Key challenges and opportunities: business schools and higher education

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<ul><li><p>KeyChallengesandOpportunities:BusinessSchoolsandHigherEducation</p><p>Andreas KaplanDean for Academic Affairs</p><p>2016</p><p>ESCP Europe Business SchoolSorbonne Arts et Mtiers University</p><p>kaplan@escpeurope.eu</p></li><li><p> OverviewofESCPEurope</p><p> Keychallengesandopportunitiesforbusinessschools</p><p> Specialfocusononline/digitaldistancelearningandeducation</p><p>Agenda</p><p>2AndreasKaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p></li><li><p>OverviewofESCPEurope</p></li><li><p>4</p><p>About ESCP Europe, the Worlds First Business School (est. 1819)</p><p> 6 ESCP Europe campuses in Berlin, London, Madrid, Paris, Turin, and Warsaw Cross-campus programmes with coordinated curricula Over 100 academic alliances in Europe and the World Triple accredited: EQUIS, AMBA, AACSB 5,000 students in degree programmes representing 100 different nationalities 5,000 high-level participants in customized trainings and executive education More than 130 research-active professors representing over 20 nationalities 45,000 active alumni in over 150 countries in the world</p><p>AndreasKaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p></li><li><p>5</p><p>European cross-border multi-campus business school the concept</p><p>ESCP Europe</p><p>European cross-bordermulti-campus</p><p>business school</p><p>In contrast to campuses outside of </p><p>Europe, close distance allows for efficiently </p><p>working together across campuses </p><p>on all levels</p><p>In contrast to partnerships with other business schools, own campuses allow for better coordination and control of academic excellence</p><p> Complete integration of 6 campuses with adaptations for local contexts:One school with six doors</p><p> Relative closeness permits working in cross-campus teams while on top experiencing different cultures, learning language, etc.</p><p>AndreasKaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p></li><li><p>6</p><p>Brand storytelling is vital:Europe appears difficult to grasp</p><p>Whatstheadvantageofstudyingata</p><p>European businessschool?</p><p>Focusonhumanisticvalues,understandingofcultures,tradition,moretransversalapproach,</p><p>Europe embraces a maximum cultural diversity </p><p>at minimal geographical distance</p><p>ESCP Europe is/educates experts in European, cross-cultural management in Europe and beyond</p><p>????</p><p>AndreasKaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p></li><li><p>7</p><p>Defining European Management, notion behind the concept </p><p>Kaplan, Andreas M. (2014) European management and European business schools:Insights from the history of business schools, European Management Journal, 32(4), 529-534.</p><p>Societal management takes into account societys overall welfare in addition to mere profitability considerations</p><p>European management is a </p><p>cross-cultural, societal management approach </p><p>based on interdisciplinary principles</p><p>Interdisciplinarity creates s.th. new by crossing boundaries and combining the knowledge encompassed in different domains</p><p>Cross-cultural management aims to understand how culture affects management practice, to identify cross-cultural similarities </p><p>and differences in management practices</p><p>AndreasKaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p></li><li><p>8</p><p>ESCP Europes strategy:Cultures for Business - #C4B </p><p>AndreasKaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p></li><li><p>Keychallengesandopportunitiesofbusinessschools</p></li><li><p>10</p><p>Key challenges:The 3 Es for Education</p><p>Corechallenge1:</p><p>EnhanceHEinstitutionsprestigeandmarketshareinaconsolidatingglobaleducationalmarket.</p><p>Corechallenge2:</p><p>Embraceadeeperentrepreneurialmindset,withcorrespondingmodusoperandianddecisionmakingapproaches.</p><p>Corechallenge3:</p><p>Expandlinks,interactions,andvaluecocreationwithkeystakeholders.</p><p>AndreasKaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p><p>PucciarelliF.,AndreasKaplan(2016)CompetitionandStrategyinHigherEducation:ManagingComplexityandUncertainty,BusinessHorizons,59(3),311320.</p></li><li><p>11</p><p>Strengths Essentialsourceforasocietystalentandinnovativeness</p><p> Institutionalizedpublicservicewithasocietalmission Importantproviderofknowledgeandinnovation</p><p>National driverandglobalambassadors HEasdomesticresource,engineofgrowthand</p><p>economicrecovery Internationalexpansionandglobalknowledge</p><p>dissemination</p><p>AndreasKaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p><p>PucciarelliF.,AndreasKaplan(2016)CompetitionandStrategyinHigherEducation:ManagingComplexityandUncertainty,BusinessHorizons,59(3),311320.</p><p>Decrypting higher education:A SWOT analysis</p><p>Weaknesses Substantial delayinentranceofbusinesspractices</p><p> TraditionofbeingapublicservicefinancedandprotectedbytheState</p><p> Partialresistanceofinfluentialfaculty Lowresponsivenesstochangesincorporateworld</p><p> Littleadaptationofprogramsandcurriculatorecruitersneedsandjobexpectations</p><p> Myopicpublishorperishresearchstrategiesleadingtopurelyacademicpublicationswithoutconsiderationofotherstakeholders</p><p>Opportunities FastevolvingHEenvironmentthroughICT</p><p> Developmentofnewmarkets,potentialproductivitygains,andbrandingpossibilities</p><p> Advancementofbothgeneralknowledgeandnetworksociety</p><p> Rapidtransformationencouragedbysociodemographics</p><p> Millennialsseekingaugmentededucationalexperience Growingandchangingstudentpopulation</p><p>Threats Continuousdecreaseinpublicfunding</p><p> Necessityforexternalfundraisingandincreasedselffinancing</p><p> NeedformarketizationofHE,potentiallyloweringacademicstandardsandquality</p><p> Increasinglycompetitiveenvironment Domesticderegulationleadingtonewmarketentrants Gobalizationbroadeningcompetitiontoan</p><p>internationalscale</p></li><li><p>12</p><p>1. Enhance prestige and market share </p><p>AndreasKaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p><p>Corechallenge1:</p><p>EnhanceHEinstitutionsprestigeandmarketshareinaconsolidatingglobaleducationalmarket.</p><p> Guarantee resources for sustaining growth Additional performance metrics to measure universities excellence, and ultimately</p><p>enable them to access resources for future development; Market will assess whichuniversities deserve to be part of the top leagues and rankings</p><p> More advanced stage of private fundraising, leveraging university reputation tobecome preferred partner of choice of key stakeholders (notably alumni, but alsostudents, professors, corporations, etc.) and new forms of collaboration between theuniversity and the rest of the world</p><p>PucciarelliF.,AndreasKaplan(2016)CompetitionandStrategyinHigherEducation:ManagingComplexityandUncertainty,BusinessHorizons,59(3),311320.</p></li><li><p>13</p><p>1. Enhance prestige and market share </p><p>AndreasKaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p><p>ALUMNIAREKEY</p></li><li><p>14</p><p>2. Embrace entrepreneurship &amp; innovation</p><p>AndreasKaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p><p>Corechallenge2:</p><p>Embraceadeeperentrepreneurialmindset,withcorrespondingmodusoperandianddecisionmakingapproaches.</p><p> Entrepreneurial leadership at all levels of HE institutions Defined and formalized mission and strategy able to guide an entrepreneurial</p><p>approach at all levels of HEs institution Pivotal role of academicmanagers in contributing to HE institutions quality and</p><p>reputation and participating actively in management and decision making Increased autonomy and accountability permit more control over resources and</p><p>freedom to choose investment strategies. Management of HE has to encompass morecomplex and urgent business decisions (e.g., the ICT infrastructure)</p><p>PucciarelliF.,AndreasKaplan(2016)CompetitionandStrategyinHigherEducation:ManagingComplexityandUncertainty,BusinessHorizons,59(3),311320.</p></li><li><p>15</p><p>2. Embrace entrepreneurship &amp; innovation</p><p>AndreasKaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p></li><li><p>16</p><p>3. Expand links and value co-creation</p><p>AndreasKaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p><p>Corechallenge3:</p><p>Expandlinks,interactions,andvaluecocreationwithkeystakeholders. Increased connections, interactions, and value cocreation with a larger set of key</p><p>stakeholders Learn to navigate the new technologyoriented and multimedia environment, with HE</p><p>institutions supporting academics as they acquire necessary skills Deeper integration of Web 2.0 and networking in research New design of learning processes and infrastructures, aiming at colearning through</p><p>highly interactive and responsive pedagogies Dialogue and participative communication, leveraging new media (and in particular</p><p>Web 2.0 and social media) to address HEs different audiences with customizedmessages</p><p>PucciarelliF.,AndreasKaplan(2016)CompetitionandStrategyinHigherEducation:ManagingComplexityandUncertainty,BusinessHorizons,59(3),311320.</p></li><li><p>17</p><p>3. Expand links and value co-creation</p><p>AndreasKaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p><p>ALUMNIAREKEYAGAIN</p></li><li><p>Specialfocusondistancelearningandeducation</p></li><li><p>Classifying online distance learning:Time dependency &amp; Number of particpants</p><p>19AndreasKaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p><p>Classification of online distance learning applications according to two dimensions: the </p><p>number of participants (unlimited/limited) and the degree of time dependency </p><p>(asynchronous/synchronous)</p><p>Number of participants</p><p>Unlimited Limited</p><p>Time dependency</p><p>AsynchronousMOOC </p><p>(Massive OpenOnline Course)</p><p>SPOC (Small Private</p><p>Online Course)</p><p>SynchronousSMOC </p><p>(Synchronous Massive Online Course)</p><p>SSOC (Synchronous Private </p><p>Online Course)</p><p>Kaplan Andreas, Haenlein Michael (2016) Higher Education and the Digital Revolution: About MOOCs, SPOCs, Social Media and the Cookie Monster, Business Horizons, 59(4), 441-450.</p></li><li><p>Defining MOOCs, SPOCS, SMOCs, &amp; SSOCs:Four groups of online distance education</p><p>20AndreasKaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p><p>Kaplan Andreas, Haenlein Michael (2016) Higher Education and the Digital Revolution: About MOOCs, SPOCs, Social Media and the Cookie Monster, Business Horizons, 59(4), 441-450.</p><p> MOOC (Massive Open Online Course): Openaccess online course (i.e., without specificparticipation restrictions) that allows for unlimited (massive) participation.</p><p> SPOC (Small Private Online Course): Online course that only offers a limited number ofplaces and therefore requires some form of formal enrollment.</p><p> SMOC (Synchronous Massive Online Course): Openaccess online course that allowsfor unlimited participation but requires students to be present at the same time(synchronously).</p><p> SSOC (Synchronous Private Online Course): Online course that only offers a limitednumber of places and requires students to be present at the same time(synchronously).</p><p> Distance education: Providing education to students who are separated by distanceand in which the pedagogical material is planned and prepared by educationalinstitutions.</p></li><li><p>Describing xMOOCs vs. cMOOCs:Passive learners vs. Active contributors</p><p>21AndreasKaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p><p> xMOOCs: MOOCs based on traditional lecture formats (inspired by HarvardUniversity, which used the prefix x to indicate (offline) courses in the universityscourse catalogue for which online versions were available).</p><p> cMOOCs: MOOCs where social media applications constitute a central part. Socialmedia allow students to create pedagogical materials (via blog entries, tweets,podcasts, and the like) that can subsequently be commented on and furtherenhanced by other participants.</p><p>Kaplan Andreas, Haenlein Michael (2016) Higher Education and the Digital Revolution: About MOOCs, SPOCs, Social Media and the Cookie Monster, Business Horizons, 59(4), 441-450.</p><p>xMOOC cMOOC</p><p>Professor Instructor,who designsastandardizedcourseforeveryoneFacilitator,</p><p>whoanimatesanindividuallearningprocess</p><p>Participants Passivelearners Activecontributors</p><p>Pedagogy Predetermined content,basedonaformalcurriculum,usinglecturestyleandevaluationCollaborativelydevelopedcontentwithoutaformalcurriculum,inseminar stylewithoutevaluations</p><p>Pattern Structuredwithregularsessionsoverafixedtimeperiod Unstructured basedoncontinuouslearning</p><p>Platform Centralizationofcontentinoneplace Decentralizationofcontentacrossnetwork</p></li><li><p>22</p><p>MOOCs &amp; further types of distance learning most likely not to replace physical presence </p><p>To sell a concept where location and differences in local contexts </p><p>additionally is of academic importance might be highly </p><p>valued in the future</p><p>Within50yearstherewillbeonly10institutionsofhigherlearning</p><p>leftintheworld</p><p>SebastianThrun CofounderUdacity</p><p>But: Physicalpresencemightbenecessarytogo</p><p>theextramile Networkingoftenbesthappensafterclass</p><p>andnotduring Lifeskillsthanonlyknowledge+knowhow</p><p>AndreasKaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p></li><li><p>23</p><p>MOOCs will make it essential for business schools to be an expert in a specific area</p><p>To be an expert in a certain field will become more and more important in the future of MOOCs. </p><p> UniversitiesandschoolswillproduceMOOCswheretheyhaveareallegitimacy StudentsworldwidewillchoosetheexpertsMOOCtolearninaspecificfield Asinglebusinessschoolhardlycanbeexpertineverything Local/regionalplayerswillarise(languages&amp;differentteachingapproaches)</p><p>Examples: ESCPEurope &gt;European/crossculturalmanager HarvardUniversity &gt;Lawyers WhartonSchool &gt;Investmentbankers</p><p>AndreasKaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p><p>Kaplan Andreas, Haenlein Michael (2016) Higher Education and the Digital Revolution: About MOOCs, SPOCs, Social Media and the Cookie Monster, Business Horizons, 59(4), 441-450.</p></li><li><p>24</p><p>A final video about ESCP Europe:European Identity, Global Perspective</p><p>AndreasM.Kaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p></li><li><p>25</p><p>Further readings...</p><p>AndreasM.Kaplan DeanforAcademic Affairs</p><p> Kaplan Andreas (2017) Academia Goes Social Media, MOOC, SPOC, SMOC, and SSOC:The Digital Transformation of Higher Education Institutions and Universities, inBikramjit Rishi and Subir Bandyopadhyay (eds.), Contemporary Issues in Social MediaMarketing, Routledge.</p><p> Kaplan Andreas, Haenlein Michael (2016) Higher Education and the Digital Revolution:About MOOCs, SPOCs, Social Media and the Cookie Monster, Business Horizons,59(4), 441450.</p><p> Pucciarelli Francesca, Kaplan Andreas (2016) Competition and Strategy in HigherEducation: Managing Complexity and Uncertainty, Business Horizons, 59(3), 311320.</p><p> Kaplan Andreas (2015) European business and management (Vol. I IV) Fourvolumereference work, Sage Publications Ltd., London.</p><p> Kaplan Andreas (2014) European Management and European Business Schools:Insights from the History of Business Schools, European Management Journal, 32(4),529534.</p><p> Kaplan Andreas (2014) Social Media and Viral Marketing at ESCP Europe, the World'sFirst Business School (est. 1819), European Case Clearing House, Case 5140581.</p><p> Kaplan Andreas (2009) Virtual worlds and business schools: The case of INSEAD, inWankel C., Kingsley J., Higher education in virtual worlds: Teaching and learning insecond life, Emerald Group Publishing, 83100.</p></li></ul>