keith cottingham, triple , 1991
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DESCRIPTIONKeith Cottingham, Triple , 1991. Robert Frank, Trolley, New Orleans, 1955-56. Nancy Burson, Mankind, 1982-4. Mug Shot of O.J. Simpson, Used for Time and Newsweek Cover Photos 1994. Black Soldier Saluting French Flag, in Paris Match ,, ca, 1958. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Keith Cottingham, Triple , 1991
Robert Frank, Trolley, New Orleans, 1955-56
Nancy Burson, Mankind, 1982-4
Mug Shot of O.J. Simpson, Used for Time and Newsweek Cover Photos 1994.
Black Soldier Saluting French Flag, in Paris Match,, ca, 1958
Newsweek Inc., Trail of Blood (the .OJ Simpson trial), 1994
Weegee, Accused Cop Killer, 1941
Arthur W. Wang, Image of Roland Barthes, ca 1978.
Advertisement for Panzani Pasta, ca. 1958
Barbara Kruger, We Will Not Play Nature to Your Culture, ca 1990
Advertisement from the Fonda Group Inc., Sensations Napkins, ca. 2000
Olivero Toscani, Car Bomb Explosion, advertisement for United Colors of Benetton, no date
Mary Lambert, Material Girl (Madonna) Video, 1985.
Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs, 1965.
Marcel Duchamp, Wanted/$2000 Reward, 1923.
Marcel Duchamp, L.H.O.O.Q, 1919.
Marcel Duchamp, Hatrack, 1917.
Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917.
Vincent Van Gogh, Self-Portrait, ca. 1885
Vincent Van GoghStuff
Copy of Van Gogh The Bedroom at Arles, 1888-89
Louis Kaplan and T-Shirt at Van Gogh Museum, 2002
DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY QUESTIONS THE TRUTH CLAIMS OF TRADITIONAL CHEMICAL-BASED PHOTOGRAPHY.Digital photography offers endless opportunities for the manipulation of images and this in turn makes the public distrust that what it is seeing in a photograph is the way things actually were or happing in reality.
The ability of the photograph to function as evidence is related to the concept of the INDEX (photograph as a direct emanation of the referent)A traditional darkroom photograph like Robert Franks Trolley: New Orleans is both an icon and an index.It is an icon -- an image of resemblance that offers a mimetic likeness of reality. But it is also an index in that it has been physically caused by that of which it is the likeness. Through the direct action of light and chemistry, photographs are direct traces of what they represent. This image presents in an expressive way the social documentary fact of people on a bus in Louisiana circa 1955 in a segregated society.
C.S. PEIRCES THREE CLASSES of SIGNS: ICONS, INDEXES, and SYMBOLSDIGITAL IMAGES do not share in this indexical quality.Bursons image is a composite figure that has no referent in the real world. It is an image based on a statistical model that shows a figure made up of representative proportions of the three major races The digital photo is closer to painting. It shows a mimetic likeness or a resemblance of something in the world, but one that does not have any claim to fact or truth.
Images and Ideology. O.J. image controversy reveals ways IDEOLOGY functions in visual culture.In this broader context, the darkening of Simpsons skin tones can not bee seen as a purely aesetheticChoice, but rather as an ideological one. (p. 24) IDEOLOGIES: systems of belief that are widely held in a culture Ideology refers to the way that certain Concepts and values are made to seem like natural, inevitable aspects of everyday life. The mass media constantly supplies us with visual images that construct and reinforce ideological assumptions. Family values. Romantic love. Freedom and Democratic values. Patriotism.THIS IS AN IDEOLOGICALLY LOADED IMAGE. This magazine cover from 1958 shows a black Algerian soldier saluting the French flag in a way that covers up the question of race and colonization in the service of la patrie (the Fatherland). You think about the boy saluting the French flag as natural (an act of patriotism), and you dont think how it Is a cultural construction that has been imposed upon him as a colonized subject.The Darkening of O.J.s Image plays into Ideological Assumption that can only be marked as prejudiced andRacist.We live a culture in which the assocation of dark tones with evil and the stereotype of black men as criminalsstill circulate. (p. 24). And let us not forget the type of image that is being used is the police mugshot -- taken out of its original context and placed on the cover of a news magazine so that Simpson is prejudged guilty before proven innocent.This illustrates a key point in visual cultural studies : CONTEXT CHANGES MEANINGCONNOTATION AND DENOTATION. Ideologies are thus, like Barthes concept of myth, connotations parading as denotations. (p. 23) What does this statement mean?Who was Barthes? ROLAND BARTHES : French semiotician. Author of MYTHOLOGIES -- a book about how cultural signs assume mythological significance. EVERY IMAGE HAS TWO LEVELS OF MEANING Denotes/Connotes -- literal/symbolic or descriptive/mythological.PANZANI AD: DESCRIPTIVE or DENOTATIVE LEVEL: some packets of pasta, a tin, a sachet, some tomatoes, onions, peppers, a mushroom, all emerging from a half-open string bag, in yellows and greens on a red background. (p. 33)CONNONATIVE LEVEL: Italianicity associated with the symbolism of the colours of red, white and green (ItalianFlag), the name of the company (not too far off from Panzeratto, no?), concept of freshness BUT Barthes is very skeptical about finding a level of meaning purely in a denotative state
Denotation is always already contaminated by IDEOLOGY AND MYTH, by CULTURAL CONNOTATIONThere is no idyllic return to an idyllic state of nature or Garden of Eden.The denoted image can appear as a kind of Edenic state of the images; cleared utopically of all its connotations, the image would become radically objective, or, in the last analysis innocent. This is also the theme of Barbara Krugers feminist critique of equation of woman and nature, the naturalization of womanThe search for the innocent objective image is aligned to the myth of photographic truth and naturalness and it must be countered by connotative analysis which is necessarily visual cultural analysis.NEGOTIATING MEANING. We must understand the social and aesthetic conventions and codes that different images are invoking or that they play off in their production of meaning.These codes involve the social classifications through which people are distinguished across lines of GENDER, SEXUALITY, CLASS, NATION, RACE, and ETHNICITYSOCIO-HISTORICAL CONTEXT -- more we know about production and reception,the greater our capacity to negotiate Meaning.SENSATIONS AD: plays with the codes of GENDER. How? Male in state of undressBENETTON AD: SHIFTS THE CONTEXT OF HOW AND WHERE an image of political terror would be viewed.S and C: pp. 26-27.It could be argued that Benetton selected this generic image to invoke this contemporary issue, and to convey to viewers that Benetton, unlike most other companies is concerned with current political issues.
Ferdinand de Saussure, Swiss Linguist wrote The Course of General Lingustics. A SIGN is made up of:SIGNiFIER (vehicle for meaning, linguistic material to convey meaning, visual image drawn to stand in for something in real world) burning carSIGNIFIED (the element of meaning within a sign, a mental concept associated with the signifier) terrorismWhat are the signifieds that are invoked by an advertisement that uses the signifier diamonds? Wealth, status, prestige, immortality. Madonna Pushes these associations in her video Material Girl. REFERENT: that which exists in the world and which the sign refers to.A VISUAL PARABLE for SIGNIFIER/SIGNIFIED/REFERENT. Conceptual Artist Joseph Kosuth -- Visual illustrations of semiotic theory and the tripartite structure of the sign.A CHAIR, A PHOTOGRAPH OF A CHAIR, and A DICTIONARY DEFINITION OF A CHAIRThe photograph of the chair is the visual signifierThe dictionary definition spells out the mental concept of the chairThe chair itself is the referent in the real world. THE VALUE OF IMAGES. THE CASE OF MARCEL DUCHAMP. Member of Dadaists: group of irreverent, iconoclastic and anarchist visual culture producers around the time of World War I. Championed a CONCEPTUAL art (art of ideas) over RETINAL art (an art of visual pleasure) Duchamp and Dada as an enemy of aesthetics (the philosophcal study of the beautiful in art).L.H.O.O.Q. -- as an example of ICONOCLASM (the breaking and smashing of traditional idols of art) -- the defacement of the Mona Lisa the Renaissance masterpiece with a mustache and a goatee (Shifting GENDER). However, such breaking of ICONS can become counter-cultural ICONS in their own right. READYMADES. Duchamp poses the question of the value of images in a radically new way. Around 1917, Duchamp reframed and recontextualized banal everyday objects like the Hat Rack or the Bottlerack as objects of value, as sculptural objects and asking us to consider them as works of art on account of this practice of reframing.SCANDAL of THE FOUNTAIN. R. Mutt submitted a common urinal to be considered as a work worthy of exhibition.Duchamps readymades pose the question: Can anything be considered art? Is art merely an effect of naming and framing and context? Its one thing In a restroom, its another thing in an art gallery even though its the same thingRaising the low (the urinal) to the level of the high (the fountain) in this act of reframingNOMINALISM. -- it does not matter what object is named art , but the mere act of naming it makes it art This is an aesthetic of indifferenceRECUPERATION. Duchamps iconoclastic practice even though it ridiculed aesthetic judgment and the value of fine art has become canonized and appreciate today as an anti-artistic art with a high reputation and even market value today.THE VALUE OF IMAGES: THE CASE OF Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890)The social mythology that surrounds a work of art or its artist can contribute to its value. (p. 32)MYTH OF THE TORTURED ARTIST -- artis