Jane Payler, University of Winchester & Jan Georgeson, Plymouth University Symposium: Methodological Challenges of Studying the Perspectives of Very Young

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Jane Payler, University of Winchester &amp; Jan Georgeson, Plymouth University Symposium: Methodological Challenges of Studying the Perspectives of Very Young Children ISCAR conference, Sydney, Australia, 29 th Sept-3 rd Oct 2014 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> How do children experience and participate in aspects of interprofessional practice in early years settings? Little research on childrens perspectives of interprofessional practice (e.g. Wong et al. 2012) and reluctance to ask them (Georgeson et al., 2014) Wong, S., J.Sumsion and F.Press.(2012). Early childhood professional and inter-professional work in integrated early childhood services in Australia. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood. 37(1), 81-88. Georgeson, J., Porter, J., Daniels, H. and Feiler, A. (2014) Consulting young children about barriers and supports to learning. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal. 22 (2) 2 </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Nature of our research focus Nuanced, bodily and vocal interaction, participation and expressions of experience in interprofessional early years care and education are the locus of our research 3 </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> 4 What are the theories of learning, development and early years pedagogy from which our research focus is derived? </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> John Shotters Conversational realities spontaneous, unique events, enacted bodily (2008: iv). He argues that such unique events are shaped by social influences, but that each individual co- creates unique events by their spontaneous, unthought out, living bodily responses (2008: vi). Shotter, J. (2008) Conversational Realities Revisited: Life, Language, Body and World. Ohio: Taos institute Publications. 5 </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Attention to Shared understandings developed in ongoing conversation over time; talk-entwined (2008: vii) dialogic exchanges; bodily aspects also emphasised. Spontaneous, expressive-responsivity: the fluid back and forth flow of living, interdependent activity activity that is always inseparably intertwined, as in an ecology, in with all the other activities occurring in its surroundings (2008: vi). Contingent action guiding feelings interaction is based on embodied feelings (2008:12) and should be the focus of research attention 6 </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Attention to Shared understandings developed in ongoing conversation over time; talk-entwined (2008: vii) dialogic exchanges; bodily aspects also emphasised. Spontaneous, expressive-responsivity: the fluid back and forth flow of living, interdependent activity activity that is always inseparably intertwined, as in an ecology, in with all the other activities occurring in its surroundings (2008: vi). Contingent action guiding feelings Interaction is based on embodied feelings (2008:12) and should be the focus of research attention Leading to... Relationally-responsive form of understanding: crucially contingent replies and subsequent actions between people, coming to a unique, never before encountered understanding within such an exchange (2008: vii). 7 </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Dreiers Trajectories of participation childrens participation across contexts, with different constraints and opportunities, shape their learning and development Dreier, O. 1999 Personal Trajectories of Participation across Contexts of Social Practice. Outlines 1: 5-32. Dreier, O. 2002 Learning in Personal Trajectories of Participation. Proceedings of the International Society for Theoretical Psychology Conference. Canada. Dreier, O. 2008 Psychotherapy in Everyday Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 8 </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) (1989) Provision, protection and participation = childs involvement in decision-making through expression of own views Key Articles: freedom of expression (13) education should help to ensure that children are aware of their rights and able to exercise them (29) applies equally to disabled and non-disabled children (2) right for children to have their views respected (12) UNCRC 1989 -&gt; legislation in signatory countries -&gt; more attention to seeking of childrens views about decisions that will affect them (Bragg, 2010:11) States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child. Article 12 9 </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Article 12 difficult to interpret (Bae, 2010) Often (mis)quoted in support of pupil voice (Lundy, 2007:928) Balance between provision, protection and participation Legal right as well as moral duty Attend to views of very young children (Alderson et al., (2005); Gray and Winter 2011) Ethical issues with researching vulnerable children but with support their stories can be told; (Leeson 2013) 10 </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Are all children capable of forming his or her own views? And - if we should give the views of the child due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child who decides whether they are old or mature enough? </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Accessing and analysing childrens perspectives when they are very young and verbal language is still emergent the fine-grained, nuanced, bodily as well as vocal nature of participation, experience and pedagogy How? Video analysis: childrens bodily and vocal participation with practitioners (co-construction) Children-in-families (Warin, 2007): using interviews with parents Situated discussions with practitioners Warin, J. (2007) Joined-Up Services for Young Children and Their Families: Papering Over the Cracks or Re-Constructing the Foundations? CHILDREN &amp; SOCIETY VOLUME 21, (2007) pp. 8797 12 </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Challenges in Data collection Data analysis Representing findings Payler, J. and Georgeson, J. (2013) Multiagency working in the early years: confidence, competence and context. Early Years: An International Research Journal, Special Edition 'Integrated Children's Services: Rethinking Research, Policy and Practice', 33:4, 380-397. Payler, J.K. &amp; Georgeson, J. (2013) Personal action potency: early years practitioners participating in interprofessional practice in early years settings in International Journal of Early Years Education, Volume 21, Issue 1, 39-55Volume 21Issue 1 13 </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Video child-practitioner interactions over 8 days (510 mins) Interviews 5 practitioners, 6 graduate leaders and 5 parents (435 mins) Documents Childrens IEPs; information on settings 14 </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Conceptual framework guided analysis Selection of critical moments (Byrne-Armstrong et al., 2001) Childrens participation in routine and intervention activities, often intertwined Bodily and vocal participation; emotional responses Influenced by/a nod towards Laban Movement Analysis (see e.g. Penfield, 2005) Body Effort Shape Space 15 </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Spontaneous expressive responsivity Vocal / bodily Jenny `I think that A wasnt the key person choice on paper when we started...She used to come in and ask for her and now weve just shuffled it so that A does have her one of the times shes here. (Jennys mother) 16 </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Spontaneous expressive responsivity Vocal / bodily Jenny `I think that A wasnt the key person choice on paper when we started...She used to come in and ask for her and now weve just shuffled it so that A does have her one of the times shes here. (Jennys mother) Body: movement initiation Effort: direct, strong, sustained Space: directional 17 </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Shared understandings developed over time in ongoing conversation: Bodily / Vocal, moving towards... Bodily / Vocal Daniel 18 </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Episode 3: Daniel communicating with practitioner; key person interpreting his intentions for practitioner Practitioner off screen at snack table asks Daniel Daniel, do you want a drink of water? This is repeated. Daniel responds by waving and saying Bye in an urgent voice. Key person watches from nearby, monitoring the interaction and his responses. Body: orientation; gesture Key person joins him at the computer and talks to him about it P ractitioner asks if he would like a biscuit. He responds in a tone of urgency by waving and again saying, Bye bye biscuit. Off screen, practitioner consults with key person about leaving snack out for him. Key person explains that waving bye bye was a very big step and a measure of Daniels progress. 19 </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Contingent action guiding feelings Bodily (vocal) Andrew 20 </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> He vocalises and points with outstretched arm to the box of construction on the table that he would prefer to do. She says, Crayon first. Yes, crayon first. Space: spatial intention Effort: sudden, direct He continues to turn away from the crayons until she decides to remove the paper and offer him the box of construction. He settles to animatedly sorting through the box. Body: movement sequence Effort: sustained She takes some items out, then removes the box. Andrew ends the one to one session by taking himself under the table. Body: movement initiation Effort: sudden, strong 21 </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Making childrens contributions and perspectives visible allows for a more contingent approach to IP, with practitioners acting as the advocates and co-constructors with young children, mediating their participation. The challenge is to find ways to theorise, analyse and represent childrens experiences and to give adequate weight to these in policy and practice developments. 22 </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Alderson, P., Hawthorne, J. and Killen, M. (2005) The Participation Rights of Premature Babies, International Journal Of Childrens Rights, 13, 31-50 Aubery, C., &amp; Dahl, S. (2006). Childrens voices: The views of vulnerable children on their service providers and the relevance of services they receive, British Journal of Social Work, 23, 2139. Bae, B. (2010) Realizing childrens right to participation in early childhood settings: some critical issues in a Norwegian context. Early Years 30: (3) 205218 Bragg, S. (2010) Consulting Young People: A literature review. 2nd ed. Newcastle: Creativity, Culture and Education. Byrne-Armstrong, H., Higgs, J., Horsfall, D., (Eds) (2001) Critical moments in qualitative research, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann Dreier, O. 1999 Personal Trajectories of Participation across Contexts of Social Practice. Outlines 1: 5- 32. Dreier, O. 2002 Learning in Personal Trajectories of Participation. Proceedings of the International Society for Theoretical Psychology Conference. Canada. Dreier, O. 2008 Psychotherapy in Everyday Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Georgeson, J., Porter, J., Daniels, H. and Feiler, A. (2014) "Consulting young children about barriers and supports to learning European Early Childhood Education Research Journal. Volume 22 Issue 3 (provisional) 23 </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Gray, C. and Winter, E. (2011) Hearing voices: participatory research with preschool children with and without disabilities. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal 19 3 309-320 Lundy, L., (2007) 33(6) Voice is not enough: Conceptualising Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, British Education Research Journal, 927-942 Payler, J. and Georgeson, J. (2013) Multiagency working in the early years: confidence, competence and context. Early Years: An International Research Journal, Special Edition 'Integrated Children's Services: Rethinking Research, Policy and Practice', 33:4, 380-397. Payler, J.K. &amp; Georgeson, J. (2013) Personal action potency: early years practitioners participating in interprofessional practice in early years settings in International Journal of Early Years Education, Volume 21, Issue 1, 39-55 Volume 21Issue 1 Penfield, K. (2005) Application of Laban Movement Analysis to a movement for actors training program : excerpts from a teaching collaboration. Laban Movement Analysis for Actors: A Teaching Collaboration between Kedzie Penfield and Judith Steel. pp. 1-30. Available online at http://eresearch.qmu.ac.uk/72/. Accessed 25.8.13. http://eresearch.qmu.ac.uk/72/ Shotter, J. (2008) Conversational Realities Revisited: Life, Language, Body and World. Ohio: Taos institute Publications. Warin, J. (2007) Joined-Up Services for Young Children and Their Families: Papering Over the Cracks or Re-Constructing the Foundations? CHILDREN &amp; SOCIETY. 21, (2007) pp. 8797 Wong, S., J.Sumsion and F.Press.(2012). Early childhood professional and inter-professional work in integrated early childhood services in Australia. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood. 37(1), 81-88. 24 </li> </ul>