Joan Martinez-Alier ICTA, UAB

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Joan Martinez-Alier ICTA, UAB. RELACIONES ENTRE LA ECONOMA ECOLGICA Y LA ECOLOGA POLTICA. VARIEDADES DE ECOLOGISMO. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF BURDENS AND BENEFITS Alang-Sosiya, world's largest shipbreaking yard

Joan Martinez-AlierICTA, UABRELACIONES ENTRE LA

ECONOMA ECOLGICA Y

LA ECOLOGA POLTICAVARIEDADES DE ECOLOGISMO1) En la historia del ambientalismo norteamericano existe la ideologa de Gifford Pinchot de 1900 de que la conservacin de los recursos es compatible con su explotacin segn un rendimiento sostenible: Eco-eficiencia.

2) y la ideologa de John Muir y del Sierra Club, de 1900 tambin, de preservacin de algunos espacios naturales en su estado puro. Conservacionismo.VARIEDADES DE ECOLOGISMO: el ecologismo de los pobres3) Pero en la dcada de 1980 naci EEUU un tercer movimiento ecologista por la Justicia Ambiental y contra el racismo ambiental.

El Ecologismo de los Pobres e Indgenas.

Csar Chavez en aos 1960 (protestas contra el DDT, sindicato de braceros mexicanos en California, ya representaba esto). Otros ejemplos en EEUU: las madres de Los Angeles Centro contra incineradoras Chico Mendes (1988), Ken Saro-Wiwa (1995), cientos de muertos

Movimientos de atingidos en BrasilMovimiento de atingidos por barragens y por trasvase de rosConflictos de tierra por expansin de soya, de ganadoPequeo movimiento contra usinas nucleares de Angra dos Reis y extraccin de uranio en CaitetMovimientos contra la cra de camarn que destruye manglaresMovimientos contra proyectos minerosMovimientos contra biopirateraMovimientos de defensa contra infraestructuras IIRSA

Lo mismo en MxicoAntiguas protestas contra minera (cerro San Xavier en San Luis Potos, etc )Protestas contra represas (La Parota, El Zapotillo, Las Cruces en Ro San Pedro en Nayarit)Protestas contra botaderos de residuos (el caso Metalclad en S. Luis Potos)

en Mxicoen la resistencia contra los talamontes por los campesinos ecologistas de Guerrero o la comunidad de Cheran en Michoacn, y otros conflictos sobre la biomasa (agro-combustibles) (En defensa del maz) en la nueva resistencia a la minera a cielo abierto en tantos lugares, como Real de Catorce en donde los Huichol explican que hay cerros sagrados (Wirikuta) que no tienen precio.

Betty Cario, 27 Abril 2010, 37 years old, when traveling to San Juan Copala in solidarity with the triqui community. An activist in the Mixteca and elsewhere, a radio journalist, she had origins in Liberation Theology and was involved in conflicts against dams and for peasant agriculture.- Leopoldo Jurez Urbina, 8 May 2010, and five or six other members of the purpecha community of Chern, Michoacn, defending their communal forests against talamontes.- Miguel Angel Prez Cazales, 31 October 2009, from Santa Catalina, Tepotzln, defending the protected area of Texcal against urbanization.- Rubn Flores, 28 April 2010, his birthday, 42 years old, Coajumulco, Morelos, defending the forest of Ajusco Chihinautzin, killed by talamontes.

Aldo Zamora, 15 May 2007, member of the tlahuica community fighting deforestation in San Juan Atzingo, killed by talamontes (large scale wood robbers) in the vicinity of Santa Luca, Ocuilan, Mexico State.- Aristeo Flores Roln and Raul Delgado Benavides, 2007, in Cuautitln de Barragn, Jalisco, in defense of indigenous rights against iron mining in the ejido of Ayotitln. Bernardo Mndez Vsquez and Bernardo Vsquez Snchez, 18 Jan. and 15 March 2012, Coordinadora de Pueblos Unidos del Valle de Ocotln, in San Jos del Progreso, Oaxaca, opposition to the mining project La Trinidad of Fortuna Silver Mining. Mariano Abarca, 27 Nov. 2009, 50 years old, Chicomuselo, Chiapas, leader of resistance to a barite mine owned by Canadian company Backfire. en Colombia Conflictos de minera: Las enormes minas de carbn a cielo abierto en Cerrejn, en Guajira, y en La Loma, la Jagua de Ibirico y Becerril, en El Cesar, y el transporte con tractomulas o ferrocarril. Nuevos puertos. Desvio del ro Ranchera.Las nuevas minas de oro (caso de Angostura, Bucaramanga, Santander y en el Tolima Cajamarca- la Anglo Ashanti Gold)Conflictos de biomasa (palma, manglares, Smurfit)Conflictos de represas hidroelctricas (Urr 2 fue parada, Quimbo)

Rio + 20 side eventOn 24 and 25 June 2012 the bodies of two human rights defenders were found following their disappearance on 23 June 2012.Almir Nogueira de Amorim and Joo Luiz Telles Penetra, or Pituca as he was known, were both leaders of the Associao Homens do Mar AHOMAR which was set up in 2009 to defend the rights of the fisher-folk working in Rio de Janeiro, and particularly those affected by the construction of a gas pipeline for Petrobras. Since the founding of the organisation its members have reported being subjected to death threats, physical attacks and killings.

EJOLT, 2011-15: Environmental Justice Organizations, Liabilities and Trade: inventory of 2000 conflictsActivism is a source of knowledge. EJOs know more about resource extraction conflicts and waste disposal conflicts than anybody else. This knowledge can be combined with academic research. This is collaborative research.EJOLT is doing an Atlas of Maps (thematic and by country) of enviromental conflicts.www.ejolt.org

EJOLT 2011-15Main hypothesis: There are more environmental conflicts because of the increase in the Social Metabolism

This is different from the view that conflicts arise because of market failures or because of bad governance.

We study conflicts, and we enjoy the fact that conflicts sometimes stop resource extraction or waste diposal. Nuclear: uranium extraction; nuclear power plants; nuclear waste storageOre & building materials: mineral extraction; mineral processing; tailingsWaste Management: e-waste & other waste import zones; ship-breaking; waste privatisation; waste-pickers; incinerators; landfills; uncontrolled dump sites; industrial; municipal wasteBiomass: land-grabbing; tree plantations; logging; non-timber products; deforestation; agro-toxics; GMOs; agrofuels; mangroves vs. Shrimps;; intensive food production (monoculture & livestock); fisheriesFossil Fuels & Climate Justice/ Energy: oil and gas extraction; oil spill; gas flaring; coal extraction; climate change related conflicts (glaciers & small islands);REDD/CDM; windmills; gas frackingTransportation & Infrastructure: megaprojects, high speed trainsWater management: dams, water transfer, hydroways, desalinationBiodiversity: invasive species, biopiracy & bio-prospection, damage to nature, conservation conflictsIndustrial & utilities conflicts: factory emissions, industrial pollution

Acumulacin por desposesin y acumulacin por contaminacinHay una acumulacin de beneficios y de capital mediante la desposesin o expropiacin en las fronteras de la extraccin ( David Harvey) o una Raubwirtschaft hay tambin una acumulacin mediante la contaminacin, las ganancias aumentan por la posibilidad de echar a la atmsfera, al agua o a los suelos los residuos producidos (como el CO2). De ah las protestas con el nombre de Justicia Climtica.

Methods for the study of Social MetabolismIncreased Material Flows (in tons)Increased energy flows (and decreasing EROI)Increased flows on virtual water in exports of soybeans, ethanol, celluloseIncreased HANPP, including the embodied HANPPFlujos de materiales y conflictos ambientales en Amrica latinaVallejo, M. C., 2010. Biophysical structure of the Ecuadorian economy, foreign trade, and policy implications. Ecol. Econ., 70: 159-169. Vallejo, M. C., Prez Rincn, M. A., Martnez-Alier, J., 2011. Metabolic Profile of the Colombian Economy from 1970 to 2007. J. Industrial Ecology, 15: 24567. Prez-Manrique, P., Brun, J., Gonzlez, A.C., Martnez-Alier, J., Walter, M. The biophysical economy of Argentina 1970-2009, J. Ind. Ecology 2012.Metabolismo en la IndiaSingh, S. J., Krausmann F., Gingrich S., Haberl H., Erb K.H., Lanz P., Martinez-Alier J., Temper L., 2012, Indias biophysical economy, 1961 2008, Sustainability in a national and global context. Ecological Economics, 72, 60-69 Comprobamos que la India est aun a 5 tons per persona y ao, comparado con la EU, 15 tons.Hay muchsimos conflictos ambientales en las zonas de extraccin. La mafia de la arena y la grava. Conflictos de minera (Niyamgiri Hill) y de hidroelctricas. Tambin con nucleares (Kudankulam). Two edited issues on Social Metabolism and Ecological Distribution ConflictsSocial Metabolism, Ecological Distribution Conflicts, and Valuation Languages, J. Martnez-Alier, G. Kallis, S. Veuthey, M. Walter, L. Temper. Ecol. Econ., 70 (2), 2010

Global transformations, social metabolism and the dynamics of socio-environmental conflicts, R. Muradian, M.Walter, J. Martinez-AlierGlobal Environmental Change 22(3) , 2012

HANPP : pressure on biodiversityThe HANPP (human appropriation of net primary production) is calculated in three steps. First, the potential net primary production (in the natural ecosystems of a given region ), NPP, is calculated. Then, the actual NPP (normally, less than potential NPP, because of agricultural simplification and soil sealing) is calculated.

The part of actual NPP used by humans and associate beings (cattle, etc.) relative to potential NPP is the HANPP, an index of pressure on biodiversity (because the higher the HANPP, less biomass available for wild species).

Increased HANPP

Exporting soybeans from Porto Velho down the Madeira River (BRL, Aug. 09)The EROIEnergy return on (energy) investment

Hall, Charles A. S., Cutler J. Cleveland, Robert K. Kaufmann (1986): Energy and Resource Quality. The Ecology of the Economic Process. New York. Wiley Interscience.Discussion on EROIWill economic growth be slowed down as we enter a period of decreasing EROI, that is, of increasing energy costs of obtaining energy? For instance, getting oil as we go down the Hubbert curve (after peak oil) will require increasing amounts of energy as the oil is at great depth under the sea (pre-sal in Brazil), or as it is heavy oil (Orinoco Delta).La Economa Ecolgica estudia el metabolismo social y pone en duda que el conflicto entre economa y ambiente pueda solucionarse con jaculatorias al estilo del desarrollo sostenible, la eco-eficiencia o la modernizacin ecolgica. La Ecologa Poltica estudia los conflictos ecolgico-distributivos (locales o internacionales) nacidos del creciente metabolismo social, y muestra cmo distintos actores usan distintos lenguajes de valoracin.

Causas de los conflictos ambientalesLa energa de los combustibles fsiles se quema y se disipa (y produce CO2). No se puede usar dos veces. Los materiales se reciclan solo en parte. Tambin hay que ir a buscarlos a las fronteras de la extraccin. El boom de las industrias extractivas se debe al creciente Metabolismo de la economa mundial, que produce tambin ms residuos.Political EcologyNew inventories and maps of ecological distribution conflicts (J F Gerber on tree plantation conflicts, in GEC, 2010), drawing on the activist knowledge of the EJOs.This is what the EJOLT project, 2011-15, will do, www.ejolt.orgThis is what FIOCRUZs Mapa de Conflitos, Injustia Ambiental e Sade no Brasil does.

Minera de oro: Yanacocha, Per (foto: BRL, julio 09)Las exportaciones baratas del Sur hacia el Norte se consiguen porque los pobres venden barato. Costos ambientales no compensados.

Mientras, el metabolismo de las sociedades ricas depende de la importacin barata de materias primas y de la exportacin gratis de CO2 a los ocanos y a la atmsfera.

Hace falta un Ral Prebisch (o un Celso Furtado) ecologista para combatir el comercio ecologicamente desigual y para protestar contra el cambio climtico.

LA REGLA DE LAWRENCE SUMMERS la medida de los costos de una contaminacin que afecte a la salud depende de los ingresos perdidos por la mayor morbilidad y mortalidad. Desde este punto de vista una cantidad dada de contaminacin nociva para la salud debera ponerse en el pas con el costo ms bajo, es decir, el que tenga los salarios ms bajos. Pienso que la lgica econmica que hay detrs de llevar una carga dada de residuos txicos al pas con menores salarios es impecable y deberamos reconocerla.[1]

[1] Let them eat pollution, The Economist, 8/2/1992.

UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF BURDENS AND BENEFITS Alang-Sosiya in Gujarat, world's largest shipbreaking yard Photos: Federico Demaria, ICTA UAB, 2012

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REACTIONS & PROPOSALSIn Peru, e.g., new environmental justice organizations (CONACAMI), new movements like Tierra y Libertad (Land and Freedom) with Marco Arana.In Ecuador, a new post-extractivist proposal (Alberto Acosta), the Yasuni ITT.In Latin America, Africa, claims for the repayment of the Ecological Debt (as in Copenhagen Dec. 2009). Los movimientos de Justicia Ambiental

Esos movimientos de Justicia Ambiental son la mayor fuerza para conseguir una economa sostenible. The Yasuni ITT proposalEcuador proposed in 2007 to leave oil in the ground (850 million barrels) in the Yasuni ITT field to respect indigenous rights, keep biodiversity, avoid carbon emissions.They ask for partial outside compensation, 3.600 M US$ about one half of lost revenues. The Trust Fund under UNDP administration was set up in August 2010. Investments would go for energy transition and social investments.This is an initiative to be imitated. We cannot burn all the oil, gas and coal in the ground at the presentr speed because of climate change. The Yasuni ITT initiative in Ecuador

Fuente: www.amazoniaporlavida.org, Fotos: internetInterpretation of the Yasun ITT proposal

For some, it might look as payment for environmental services, similar to REDD?

For some, it is mainly an issue of respect for human rights and indigenous territorial rights, the local Kichwa and Waorani should be consulted

For some, it is a matter of Northern countries and rich people paying back a little of their ecological debts.

In any case, a new word has been invented: YASUNIZAR

Leave the oil in the soil, leave the coal in the hole, leave the tar sands in the land (Nnimmo Bassey, Klimaforum09) YASUNIZANDO (Ejolt report, n. 6)

Se podra YASUNIZAR el Delta del Nger, algunas minas de carbn de la India y China (o de los pramos de Colombia), otros lugares de extraccin de petrleo o gas en la Amazona

FRENAR LA EXTRACCIN DE COMBUSTIBLES FSILES PARA EVITAR EMISIONES DE CO2.

El petrleo de Alberta, Canad, y el oleoducto Keystone XL, la resistencia en Francia, Bulgaria, Euskadi a explotar gas de esquisto (leave the gas under the grass)Demonstration in Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country) against shale gas fracking, 6 Oct. 2012

Textbook based on collaborative research in 2008-2011 in CEECEC & EJOLT projects (Routledge, London, 2012, 522 p.)

The Niyamgiri hill in Orissa is sacred to the Dongria Kondh. It was threatened by bauxite mining by the Vedanta company from London. We could ask the Dongria Kondh: How much for your God? How much for the services provided by your God?

Niyamgiri sal forestPhoto by Leah Temper, UABJanuary 2007

Valuation Languag...

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