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  • Julkaisun nimi kahdella rivillä

    Maa- ja metsätalousministeriö X/XXXX

    82014

    Climate Programme for Finnish Agriculture – Steps towards Climate Friendly Food

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    Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry 2014

    Climate Programme for Finnish Agriculture – Steps towards Climate Friendly Food

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    Climate Programme for Finnish Agriculture – Steps towards Climate Friendly Food

    Publisher: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry 2014 8 /2014

    Cover photos: Juha Backman/MTT archive (tractor), Tero Sivula/Rodeo/MTT archive (field), Nofu Oy (veggieburger), Marianna Laitinen/MMM archive (vegetables)

    ISBN 978-952-453-870-1 (Printed version) ISBN 978-952-453-871-8 (Electronic version) ISSN 1238-2531 (Printed version) ISSN 1797-397X (Electronic version)

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    Contents 1. Background and objective 8 2. Key measures 9 3. Monitoring the implementation of the measures 10 4. Impacts of climate change 11 5. Measures in the food system for climate change adaptation and mitigation 12 1. Advice 12 2. Risk management 12 3. Plant production 14 4. Livestock production 17 5. Land use 18 6. Energy efficiency in agriculture 19 7. Energy production and use in agriculture 20 8. State of energy and nutrient self-sufficiency 22 9. Food consumption 22 10. Potential future measures 25 11. Compatibility of different steering instruments 26 6. Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture 27 1. Reporting of greenhouse gas emissions 27 2. Greenhouse gas emissions with climate impact and trend in these until 2035 28 7. Climate policy objectives of agriculture 29 1. International climate policy 29 2. EU climate policy 29 3. National climate and energy policy 30 8. International climate initiatives 30 9. Steps towards a productive and sustainable food system 31

    Annex: Means of the National Climate and Energy Strategy for reducing emissions from agriculture 32

    References 33

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    Summary Climate Programme for Finnish Agriculture – Steps towards Climate Friendly Food

    The Climate Programme for Finnish Agriculture prepared by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry aims to further enhance the sustainability of the Finnish food system, which is founded on profitable food production and responsible consumption. By improving sustainability in a comprehensive way it is also possible to increase the profitability of production. The objective is to improve energy and material efficiency and reduce emissions per litre or kilo of production. The array of technology solutions we al- ready have available should be taken into full use, while encouraging research and businesses to de- velop further innovations. In the future the consumers should be steered towards even more responsi- ble consumption. Through all this we can ensure that Finnish food derived from sustainable production is well placed on the market.

    Climate change brings changes to food production, both in Finland and globally. Active measures are needed to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the changing climate and to minimize its neg- ative impacts. The Climate Programme for Finnish Agriculture presents a total of 76 measures to fa- cilitate the adaptation of food production and consumption to climate change and/ or to mitigate the change. The selection of the measures was based on the most recent scientific research results and views of various experts involved in the food system. By implementing the measures put forward in the programme we will achieve more climate friendly food production and consumption.

    The eight key measures identified in the Climate Programme for Finnish Agriculture are:

    1. Carbon sequestration into soil 2. Measures relating to the use of peatlands 3. Plant breeding 4. Plant and animal health and preventing the spread of invasive alien species 5. Handling and treatment of manure and more accurate nitrogen fertilization 6. Energy efficiency and production and consumption of renewable energy 7. Reducing food loss all through the food system 8. Changes towards a more plant-based diet

    In a climate programme the main focus is on climate impacts, but we should also aim for a comprehen- sive approach to all ecological challenges. It should also be kept in mind that, in spite of the varying objectives which the policy measures may have, the steering instruments should be mutually compat- ible. The signals and incentives that the steering instruments of the public authorities give to the various actors in a society must be free from conflicts in order that they contribute to achieving the common ob- jectives set for that society. The Climate Programme for Finnish Agriculture is an important step towards better reconciliation of different policies.

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    net carbon dioxide production

    wood harvesting

    manure nitrogen sequestration

    burning

    CO2 = carbon dioxide

    CO = carbon monoxide i.e. coal gas

    N2O = nitrous oxide

    CH 4 = methane

    NOX = other nitrogen oxides

    NMV OC = non-methane volatile organic compounds

    soil organic matter, surface litter

    soil carbon

    soil respiration

    fertilisers

    exhaust gasesCH4

    CH4

    CO2

    CO2 CO

    NMVOC

    CO2

    CO NMVOC

    CO2

    N2O N2O

    N2O

    NOx

    NOx

    Graphics: Stiina Hovi Sources: MMM and MTT

    plants, biomass

    Figure: How greenhouse gases are produced. Graphics: Stiina Hovi/Kantri © Maaseudun tulevaisuus

    1. Background and objective The sustainable Finnish food system is founded on profitable food production. The objective of the Climate Programme for Finnish Agriculture prepared by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry is to promote the sustainability of our food system and to make this better known. The programme promotes and improves the energy and material efficiency of agriculture and the whole food system. The programme offers additional tools for improving productivity and profitability as well.

    As the climate changes efficient measures are needed to adapt to this and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Climate change adaptation and mitigating bring new opportunities for the food sys- tem, but active measures are needed to benefit from these. Often a more sustainable food system also means a more productive food system.

    The Climate Programme for Finnish Agriculture serves as an in- formation bank for those acting on behalf of a more sustainable and productive food system. The programme brings together the most recent research information on the climate issues in food production and consumption, from the perspective of both adapta- tion and mitigation. The programme will be updated on a regular basis in line with the most recent studies and changing conditions and operating environments.

    The programme presents climate change adaptation and mitiga- tion measures relating to the food system. In addition, the pro- gramme also reflects on potential future means for adaptation and mitigation. Some of the measures included in the Climate Pro-

    gramme for Finnish Agriculture are already implemented under the Rural Development Programme. Some of the suggested meas- ures are such that the various actors in the food system should at least consider their implementation.

    The Climate Programme for Finnish Agriculture recognises the climate-related objectives set by the European Union and in other international contexts and promotes these, but the approach is dif- ferent. The Climate Programme stresses a new way of thinking, i.e. comprehensive sustainability of food production and consump- tion. In the Climate Programme the focus is on climate impacts, but many of the proposed measures have other beneficial impacts on the environment as well. We should to a growing extent aim for a holistic approach to ecological challenges.

    The implementation of the programme contributes to meeting the EU and international climate and energy commitments. The na- tional reduction target for methane and nitrous oxide emissions set for the agriculture sector is 13% between 2005 and 2020 (Long- term Climate and Energy Strategy 2008). Studies have shown that it is going to be very difficult to reach this target (Agrifood Research Finland MTT Report 127). On the other hand, there are significant opportunities in agriculture with regard to climate change mitiga- tion in e.g. energy production.

    When this Climate Programme was being finalised the Rural De- velopment Programme was still a draft and pending approval by the European Commission. This means that no final decisions had been made on the measures under the Rural Development Pro- gramme that were included in the Climate Programme or the re- lated target areas or amounts of payments.

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    2. Key measures The eight key measures identified in the Climate Programme for Finnish Agriculture are: 1. Carbon sequestration into soil 2. Measures relating to the use of peatlands 3. Plant breeding 4. Plant and animal health and preventing the spread of

    invasive alien species 5. Handling and treatment of manure and more accurate

    nitrogen fertilization 6. Energy efficiency and production and consumption of

    renewable energy 7. Reducing food loss all through the food system 8. Changes towards a more plant-based diet

    1. Carbon sequestration into soil Organic matter (e.g. manure, straw) added into th

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