandbathrooms.Acomprehensivesourceformanu facturersofcabinetry,hardware,appliances,xtures,ttings,surfacematerials,andotherproductsrelat ingtokitchensorbathsisavailablefromKitchenandBathBusinessandKitchenandBathDesignNews. Helpful information is also accessible via the Internet. Most equipment manufacturers and monthlymagazineshaveWebsiteswherespecicproductinformationandpastarticlescanberetrieved. TheDepartmentofEnergyprovidesawealthofinformationonenergyconservingtechniquesandtech nologiesatwww.eren.doe.gov/consumerinfo/.

LEAD PAINT HAZARDThehazardofleadpaintinhousesconstructedbeforethe1980sisnotdiscussedintheTheRehabGuide becausethereisextensivematerialavailablefromHUD,theEnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA),andother sources.However,ifyouareanon-protorrehabcontractorrehabilitatingpre-1978housingforsaleorrent, orifyouareahomeownerrehabilitatingahomeforyourownuse,youarestronglyurgedtohavethehome testedforleadpaint.Thisisespeciallycriticalifthehomewillbeoccupiedbyyoungchildren.Verysmall amountsofleadinpaintordustcanpoisonchildrenifswallowedorinhaled,causingdamagetothebrainand otherorgans,resultinginhealthproblemsandreducedintelligence.Ifleadpaintisfound,itiscriticalthatall

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rehabilitationbedoneverycarefullytoreducethepossibilityofleadpoisoningtoyouoryourworkers.Proper workpracticeswillminimizetheriskofspreadingleadcontaminationandincreasingoccupantexposure. OneofthebestandmostrecentsourcesonthissubjectistheHUDpublication,LeadPaintSafety: aFieldGuideforPainting,HomeMaintenance,andRenovationWork.AnothergoodpublicationistheEPA brochure, Reducing Lead Hazards When Remodeling Your Home. Both can be obtained by calling the NationalLeadInformationCenterat800-424-LEADorbydownloadingfromthewebsiteoftheHUDOfceof LeadHazardControl,www.hud.gov/lea.AverycomprehensivesourceistheHUDpublication,Guidelinesfor theEvaluationandControlofLead-BasedPaintHazardsinHousing,whichgivesguidanceoncontrollinglead hazards,leadpaintandrehabwork,riskassessment,monitoring,inspections,residentandworksiteprepa ration,workerprotection,androutinebuildingmaintenance.ThispublicationisavailablethroughHUD-User; youcanalsodownloadacopyofthisdocumentfromtheHUDwebsiteat:www.hud.gov:80/lea/learules.html. HUDhasnewregulationsonlead-basedpainthazardsinfederallyownedhousingandhousing receivingfederalassistance.IfyouwillbeusingHUDfundsforrehabilitationthroughgrants,insurance, orothertypesofassistance,thenthereareprotectiveproceduresthatmustbefollowed.TheOccupational SafetyandHealthAdministrationwebsiteatwww.osha.govhasinformationonworkerprotectionrequire ments. In addition, many states and localities have their own rules regarding lead-based paint, which shouldbefollowedwhenundertakingrehabilitation.

HOW THE GUIDE IS ORGANIZEDNinevolumesmakeupTheRehabGuideinitsentirety,andtheyarelistedonthebackcoverofthisvol ume.(TheycanbeorderedbycontactingHUDUser,P.O.Box6091,Rockville,MD20849;800-245-2691; www.huduser.org.)Eachoneisdevotedtodistinctelementsofthehouse,andwithineachvolumeisarange ofissuesthatarecommontothatelementofhomerehabilitationwork.Thisvolumecoverstopicsfrom materialsfortherepairofanexistingxturetothecriteriaforselectionofanentirelynewkitchenorbath system.Eachvolumeaddressesawiderangeoftechniques,materials,andtools,andrecommendations basedonregional