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  • 20 Years History and Development of the Japanese Disaster Education and Disaster

    Management at School : Putting Safety of School and Children Centered

    Yoshio Toda


    Tokyo Womens College of Physical Education

    Former physical-education officer of MEXT

  • I would like to covey my sincere condolence and sympathy to the affected people and deceased's family members who lost their loved ones by natural disasters including the Great East Japan Earthquake, typhoons, eruption of

    volcanos. I wish earliest possible recovery and reconstruction.

  • Contents

    Hanshin Awaji Earthquake (1995) as a starting point of the Japanese disaster education and disaster management at school

    20 years efforts to overcome issues and challenges on disaster education and disaster management at school beyond recovery and reconstruction of the affected areas

    Issues and challenges for further development of the Japanese disaster education and disaster management at school

  • Hanshin Awaji Earthquake (1995) as a starting point of the Japanese disaster education and disaster management at school


  • Feature of the Earthquake

    Kobe-Hanshin area was a place with a population of 3.5million as well as a center of economic activities. The earthquake occurred there as inland and urban epicentral type.

    The epicenter was at depth of 16km. The earthquake was caused by strike slips of fault. Huge energy was released at once.


  • Summary of the Damage

    1. A large city was attacked directly by the mega-earthquake. Damages to utilities (electricity, water, gas) became wide-spread and lifeline, including railroads, bullet trains, high-way, and so one were severely damaged by the earthquake.

    2. Large scale collapse of houses and fire happened at residential areas with old, and wooden housings, such as Hyogo-ward and Nagata-ward of Kobe city.

    3. Many residents were forced to live at evacuation shelters since the earthquake occurred at highly population-densed areas, such as Hanshin-Awaji area.


  • Summary of the Damages

    5 19

    [ ] indicates total number including other prefectures

    Death 6,402 [6,434 ] Cause of death: 77% of death are choking and crushing. By age group,

    43.7 was over 65 years old. (H7.16 )

    Missing []

    Injured 40,092 [43,792 ]

    Housing damages

    538,767 [639,686 ]104,004 (182,751 )

    136,952 (256,857 )

    Burnt housing

    7,534 [7,574 ]7,035 89


  • Number of Evacuees(At peak19951.23)

    316,678 people 1,153 places

    20 8

  • Issues from Hanshin Awaji Earthquake

    MEXT 1995 report

    Japanese schools did not have any equipment and functions (e.g. storage)to serve as shelter. Schools were not prepared for disaster response management system, including issues on how to run the shelter, what were roles

    and responsibilities of teachers and staff.


  • Schools were not well prepared as a shelter. School functions as an educational institution were constrained at many schools due to serving as a shelter at the same time.

    It is required for all the schools including urban schools to strengthen earthquake disaster prevention by expecting a large scale earthquake.

    It is required for all the schools to examine safety measures for children by different occasions of a day (staying at school, on the way back home and to school, out of school hours including holidays), and to provide disaster education based on the above.

    It is required to strengthen earthquake resistance of school buildings, safety measures on school facilities and equipment, and communication system.

    It is required that schools should examine schools roles and function as a shelter, roles and responsibilities of teachers and staff, and what should be prepared for early recovery of schools as education provider.


  • What I felt at a time of Hanshin Awaji Earthquake

    Value of human life

    Importance of strengthening bonds among people on a routine basis

    Collaboration among school, households and the community people

    Appreciation to supports thanking to many volunteers

    Importance of training and disaster education on a routine basis

    Preparedness in a daily life cycle, and importance of making buildings quake-resistant, strengthening social and economic infrastructure


  • 20 years efforts to overcome issues to attain disaster education

    and disaster management at school beyond recovery and reconstruction

    of the disaster affected areas


  • Improvement at school level to secure safety of pupils and students

    MEXT Report on enhancing school disaster

    management systemSecond report on September 2, 1996)


  • Preparation of school disaster plan


    Institutionalizing school safety check-ups by finding dangerous zones and spots at school facilities, equipment for removing these dangers for safer school life

    Establishing a planned teaching guiding system to foster childrens capability and safe attitudes for protecting own lives from disaster

    Institutionalizing crisis management system at emergency from disaster


  • Promotion of disaster education

    Close collaboration with households and community is required for promoting disaster education at school


    Perceiving danger at a time of disaster, preparing for disaster in a daily life. Taking proactive actions for protecting own safety with proper judgment depending on the situation

    Supporting others in their community at a time of disaster and post-disaster period. Contributing to safety of their community

    Understanding basic knowledge on a mechanism of natural disaster, communitys natural environment, disaster and disaster preparedness


  • Points of Attention

    Survival skills and knowledge required at a time of disaster

    Importance of volunteer activities as one of important pillars of disaster education

    Joint evacuation drills and school-household-community collaboration on disaster preparedness

    Enhancing teaching training, teaching guides materials, and manuals


  • Preparation of disaster response manuals for teachers to secure childrens safety

    In-advance examination on roles of school disaster response headquarter, allocation of teachers and staff to each group, and informing them tasks and responsibilities

    Preparation of emergency and temporary response and guiding system according to a time of disaster occurred, number of available teachers and staff, depending on the damage situations

    In-advance preparation on how to manage school evacuation shelters and concrete responses. Considering teachers role to respond to children and evacuees at the same time.


  • Government Actions to Expand School Safety

    Disaster Education Promotion Area Project

    Production and distribution of disaster education teaching materials

    Production and distribution of disaster education materials for students

    Implementation of in-service teacher training

    Started in 1997 at national and each municipal level

    Assigning pilot schools and organizing a workshop for promoting research on disaster education

    Expansion of disaster education in a national teaching curriculum guide (1998 revision, health and physical education, science, social science)

    these changes were reflected in nationally authorized textbooks)


  • Efforts by Prefectures

    Gradually improved in Tokyo, Hyogo-Prefecture and Kobe-City,

    Expansion of evacuation drills at school

    Production of teaching material Earthquake and Safety

    Preparation of a teaching guide and materials

    Teacher training

    Open class at school safety education workshop by the government and Tokyo metropolitan government

    Promotion of quake-resistant school buildings

    Preparation of stockpiles at schools as evacuation shelter

    These efforts had been made at limited municipalities, but not wide-spread throughout Japan until the Great East Japan Earthquake


  • Large scale earthquake continued to happen in Japan after 1995

    Tokachi offshore earthquake


    Niigata-Chuetsu EQ Death/Missing

    Niigata-Chuetsu offshore EQ


    Iwate-Miyagi Inland EQ



  • After the earthquakes

    Improving quake-resistant ratio of school buildings (among public elementary and junior high schools)


    94 % of largely collapsed buildings were disqualified??)


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  • Disaster Education at School

    Increase of evacuation drills at school for earthquake, tsunami, and fire

    Implementation of joint evacuation drills between school and community not many yet, though

    Expansion of disaster education contents in authorized school textbooks based on national curriculum guideline

    Emergence of Education for Sustainable Development only at limited areas and schools


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  • And then,

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on


  • Damages at Schools and to Pupils and Students

    From a MEXT Report on March 2012Respondent to the Survey: 3,127 public and private schools in the affected three prefectures, Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima


    10 (0.4%) s


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