Joan Martinez-Alier ICTA, UAB

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Joan Martinez-Alier ICTA, UAB. RELACIONES ENTRE LA ECONOMA ECOLGICA Y LA ECOLOGA POLTICA. VARIEDADES DE ECOLOGISMO. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF BURDENS AND BENEFITS Alang-Sosiya, world's largest shipbreaking yard

Joan Martinez-AlierICTA, UABRELACIONES ENTRE LA

ECONOMA ECOLGICA Y

LA ECOLOGA POLTICAVARIEDADES DE ECOLOGISMO1) En la historia del ambientalismo norteamericano existe la ideologa de Gifford Pinchot de 1900 de que la conservacin de los recursos es compatible con su explotacin segn un rendimiento sostenible: Eco-eficiencia.

2) y la ideologa de John Muir y del Sierra Club, de 1900 tambin, de preservacin de algunos espacios naturales en su estado puro. Conservacionismo.VARIEDADES DE ECOLOGISMO: el ecologismo de los pobres3) Pero en la dcada de 1980 naci EEUU un tercer movimiento ecologista por la Justicia Ambiental y contra el racismo ambiental.

El Ecologismo de los Pobres e Indgenas.

Csar Chavez en aos 1960 (protestas contra el DDT, sindicato de braceros mexicanos en California, ya representaba esto). Otros ejemplos en EEUU: las madres de Los Angeles Centro contra incineradoras Chico Mendes (1988), Ken Saro-Wiwa (1995), cientos de muertos

Movimientos de atingidos en BrasilMovimiento de atingidos por barragens y por trasvase de rosConflictos de tierra por expansin de soya, de ganadoPequeo movimiento contra usinas nucleares de Angra dos Reis y extraccin de uranio en CaitetMovimientos contra la cra de camarn que destruye manglaresMovimientos contra proyectos minerosMovimientos contra biopirateraMovimientos de defensa contra infraestructuras IIRSA

Lo mismo en MxicoAntiguas protestas contra minera (cerro San Xavier en San Luis Potos, etc )Protestas contra represas (La Parota, El Zapotillo, Las Cruces en Ro San Pedro en Nayarit)Protestas contra botaderos de residuos (el caso Metalclad en S. Luis Potos)

en Mxicoen la resistencia contra los talamontes por los campesinos ecologistas de Guerrero o la comunidad de Cheran en Michoacn, y otros conflictos sobre la biomasa (agro-combustibles) (En defensa del maz) en la nueva resistencia a la minera a cielo abierto en tantos lugares, como Real de Catorce en donde los Huichol explican que hay cerros sagrados (Wirikuta) que no tienen precio.

Betty Cario, 27 Abril 2010, 37 years old, when traveling to San Juan Copala in solidarity with the triqui community. An activist in the Mixteca and elsewhere, a radio journalist, she had origins in Liberation Theology and was involved in conflicts against dams and for peasant agriculture.- Leopoldo Jurez Urbina, 8 May 2010, and five or six other members of the purpecha community of Chern, Michoacn, defending their communal forests against talamontes.- Miguel Angel Prez Cazales, 31 October 2009, from Santa Catalina, Tepotzln, defending the protected area of Texcal against urbanization.- Rubn Flores, 28 April 2010, his birthday, 42 years old, Coajumulco, Morelos, defending the forest of Ajusco Chihinautzin, killed by talamontes.

Aldo Zamora, 15 May 2007, member of the tlahuica community fighting deforestation in San Juan Atzingo, killed by talamontes (large scale wood robbers) in the vicinity of Santa Luca, Ocuilan, Mexico State.- Aristeo Flores Roln and Raul Delgado Benavides, 2007, in Cuautitln de Barragn, Jalisco, in defense of indigenous rights against iron mining in the ejido of Ayotitln. Bernardo Mndez Vsquez and Bernardo Vsquez Snchez, 18 Jan. and 15 March 2012, Coordinadora de Pueblos Unidos del Valle de Ocotln, in San Jos del Progreso, Oaxaca, opposition to the mining project La Trinidad of Fortuna Silver Mining. Mariano Abarca, 27 Nov. 2009, 50 years old, Chicomuselo, Chiapas, leader of resistance to a barite mine owned by Canadian company Backfire. en Colombia Conflictos de minera: Las enormes minas de carbn a cielo abierto en Cerrejn, en Guajira, y en La Loma, la Jagua de Ibirico y Becerril, en El Cesar, y el transporte con tractomulas o ferrocarril. Nuevos puertos. Desvio del ro Ranchera.Las nuevas minas de oro (caso de Angostura, Bucaramanga, Santander y en el Tolima Cajamarca- la Anglo Ashanti Gold)Conflictos de biomasa (palma, manglares, Smurfit)Conflictos de represas hidroelctricas (Urr 2 fue parada, Quimbo)

Rio + 20 side eventOn 24 and 25 June 2012 the bodies of two human rights defenders were found following their disappearance on 23 June 2012.Almir Nogueira de Amorim and Joo Luiz Telles Penetra, or Pituca as he was known, were both leaders of the Associao Homens do Mar AHOMAR which was set up in 2009 to defend the rights of the fisher-folk working in Rio de Janeiro, and particularly those affected by the construction of a gas pipeline for Petrobras. Since the founding of the organisation its members have reported being subjected to death threats, physical attacks and killings.

EJOLT, 2011-15: Environmental Justice Organizations, Liabilities and Trade: inventory of 2000 conflictsActivism is a source of knowledge. EJOs know more about resource extraction conflicts and waste disposal conflicts than anybody else. This knowledge can be combined with academic research. This is collaborative research.EJOLT is doing an Atlas of Maps (thematic and by country) of enviromental conflicts.www.ejolt.org

EJOLT 2011-15Main hypothesis: There are more environmental conflicts because of the increase in the Social Metabolism

This is different from the view that conflicts arise because of market failures or because of bad governance.

We study conflicts, and we enjoy the fact that conflicts sometimes stop resource extraction or waste diposal. Nuclear: uranium extraction; nuclear power plants; nuclear waste storageOre & building materials: mineral extraction; mineral processing; tailingsWaste Management: e-waste & other waste import zones; ship-breaking; waste privatisation; waste-pickers; incinerators; landfills; uncontrolled dump sites; industrial; municipal wasteBiomass: land-grabbing; tree plantations; logging; non-timber products; deforestation; agro-toxics; GMOs; agrofuels; mangroves vs. Shrimps;; intensive food production (monoculture & livestock); fisheriesFossil Fuels & Climate Justice/ Energy: oil and gas extraction; oil spill; gas flaring; coal extraction; climate change related conflicts (glaciers & small islands);REDD/CDM; windmills; gas frackingTransportation & Infrastructure: megaprojects, high speed trainsWater management: dams, water transfer, hydroways, desalinationBiodiversity: invasive species, biopiracy & bio-prospection, damage to nature, conservation conflictsIndustrial & utilities conflicts: factory emissions, industrial pollution

Acumulacin por desposesin y acumulacin por contaminacinHay una acumulacin de beneficios y de capital mediante la desposesin o expropiacin en las fronteras de la extraccin ( David Harvey) o una Raubwirtschaft hay tambin una acumulacin mediante la contaminacin, las ganancias aumentan por la posibilidad de echar a la atmsfera, al agua o a los suelos los residuos producidos (como el CO2). De ah las protestas con el nombre de Justicia Climtica.

Methods for the study of Social MetabolismIncreased Material Flows (in tons)Increased energy flows (and decreasing EROI)Increased flows on virtual water in exports of soybeans, ethanol, celluloseIncreased HANPP, including the embodied HANPPFlujos de materiales y conflictos ambientales en Amrica latinaVallejo, M. C., 2010. Biophysical structure of the Ecuadorian economy, foreign trade, and policy implications. Ecol. Econ., 70: 159-169. Vallejo, M. C., Prez Rincn, M. A., Martnez-Alier, J., 2011. Metabolic Profile of the Colombian Economy from 1970 to 2007. J. Industrial Ecology, 15: 24567. Prez-Manrique, P., Brun, J., Gonzlez, A.C., Martnez-Alier, J., Walter, M. The biophysical economy of Argentina 1970-2009, J. Ind. Ecology 2012.Metabolismo en la IndiaSingh, S. J., Krausmann F., Gingrich S., Haberl H., Erb K.H., Lanz P., Martinez-Alier J., Temper L., 2012, Indias biophysical economy, 1961 2008, Sustainability in a national and global context. Ecological Economics, 72, 60-69 Comprobamos que la India est aun a 5 tons per persona y ao, comparado con la EU, 15 tons.Hay muchsimos conflictos ambientales en las zonas de extraccin. La mafia de la arena y la grava. Conflictos de minera (Niyamgiri Hill) y de hidroelctricas. Tambin con nucleares (Kudankulam). Two edited issues on Social Metabolism and Ecological Distribution ConflictsSocial Metabolism, Ecological Distribution Conflicts, and Valuation Languages, J. Martnez-Alier, G. Kallis, S. Veuthey, M. Walter, L. Temper. Ecol. Econ., 70 (2), 2010

Global transformations, social metabolism and the dynamics of socio-environmental conflicts, R. Muradian, M.Walter, J. Martinez-AlierGlobal Environmental Change 22(3) , 2012

HANPP : pressure on biodiversityThe HANPP (human appropriation of net primary production) is calculated in three steps. First, the potential net primary production (in the natural ecosystems of a given region ), NPP, is calculated. Then, the actual NPP (normally, less than potential NPP, because of agricultural simplification and soil sealing) is calculated.

The part of actual NPP used by humans and associate beings (cattle, etc.) relative to potential NPP is the HANPP, an index of pressure on biodiversity (because the higher the HANPP, less biomass available for wild species).

Increased HANPP

Exporting soybeans from Porto Velho down the Madeira River (BRL, Aug. 09)The EROIEnergy return on (energy) investment

Hall, Charles A. S., Cutler J. Cleveland, Robert K. Kaufmann (1986): Energy and Resource Quality. The Ecology of the Economic Process. New York. Wiley Interscience.Discussion on EROIWill economic growth be slowed down as we enter a period of decreasing EROI, that is, of increasing energy costs of obtaining energy? For instance, getting oil as we go down the Hubbert curve (after peak oil) will require increasing amounts of energy as the oil is at great depth under the sea (pre-sal in Brazil), or as it is heavy oil (Orinoco Delta).La Economa Ecolgica estudia el metabolismo social y pone en duda que el conflicto entre economa y ambiente pueda solucionarse con jaculatorias al estilo del desarrollo sostenible, la eco-eficiencia o la modernizacin ecolgica. La Ecologa Poltica estudia los conflictos ecolgico-distributivos (locales o internacionales) nacidos del creciente metabolismo social, y muestra cmo distintos actores usan distintos lenguajes de valoracin.

Causas de los conflictos ambientalesLa energa de los combustibles fsiles se quema y se disipa (y produce CO2). No se puede usar dos veces. Los materiales se reciclan solo en parte. Tambin hay que ir a buscarlos a las fronteras de la extraccin. El boom de las industrias extractivas se debe al creciente Metabolismo de la economa mundial, que produce tambin ms residuos.Political EcologyNew inventories and maps of ecological distribution conflicts (J F Gerber on tree plantation conflicts, in GEC, 2010), drawing on the activist knowledge of the EJOs.This is what the EJOLT project, 2011-15, will do, www.ejolt.orgThis is what FIOCRUZs Mapa de Conflitos, Injustia Ambiental e Sade no Brasil does.

Minera de oro: Yanacocha, Per (foto: BRL, julio 09)Las exportaciones baratas del Sur hacia el Norte se consiguen porque los pobres venden barato. Costos ambientales no compensados.

Mientras, el metabolismo de las sociedades ricas depende de la importacin barata de materias primas y de la exportacin gratis de CO2 a los ocanos y a la atmsfera.

Hace falta un Ral Prebisch (o un Celso Furtado) ecologista para combatir el comercio ecologicamente desigual y para protestar contra el cambio climtico.

LA REGLA DE LAWRENCE SUMMERS la medida de los costos de una contaminacin que afecte a la salud depende de los ingresos perdidos por la mayor morbilidad y mortalidad. Desde este punto de vista una cantidad dada de contaminacin nociva para la salud debera ponerse en el pas con el costo ms bajo, es decir, el que tenga los salarios ms bajos. Pienso que la lgica econmica que hay detrs de llevar una carga dada de residuos txicos al pas con menores salarios es impecable y deberamos reconocerla.[1]

[1] Let them eat pollution, The Economist, 8/2/1992.

UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF BURDENS AND BENEFITS Alang-Sosiya in Gujarat, world's largest shipbreaking yard Photos: Federico Demaria, ICTA UAB, 2012

32

REACTIONS & PROPOSALSIn Peru, e.g., new environmental justice organizations (CONACAMI), new movements like Tierra y Libertad (Land and Freedom) with Marco Arana.In Ecuador, a new post-extractivist proposal (Alberto Acosta), the Yasuni ITT.In Latin America, Africa, claims for the repayment of the Ecological Debt (as in Copenhagen Dec. 2009). Los movimientos de Justicia Ambiental

Esos movimientos de Justicia Ambiental son la mayor fuerza para conseguir una economa sostenible. The Yasuni ITT proposalEcuador proposed in 2007 to leave oil in the ground (850 million barrels) in the Yasuni ITT field to respect indigenous rights, keep biodiversity, avoid carbon emissions.They ask for partial outside compensation, 3.600 M US$ about one half of lost revenues. The Trust Fund under UNDP administration was set up in August 2010. Investments would go for energy transition and social investments.This is an initiative to be imitated. We cannot burn all the oil, gas and coal in the ground at the presentr speed because of climate change. The Yasuni ITT initiative in Ecuador

Fuente: www.amazoniaporlavida.org, Fotos: internetInterpretation of the Yasun ITT proposal

For some, it might look as payment for environmental services, similar to REDD?

For some, it is mainly an issue of respect for human rights and indigenous territorial rights, the local Kichwa and Waorani should be consulted

For some, it is a matter of Northern countries and rich people paying back a little of their ecological debts.

In any case, a new word has been invented: YASUNIZAR

Leave the oil in the soil, leave the coal in the hole, leave the tar sands in the land (Nnimmo Bassey, Klimaforum09) YASUNIZANDO (Ejolt report, n. 6)

Se podra YASUNIZAR el Delta del Nger, algunas minas de carbn de la India y China (o de los pramos de Colombia), otros lugares de extraccin de petrleo o gas en la Amazona

FRENAR LA EXTRACCIN DE COMBUSTIBLES FSILES PARA EVITAR EMISIONES DE CO2.

El petrleo de Alberta, Canad, y el oleoducto Keystone XL, la resistencia en Francia, Bulgaria, Euskadi a explotar gas de esquisto (leave the gas under the grass)Demonstration in Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country) against shale gas fracking, 6 Oct. 2012

Textbook based on collaborative research in 2008-2011 in CEECEC & EJOLT projects (Routledge, London, 2012, 522 p.)

The Niyamgiri hill in Orissa is sacred to the Dongria Kondh. It was threatened by bauxite mining by the Vedanta company from London. We could ask the Dongria Kondh: How much for your God? How much for the services provided by your God?

Niyamgiri sal forestPhoto by Leah Temper, UABJanuary 2007

Valuation LanguagesWho has the right (or the power) to simplify complexity and impose one language of valuation? Is sacredness valid? Are indigenous territorial rights valid?Incommensurability of values against imposed commensuration, is at the root of ecological economics (JMA, Ecological Economics, 1987).Going back to the Socialist Calculation Debate of the 1920s-30: Otto Neurath vs. Von Mises and Hayek.Valores inconmensurables Los atingidos pueden afirmar como los UWa en Colombia frente a Occidental Petroleum que la tierra y el subsuelo eran sagrados, que la cultura propia no tiene precio, que el petrleo debe quedar en tierra.

En un conflicto ambiental se despliegan valores ecolgicos, culturales, de subsistencia de las poblaciones, y tambin valores crematsticos.

Son valores que se expresan en distintas escalas, no son conmensurables entre s.

Kalinganagar, Orissa, monumento a los muertos del 2-1-06 al defender sus tierras contra la empresa TATA foto: Leah Temper, UAB

Riesgos e incertidumbres en los conflictos ambientalesLos problemas ecolgicos son complejos, inter-disciplinarios. Adems, a veces son nuevos, creados por las nuevas industrias. De ah, la desconfianza ecologista hacia los cientficos especializados, justificada sin necesidad de apelar a filosofas irracionalistas de la ciencia. Cmo aplicar el principio de precaucin?

Riesgos, incertidumbres, y activist knowledge [1] Como sealan Funtowicz y Ravetz (la ciencia post-normal) o Victor Toledo ( dilogo de saberes), en esas discusiones deberan participar en pie de igualdad los activistas y los "expertos" de las universidades o de las empresas. As, el movimiento de Justicia Ambiental en EEUU recurri a la epidemiologa popular en casos de incidencia de enfermedades por contaminacin en barrios pobres. (Misma idea: Jaime Breilh, epidemiologa critica).

[1] Arturo Escobar, Political Ecology of Globality and Difference, Gestin y Ambiente, 9(3), 2006.

Lenguajes contrapuestos, Valores inconmensurablesEn casos de conflicto ambiental, los poderes pblicos suelen excluir el conocimiento local e imponen el anlisis econmico y adems una evaluacin de impacto ambiental, para decidir si se construye una represa o se abre una mina o se coloca una plantacin de eucaliptos o de palma,

sin embargo, los atingidos, aunque piensen que es mejor recibir alguna compensacin econmica que ninguna, tal vez acudan a otros lenguajes de valoracin todava disponibles en sus culturas.

Subsidio de la Naturaleza y del trabajo domstico, Kumaun, 2006 Claims for payment of environmental liabilities (pasivos ambientales) The economy works in practice by shifting costs to poor people, to future generations, and to other species. How could a growing industrial economy work otherwise? (K.W. Kapp.1950).Sometimes, environmental liabilities appear in the public scene when there are complaints, or when there are sudden accidents (BP in the Gulf of Mexico, 2010, TEPCO in Fukushima, 2011)The pedagogy of catastrophes. Catastrophisme clair (Jean Pierre Dupuy).

Ecological Debts = Environmental Liabilities.

Sometimes liabilities can be translated into a money payment (compensatory and punitive) (Chevron Texaco in Ecuador, Shell in Nigeria).

Sometimes, this is difficult economic value of human life? present economic value of damage to future generations? Present economic value of disappearing unknown species?

Civil or criminal cases? Xstrata in La Alumbrera (Argentina), a criminal court case? Also, 2012 criminal asbestos case Italy (Stephan Schmidheiny). Deuda ecolgica, deuda climtica, justicia climticaDesde el Sur se debera proponer un suave decrecimiento econmico en el Norte, una transicin socio-ecolgica.En el Sur hay muchos movimientos de Justicia Ambiental que plantean que el Norte pague su Deuda Climtica, su deuda de carbono, y que esa deuda no aumente.Reclamo de la Deuda Ecolgica y que esta deuda no aumente ya ms

Via Campesina: La agricultura campesina enfra la Tierra

From metabolic flows to ecological distribution conflictsA tentative classification, on two axis: geographical (local, regional or national, global) and life-cycle: extraction, transport, waste disposal.

Many conflicts become glocal (e.g. Belo Monte in Brazil, Conga-Yanacocha in Per, Niyamgiri in Odisha (India), Shell in Nigeria). Geographical scope-----------------StageLocalNational andRegional GlobalExtractionResource conflicts in tribal areas, such as bauxite mining in Orissa or Andhra Pradesh, oil in Achuar territory in PeruMangrove uprooting.Tree planting for exportCollapses of fisheriesWorldwide search for minerals and fossil fuels, and bio-piracy by MNCsRegulation of corporate accountabilityTransport and TradeComplaints on urban motorways because of noise, pollution, landscape lossInter-basin water transportOil/gas pipelines (e.g. Burma to Thailand, Chad-Cameroon)Oil spills at seaEcologically unequal exchange because of large South to North material flowsWaste and pollution, post-consumption Conflicts on incinerators (dioxins) or ozone in urban areasAcid rain from sulphur dioxideNuclear waste, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USACO2, CFC as causes of climate change & ocean acidification/ ozone layer destructionPOPs even in remote pristine areas Claims for a carbon debtTHE ENVIRONMENTALISM OF THE POOR AND THE INDIGENOUS

All this does not imply that poor people are always on the side of conservation, which would be patently untrue.

What it means is that in many conflicts of resource extraction , transport or pollution, the local poor people (indigenous or not) are often on the side of conservation not so much because they are environmentalists but because of their livelihood needs and their cultural values. These movements combine livelihood, social, cultural, economic and environmental issues. They set their moral economy in opposition to the logic of extraction of oil, minerals, wood or agrofuels at the commodity frontiers, defending biodiversity and their own livelihood.

In many instances they draw on a sense of local identity (indigenous rights and values such as the sacredness of the land) but they also connect with the politics of the left.

However, the traditional left still tends to see environmentalism as a luxury of the rich. Entretanto en el Norte surge una NUEVA MACROECONOMIA ECOLGICA SIN CRECIMIENTOHay nuevos avances en pases del Norte en la elaboracin de una macroeconoma ecolgica (de Tim Jackson, Prosperity without Growth, 2009, de Peter Victor, Managing without Growth 2008) macroeconoma del NO CRECIMIENTO. Se contrapone tanto al keynesianismo como al fundamentalismo del mercado. Tambin hay movimientos por la Dcroissance o Post-Wachstum.We were rightWe were right since the 1970s, 1980s on climate change, peak oil, opposition to nuclear energy, on agrotoxics on dcroissance with the Meadows, with Andr Gorz, Sicco Mansholt, Georgescu-Roegen 1971, 1979, Illich, Castoriadis, Schumacher on the Steady State with Herman Daly since 1973, on the studies of Social Metabolismon peasant agroecology, supporting since the 1990s Via Campesina; in the critique of tree plantationsIn the critique of big dams, since the 1980sWe were rightin the critique of uniform Development (Arturo Escobar, Wolfgang Sachs, Gustavo Esteva, Shiv Visvanathan, Latouche) since the 1980sin the alarm at population growth, we shall now reach Peak Population in 2045 at 8.5 billion, perhapson Eco-Feminism (in its different currents) since the 1970s (Marilyn Waring, Ariel Salleh, Mary Mellor), on the imbrication of culture and nature.on Environmental Justice and the Environmentalism of the Poor and the Indigenous, since the 1980s.Link Degrowth to successful cases of Environmental JusticeIn EJOLT, Environmental Justice Organizations, Liabilities and Trade, www. ejolt.org, we are collecting 2000 cases of resource extraction conflicts and waste disposal conflicts around the world.We find that some times the projects have been stopped. Success! We shall do a Map of Successes.Recent cases of (successful) resistanceMining cases: Conga in Cajamarca, Peru; Intag, Quimsacocha in Ecuador: Niyamgiri Hill in Odisha (India)Kudankulam nuclear power station in Tamil Nadu in India and also against Areva in Maharashtra Gas fracking in France and other cases of leaving fossil fuels in the ground, like SarayakuResistance to Land Grabbing (Madagascar etc)NO TAV in Italy and many other cases of resistance against infrastructures (TIPNIS in Bolivia)Irrawaddy dam in Burma (Kachen territory), La Parota (Mexico)

ALIANZA ENTRE LA JUSTICIA AMBIENTAL Y LOS MOVIMIENTOS DEL DECRECIMIENTOAtendiendo a las protestas de los movimientos ambientalistas del Sur contra el comercio ecolgicamente desigual y por la defensa de los territoriosatendiendo tambin a los reclamos de justicia climtica, confluencia entre la macroeconoma ecolgica en el Norte, la Dcroissance, y esas nuevas perspectivas del Sur que no quieren un desarrollo uniformizador sino ms bien un Buen Vivir.

El ecologismo de los pobres e indgenas, aliado de los movimientos por el decrecimiento y el estado estacionario

Finances and (De)-Growth (remember Frederick Soddy)The economy has three levels (F. Soddy, 1926), the financial, the productive, and the ecological. Or the financial economy, the real economy, and the real-real economy.Debts increase exponentially, they can be paid only by economic growth (or by inflation, and by squeezing the debtors).However, economic growth of the productive economy depends largely on the available energy and materials. The entropy law and the economic process, Georgescu-Roegen (1971).67La macroeconoma ecolgica no cree en el crecimiento econmico en pases ricos, menos aun cuando ste se alimenta de deudas, ya sea deudas de los consumidores o deudas pblicas.

Pues el verdadero alimento de la economa industrial, desde el punto de vista del metabolismo, no son las deudas. Son los combustibles fsiles.

La dcroissanceSerge Latouche es ahora el autor ms conocido. Hace ya 40 aos la palabra dcroissance apareci en boca de Andr Gorz en un debate con Sicco Mansholt, presidente de la Comisin Europea. Despus apareci en un libro de Georgescu-Roegen, 1979.En esos aos se dijo que la economa de los pases ricos debera ir hacia un estado estacionario, en expresin de Herman Daly

From Paris Degrowth April 2008 conferenceSpecial Issue, J. of Cleaner Production (a journal of industrial ecology) 2010 Crisis or Opportunity? Economic Degrowth for Social Equity andEcological Sustainabilityed. by Franois Schneider, Giorgos Kallis, J. Martinez-Alier

Editorial - Serge LatoucheWhy environmental sustainability can most probably not be attained with growing production, Roefie HuetingEnergy transition towards economic and environmental sustainability: feasible paths and policy implications, Simone DAlessandro Tommaso Luzzati Mario MorroniRelax about GDP growth: implications for climate and crisis, Jeroen van den BerghImpact caps: why population, affluence and technology strategiesshould be abandoned, Blake Alcott

12 articles and book reviews (incl. Tim Jackson, Peter Victor)

Drawing from previous degrowth conferences in Paris and Barcelona in 2008 and 2010 respectively, the Montreal conference will focus on the particular situations and dynamics of the Americas.

How can degrowth models apply to different contexts from the Arctic to Tierra del Fuego? How can degrowth concepts be made audible, understandable and acceptable to rich North Americans?

To learn moreBetween science and activism: learning and teaching ecological economics with environmental justice organisations, by Joan Martinez-Alier, Hali Healy, Leah Temper, Mariana Walter, Beatriz Rodriguez-Labajos, Julien-Franois Gerber, Marta Conde Local Environment: The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability 16(1), 2011

To learn moreCourse on Ecological Economics and Environmental Justice January-May 2013

http://www.ejolt.org/2012/04/online-course-ecological-economics-and-activism/

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