khan and tribal aristocracy under sahib giray

Download Khan and Tribal Aristocracy Under Sahib Giray

Post on 12-Apr-2018

214 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • 7/21/2019 Khan and Tribal Aristocracy Under Sahib Giray

    1/23

    HARVARD

    UKRAINIAN STUDIES

    EUCHARISTERION:

    Essays presented to

    OMELJAN

    PRITSAK

    on his Sixtieth

    Birthday

    by his Colleagues

    and

    Students

    Edited

    by

    IHOR

    EVENK0 and

    FRANK E.

    SYSYN

    with the assistance of

    Uliana M. Pasicznyk

    Volume III/IV

    1979-1980

    Part

    1

    Ukrainian

    Research

    Institute, Harvard University,

    Cambridge, Massachusetts

  • 7/21/2019 Khan and Tribal Aristocracy Under Sahib Giray

    2/23

    The Khan and the Tribal

    Aristocracy:

    The

    Crimean

    Khanate under

    Sahib

    Giray

    HALIL

    INALCIK

    The

    history

    of the Crimean

    Khanate revolved around

    the

    tribal ruling

    elite.

    Their

    constant

    maneuvering

    to

    maintain power

    in the khanate

    and

    control

    over its

    policies

    is the

    central theme

    in Crimeanhistory. Beginning

    with the establishment of

    Ottoman suzerainty

    in the

    northern

    Black Sea

    area in the 1470s, both sides

    attempted

    to use this new

    ebement

    in the

    ensuing

    power

    struggles to

    their

    own

    advantage,

    while

    the

    Ottoman

    government skillfully manipulated the rivals to further its

    own

    policies.

    The khanate of

    Sahib Giray

    Sabib

    Giray,*

    as described in Remml

    KhOdjas

    Trikh-i

    hib

    Gfray

    K/ian

    vividly demonstrates this emerging

    pattern of internal struggle. At the

    outset, Sahib

    Giray,

    khan from

    1532 to

    1551, achieved a

    strong centralized

    rule on the model of the

    Ottoman

    sultans.

    Afterwards,

    the

    tribal

    elite, held in check and deeply resentful of

    This article follows the transliteration system used

    by

    the Encyclopaedia of Islam

    second edition.

    Ozalp Gokbilgin, Quelques sources manuscrites sur lpoque de Sahib Giray

    ler,

    Khan

    de

    Crime

    1532-1551

    Istanbul,

    Paris,

    et Leningrad, Cahiers

    du

    monde russe

    et soviCtique

    111970: 462-69,

    describes

    two manuscripts of Remmls History

    of

    Sahib

    Giray

    one

    in

    the

    Bibliothque

    nationale Paris,

    Supplement

    turc no. 164, the

    second

    in

    the library of Leningrad

    University,

    Oriental

    manuscripts

    no.

    488.

    Zyg

    munt Abrahamowicz informed me

    that there are two more manuscripts in Lenin

    grad

    which

    we

    have

    not yet had the

    opportunity

    to u se .

    Remmal indicates that he

    completed

    the work at the end of Radjab

    in

    theHidjra year 960/13 June-12 July 1553

    A critical edit ion based on all extant manuscripts

    is

    a

    first

    priority for systematic useof

    this source, s ince even a

    superficial

    comparison of the

    two manuscripts

    of Paris and

    Leningrad reveals important

    omissions

    and

    the ottomanizing of Tatar words the

    latter occurs

    in

    the Paris manuscript. Remmals work was used by

    Abd

    al-Ghaffr,

    Umdat al-Tawrikh

    ed.

    by

    Necib Asim Istanbul, 1343 H./ 1924,

    pp.

    100-Ill; and

    S.

    Mehmed Rid,

    Al-Sab

    al-SayyarJiakhbaral-Mu/uk

    al-

    Tatar ed. by A. K.

    Kazim

    Be g

    Kazan,

    1832,

    pp.

    91-94. V. D. Smirnov,

    Krymskoe

    xanslvo

    pod

    verxovenslvom

    Otomanskoj

    porty

    do

    naCala XVIII

    veka

    vol. St. Petersburg, 1887, pp. 412-22,

    made

    use of Remmal, especially for the Ottoman

    influence

    on the khanate. O.

    Gokbilgin published

    the text, Trt/j-i hib

    Giray Han

    Ankara, 1973,

    on

    the

    basis

    of

    the Paris hereafter

    P

    and Leningrad

    hereafter L manuscripts.

  • 7/21/2019 Khan and Tribal Aristocracy Under Sahib Giray

    3/23

    446

    HALIL

    INALCIK

    the

    khans despotic power, profited from a split between

    the

    Ottoman

    government and the

    khan,

    and eliminated the despotic

    khan

    to re-establish

    their own hegemony

    in the state in

    1551.

    The Crimean crisis

    of

    1551, on

    the other hand,

    was

    a

    turning

    point

    in the

    history

    of Eastern Europe, since

    Muscovy, benefiting

    from

    the paralysis of the Crimean forces,

    made

    a

    decisive move to

    annex

    the

    Khanate

    of

    Kazan

    in

    1552.

    Written by an intimate of

    Sahib

    Giray, the Tdrikh-i

    ahib

    Gfray is a

    work

    of

    unusual

    value

    for comprehending

    the internal

    structure

    and

    power

    politics in the Crimean

    Khanate

    in this crucial

    period

    of

    its

    history.

    It

    provides

    us a

    firsthand, detailed account

    of the fatal struggle between

    Sahib

    Giray, the

    khan

    who tried to

    transform

    a typical steppe

    khanate

    into a

    centralist autocratic

    state onthe model of

    the

    Ottoman Empire, and

    the Crimean

    tribal aristocracy,

    which struggled to

    maintain

    the

    tribal

    feudal state structure of the khanate

    according

    to the

    TOre

    or Yasa of

    Genghis Khan.

    The author, known to the Crimeans as Remmal meaning

    astrologer,

    geomancer,

    was

    IaysUni-zade

    Mehmed Nidi,2 a well-known

    Ottoman

    polymath.

    He

    wrote

    the

    history upon

    the

    request

    of the khans

    daughter

    NUr-Subtn Khni

    after

    the khans

    tragic death

    in 1551. Remmab had

    joined

    the service of

    Sahib Giray

    in 1532 when the

    latter

    was leaving

    Istanbul

    to

    assume

    his

    appointment as

    khan. He became

    a

    personal

    physician, astrologer, and intimate of Sahib Giray. The khan consulted

    him in

    all important

    decisions

    P,

    58a. He also confided in him about

    financial matters such as the collection of taxes and the granting of

    contributions to the Crimean ulema

    L, 6a.

    Remmls closeness to

    Sahib

    Giray allowed him to provide information about the khans opinions and

    to describe the background

    to

    his decisions. His observations and detailed

    accounts of life and

    institutions

    in the

    Crimea

    add a special importance

    and interest to his work. He meticulously incorporated

    local

    terminology

    in his

    descriptions. Although

    he

    wrote

    the

    work

    as

    an

    apology

    for

    the

    actions of his beloved

    lord, Remml skillfully disguised critical remarks

    between the lines. All these facts

    make

    Trikh-i

    ahib

    Giry a reliable

    account of

    Sahib

    Girays reign.3

    2

    RemmAl

    is

    described as Sahib Girays

    physician.

    Upon thedeath ofSahibGiray, he

    entered the service

    of Sultan Selim II and wrote several medical books for

    him

    see

    F E

    Karatay,

    Topkapi

    Sarayi

    Muzesi Kutuphanesi

    Turkce

    Yazmalar

    Kataloju 2

    vols.

    [Istanbul,

    1961], index:

    Nidai.

    RemmalKhOdja or Iaysuni-zade

    Mehmed Nidi

    died

    in

    A H

    966/AD.

    1568/69. For the

    family

    of

    physicians of Iaysuni-zade, see M.

    Tahir, Osmanh

    Muelljfleri

    vol.

    3

    Istanbul,

    1342

    H.,

    pp.

    239, 249; and

    M. Stireyya,

    Sidjill-i

    O tmni vol. Istanbul, 1893, pp. 107 312

    O

    GOkbilgin,

    1532-1577 Yzilari arasinda

    Kirim

    Hanlijinin

    SiyasiDurumu Anka

    ra,

    1973,

    deals

    with the political history of

    Sahib Girays reign.

    I

    cannot agree with

  • 7/21/2019 Khan and Tribal Aristocracy Under Sahib Giray

    4/23

    THE

    KHAN AND THE TRIBAL ARISTOCRACY

    447

    THE STRUCTURE

    OF

    THE

    CRIM EAN T RI BAL ARISTOCRACY

    The peace treaty concluded between Mel3med

    Giray

    11514-1523

    and

    the kingof

    Poland-Lithuania4 lists

    the Crimean

    aristocracy

    in the follow

    ing

    hierarchical order:

    the

    khan

    himself, his eldest son

    Bahadur Giray

    Sultan, the

    other

    sons of the

    khan, sultans

    with a

    commanding

    position,

    oghians other

    members

    of the

    royal

    family, begs heads of the four

    principal

    tribes, mirzas sons of begs all

    nOkers

    or

    nOkOr

    meaning

    retainer serving the

    khan

    in the

    court

    and elsewhere. Remmals

    account

    gives the same hierarchy: the

    khan,

    his sons, the four

    begs

    called caraCu

    and

    the

    iCki

    beg/en

    begs

    attached to

    the

    khans

    service.5

    Like

    other

    Mongol

    khanates,

    the Crimean

    Khanate rested on the support

    of

    the four

    royal tribes

    called the