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  • CU TRC MY TNH

    Computer Architecture

    Hong Vn Hip

    B mn K thut my tnh,Khoa CNTT,HBK H Ni

    Mob. 0916093209

    Email. hiephv@soict.hut.edu.vn

  • 2

    Ch v bn quyn

    Ton b slide mn hc Cu trc my tnh c xy dng da trn slide ca Thy Nguyn Kim Khnh v Thy Nguyn Ph Bnh, b mn K thut my tnh, khoa Cng ngh thng tin, i hc Bch Khoa H Ni.

    Yu cu ngi hc khng ph bin, chnh sa ni dung ca slide ny nu cha c s cho php ca tc gi.

    XIN CM N!

  • 3

    Ti liu tham kho

    Stallings, W. Computer Organization and Architecture,

    6th ed, Prentice Hall, 2003

    Ytha Yu, Charles Marut - Lp trnh assembly v my tnh IBM-PC - 1992.

    Vn Th Minh K thut vi x l Nh xut bn Gio dc, 1997.

    Walter A. Triebel, Avtar Singh - The 8088 and 8086

    Microprocessors: Programming, Interfacing, Software,

    Hardware and Applications - 1997.

    a ch download bi ging, bi thc hnh v phn mm

    ftp://dce.hut.edu.vn/hiephv

  • 4

    Ni dung mn hc

    Chng 1: Gii thiu chung

    Chng 2: Biu din d liu v s hc my tnh

    Chng 3: H thng my tnh

    Chng 4: H my tnh IBM-PC

    Chng 5: Lp trnh hp ng trn PC

  • 5

    Cu trc my tnh

    Chng 1

    Gii thiu chung

  • 6

    Ni dung chng 1

    1. My tnh v phn loi my tnh

    2. S tin ha ca my tnh

  • 7

    My tnh v phn loi my tnh

    nh ngha my tnh:

    Thit b in t thc hin cc cng vic sau: Nhn thng tin vo

    X l thng tin theo chng trnh c nh sn bn trong

    a thng tin ra

    My tnh hot ng theo chng trnh.

  • 8

    My tnh v phn loi my tnh

    M hnh my tnh c bn

  • 9

    My tnh v phn loi my tnh

    M hnh phn lp ca my tnh

  • 10

    Phn loi my tnh

    Phn loi truyn thng:

    My vi tnh (Microcomputer)

    My tnh nh (Minicomputer)

    My tnh ln (Mainframe Computer)

    Siu my tnh (Supercomputer)

  • 11

    Phn loi my tnh

    Phn loi hin i:

    My tnh c nhn (Personal Computer)

    My ch (Server)

    My tnh nhng (Embedded Computer)

  • 12

    My tnh c nhn

    L loi my tnh ph bin nht i vi ngi dng thng thng.

    Thit k theo hng ti u c v gi thnh v hiu nng

    Mt s loi: My tnh bn (Desktop)

    My tnh xch tay (Notebook)

    My trm lm vic (Workstation)

    Gi thnh: t vi trm n vi nghn USD

  • 13

    My tnh c nhn

  • 14

    My Server

    My ch (Server)

    Thc cht l my phc v

    Dng trong mng my tnh theo m hnh Client/Server

    Tc v hiu nng tnh ton cao

    Dung lng b nh ln

    tin cy cao

    Gi thnh: t hng chc nghn n hng triu USD.

  • 15

    My Server

  • 16

    My tnh nhng

    My tnh nhng (Embedded Computer)

    c t trong thit b khc (bao gm c phn cng v cc kt cu c kh) iu khin thit b lm vic

    c thit k chuyn dng V d:

    in thoi di ng

    B iu khin trong my git, iu ha nhit

    Mt s thit b mng: Switch, Router,

    Gi thnh: t vi USD n hng trm ngn USD

  • 17

    My tnh nhng

  • 18

    Kin trc my tnh

    Kin trc tp lnh

    (Instruction Set Architecture ISA)

    T chc my tnh

    (Computer Organization)

    Kin trc my tnh

  • 19

    Kin trc tp lnh

    Nghin cu cu trc v hot ng ca my tnh theo cch nhn ca ngi lp trnh.

    Kin trc tp lnh ca my tnh bao gm Tp lnh: tp hp cc chui s nh phn m ha cho cc

    thao tc m my tnh c th thc hin c.

    Kiu d liu: cc kiu d liu m my tnh c th x l.

    Ch a ch

  • 20

    T chc my tnh

    Nghin cu cu trc phn cng ca my tnh.

    Cc thnh phn c bn ca my tnh B x l trung tm (Central Processing Unit): iu khin

    hot ng ca my tnh v x l d liu.

    B nh chnh (Main Memory): cha cc chng trnh v d liu ang c s dng.

    H thng vo ra (Input/Output System): trao i thng tin gia my tnh v bn ngoi.

    Lin kt h thng (System Interconnection): kt ni v vn chuyn thng tin gia cc thnh phn vi nhau

  • 21

    T chc my tnh

    Cu trc c bn ca my tnh

  • 22

    Ni dung chng 1

    1. My tnh v phn loi my tnh

    2. S tin ha ca my tnh

  • 23

    Cc th h my tnh

    Th h 1: My tnh dng n in t chn khng (1946 - 1955)

    Th h 2: My tnh dng transistor (1956 - 1965)

    Th h 3: My tnh dng mch tch hp (1966 - 1980)

    Th h 4: My tnh dng mch tch hp VLSI (1981 - nay)

  • 24

    My tnh dng n chn khng

  • 25

    Kin trc Von Neumann

    Da trn tng chng trnh c lu tr (stored-program concept)

  • 26

    My tnh dng transistor

    My PDP-1 v CDC 6600

  • 27

    My tnh dng mch tch hp

    Mch tch hp (Integrated Circuit IC) hay cn gi l vi mch, l cc chip bn dn trong cha cc transistor v cc linh kin khc.

    So vi th h trc, cc my tnh th h ny: Nh gn hn

    Nhanh hn

    Tiu th t nng lng hn

    R tin hn

  • 28

    Siu my tnh CRAY-1

  • 29

    My tnh dng mch tch hp VLSI

    Cc cng ngh mch tch hp: SSI (Small scale integration) t 1965

    Tch hp ti 100 transistor trn mt chip

    MSI (Medium scale integration) cho n 1971

    Tch hp t 100 n 3,000 transistor trn mt chip

    LSI (Large scale integration) t 1971 n 1977

    Tch hp t 3,000 n 100,000 transistor trn mt chip

    VLSI (Very large scale integration) t 1978 n nay

    Tch hp t 100,000 n 100,000,000 transistor trn mt chip

    ULSI (Ultra large scale integration)

    C hn 100,000,000 transistor trn mt chip

  • 30

    My tnh dng mch tch hp VLSI

    Cc sn phm ca cng ngh VLSI: B vi x l (Microprocessor): CPU c ch to trn

    mt chip.

    Cc vi mch iu khin tng hp (Chipset): cc vi mch thc hin c nhiu chc nng iu khin v ni ghp.

    B nh bn dn, gm hai loi: ROM, RAM

    Cc b vi iu khin (Microcontroller): my tnh chuyn dng c ch to trn mt chip.

  • 31

    My tnh dng mch tch hp VLSI

  • 3. S tin ha ca my tnh

    Computer architecture HiepHV KTMT

    Th h 1: My tnh dng n in t chn khng (1946 - 1955)

    Th h 2: My tnh dng transistor (1956 - 1965)

    Th h 3: My tnh dng mch tch hp IC (1966 - 1980)

    Th h 4: My tnh dng mch tch hp VLSI (1981 - nay)

    Th h 5: My tnh dng ULSI,

  • Th h 1: My tnh dng n in t chn khng

    Computer architecture HiepHV KTMT

    c im Xy dng trn c s cc n in t chn khng

    Kch thc, trng lng v cng sut tiu th rt ln nhng c tc rt chm

  • V d my tnh ENIAC

    Computer architecture HiepHV KTMT

    My tnh in t u tin

    D n ca b quc phng M

    Bt u nm 1943, kt thc nm 1946

    c im Nng 30 tn,

    18.000 n in t

    1500 rle,

    Cng sut tiu th 140KW

    Tc : 5000 php cng mi giy

  • V d my tnh ENIAC (tip)

    Computer architecture HiepHV KTMT

    B nh ch lu tr d liu

    Lp trnh bng cch thit lp cc chuyn mch v cc cp ni

  • V d my tnh Eniac

    Computer architecture HiepHV KTMT

    Di 10m, rng 3m, cao 3m

  • Kin trc Von-Neumann

    Computer architecture HiepHV KTMT

    Khi nim nh chng trnh (stored program) c a ra (1947)

    c trng c bn: D liu v cc lnh (chng trnh) c cha trong mt

    b nh c ghi.

    B nh c nh a ch theo tng ngn nh, khng ph thuc vo ni dung ca n.

    My tnh thc hin lnh mt cch tun t.

  • Kin trc Von neumann

    Computer architecture HiepHV KTMT

  • Kin trc Von neumann

    Computer architecture HiepHV KTMT

    Trn c s kin trc ny cc my tnh thng mi ra i

    1947: UNIVAC 1 (Universal automatic computer)

    1950s: UNIVAC 2

  • UNIVAC 1

    Computer architecture HiepHV KTMT

  • IBM

    Computer architecture HiepHV KTMT

    IBM: International Business Machine

    1953: ra i my tnh IBM 701

    1955: IBM 702

  • IBM 701

    Computer architecture HiepHV KTMT

  • Th h 2: My tnh dng transistor

    Computer architecture HiepHV KTMT

    Trn c s pht minh ra transistor Bell Labs vo

    nm 1948.

    Transistor c kch thc nh hn nhiu, tc

    nhanh hn v tiu th nng lng t hn nhiu

    thay th bng n in t

    My tnh th h transistor c kh nng thc hin

    hng trm nghn php tnh cng trong mt giy

    Cc ngn ng lp trnh bc cao ra i

  • My tnh TRADIC

    Computer architecture HiepHV KTMT

    My tnh u tin s dng hon ton bng bn dn:

    8000 transistors

    Nhanh hn

    Nh hn

    R hn.

  • Th h 3: My tnh dng mch tch hp (1966 - 1980)

    Computer architecture HiepHV KTMT

    Da trn cng ngh mch tch hp, cn gi l vi mch (Integrated Circuit - IC)

    Cc vi mch c SSI/MSI/LSI (small scale, Medium scale, )

    Xut hin cc siu my tnh nh CRAY-1, VAX

    Cc b vi x l - CPU c ch to trn mt chip - cng ra i v bt u pht trin

  • My tnh th h 3

    Computer architecture HiepHV KTMT

    Hng t

    php ton/s

  • Th h 4: My tnh dng mch tch hp VLSI (1981 - nay)

    Computer architecture HiepHV KTMT

    Pht trin trn c s cc mch tch hp c mt tch hp siu ln VLSI.

    Cc sn phm ca cng ngh VLSI: B vi x l (Microprocessor): CPU c ch to trn mt

    chip

    Cc vi mch iu khin tng hp (Chipset): cc vi mch thc hin c nhiu chc nng iu khin v ni ghp.

    B nh bn dn (Semiconductor Memory): ROM, RAM

    Cc b vi iu khin (Microcontroller): my tnh chuyn dng c ch to trn mt chip

  • Th h th t Vi x l (Microprocessor)

    Computer architecture HiepHV KTMT

    Mcroprocessor = Central Processing Unit (CPU) thit k trong 1 chip n

    1971 : Intel 4004

    tn s 108KHz , cha 2300 transistors

  • Th