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<p>Maturitn otzky z informatiky a vpoetn techniky</p> <p>Obsah:INFORMACE A JEJICH VZNAM .........................................................................................................................4 INFORMATIKA..........................................................................................................................................................4 UCHOVN INFORMAC..............................................................................................................................................4 HARDWARE..................................................................................................................................................................4 HISTORIE POTA..................................................................................................................................................4 ROZDLEN POTA A JEJICH VYUIT.........................................................................................................................6 SKN POTA.....................................................................................................................................................7 ZKLADN DESKA (MAINBOARD)..................................................................................................................................7 MIKROPROCESORY...................................................................................................................................................8 NAPJEC ZDROJ....................................................................................................................................................11 SBRNICE.............................................................................................................................................................11 PERUEN - IRQ (INTERRUPT REQUEST LEVELS)........................................................................................................13 DMA (DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS)...........................................................................................................................13 KOMUNIKACE PES DAL ROZHRAN (INTERFACE)..........................................................................................................13 PAMTI................................................................................................................................................................14 HDD - FYZICKY, LOGICKY......................................................................................................................................18 DISKETOV MECHANIKA, FDD.................................................................................................................................29 CD, MECHANIKA CD-ROM, CD-RW.....................................................................................................................31 DVD, MECHANIKA DVD-ROM, DVD+RW...........................................................................................................34 DAL PENOSN MDIA..........................................................................................................................................35 PDAVN KARTY...................................................................................................................................................36 ZVUKOV KARTA....................................................................................................................................................37 ZOBRAZOVAC SOUSTAVA..........................................................................................................................................39 MODEMY.............................................................................................................................................................46 POTAOV ST...................................................................................................................................................51 BIOS.................................................................................................................................................................61 TISKRNY A PLOTRY...............................................................................................................................................63 SKENERY (SCANNERY)............................................................................................................................................68 KLVESNICE.........................................................................................................................................................71 MY A JIN POLOHOVAC ZAZEN.............................................................................................................................72 OPERAN SYSTMY (OS).....................................................................................................................................74 MS-DOS...........................................................................................................................................................75 WINDOWS............................................................................................................................................................82 UNIX..................................................................................................................................................................88 OS/2 WARP........................................................................................................................................................94 LANTASTIC.........................................................................................................................................................96 SOUBOROV MANAERY..........................................................................................................................................96 APLIKAN PROGRAMY.....................................................................................................................................101 TEXTOV EDITORY................................................................................................................................................101 TABULKOV KALKULTORY.....................................................................................................................................105 DATABZOV SYSTMY.........................................................................................................................................108 KANCELSK BALKY...........................................................................................................................................111 GRAFICK EDITORY...............................................................................................................................................112 PROGRAMOVN...................................................................................................................................................116 PROGRAMOVAC JAZYKY.........................................................................................................................................116 ALGORITMUS......................................................................................................................................................125 INTERNET.................................................................................................................................................................127 VZNIK, HISTORIE A VVOJ INTERNETU.......................................................................................................................127 VYUIT INTERNETU..............................................................................................................................................129 2</p> <p>ZPSOBY PRCE S INTERNETEM...............................................................................................................................130 PROTOKOLY........................................................................................................................................................131 POTOVN PROGRAMY, E-MAIL................................................................................................................................135 WWW (WORLD WIDE WEB)...............................................................................................................................139 HTML (HYPERTEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE)..............................................................................................................139 HTML EDITORY.................................................................................................................................................140 INTERNETOV PROHLEE......................................................................................................................................141 SKRIPTOVAC JAZYKY............................................................................................................................................141 PHP.................................................................................................................................................................142</p> <p>3</p> <p>Informace a jejich vznamInformatikaInformatika je vdn obor, kter se zabv strukturou, zpracovnm, enm a vyuitm informac. potaov simulace zskvn dostaten pesnch informac o chovn zkoumanch (simulovanch) pedmt v uritch podmnkch. Bez tto monosti by bylo nutn zkoumat chovn pmo na pedmtu, co je nkdy nemon nebo dosti nron (asov, finann) uml inteligence modeluje intelektuln innosti lovka - rozeznvn tvar a pedmt, zvuk, chut a pach a vytven analogi mezi logickmi sudky; teorie her, matematick hypotzy a dkazy potaov grafika v oboru informatiky je to hlavn teorie k vytven matematickch kivek tvary psmen a jinch zobrazovanch objekt softwarov inenrstv dnes nejrozenj odvtv informatiky - hlavn tvoen program a ve co k tomu pat (ovldac prosted atd.) Mezi dal obory informatiky pat nap. teorie kd, logiky, automat, potaov st, knihovn technika, databze a mnoho dalch.</p> <p>Uchovn informacNejzkladnj jednotkou je BIT. 8 bit (b) tvo 1 bajt (B), 1024 (zaokrouhlen 1000) bajt (B) je 1 kilobyte (kB) informac. Skutenost je zaznamenvna ve form znak, kter vytv DATA. Informace se uchovvaj v kdech: kdovn - pevod znak nebo rznch kon na rzn symboly (kadmu konu, znaku se piad jeden symbol: kon, znak symbol) a zrove je to i pedpis, jak k sob piloit jednotliv prvky dan skupiny (zptn dekdovn: symbol kon). Jednou z st je i ifrovn (viz morseovka kadmu psmenu je piazen symbol, hashovac funkce). Data mohou bt uloena v rznch selnch soustavch. Zkladn soustavou pro zpracovn dat je soustava binrn (sla jsou vyjditeln dvma prvky: 0, 1). Dle se v men me pouv i soustava osmikov a estnctkov (dno hardwarem existuj 16-ti i vcebitov procesory). Kad soustava je typick pro urit druh dat. zobrazovn sel a znak kad soustava se zobrazuje jinak (. 123 m jin zpis v 16kov a jin v 10kov soustav).</p> <p>HardwareHistorie potaVe zaalo pomckami k potn: Prsty (od tohoto tak pouvme destkovou soustavu), abakus (hlinn nebo devn destiky, do nich se vkldaly kamnky ve starm ecku a m zajiovaly jednoduch aritmetick kony), starovk taxametry; pozdji logaritmick pravtka a tabulky, 4</p> <p>ozuben kola (potac stroj zaloen na principu ozubench kol). Pot pily na adu prvn mechanick stroje: W. Shickard (po. 17.st.) stroj s dekadickmi koleky operace +, -, ., Pascal (1642) Pascalv aritmetick stroj Pascalna vyuity poznatky W. Shickarda; zvld pouze stn Leibnitz (1673) stroj umoujc potat se vemi operacemi na tu dobu ho nebylo mono sestavit J. M. Jacquard (po. 19.st.) tkalcovsk stroj, jeho vzorovn bylo zadvno drnm ttkem Ch. Babbage (1835) analytick stroj pam, dc jednotka, aritmetick jednotka; vyuit poznatk o drnch ttcch; zaveden prvk vtven = rozhodnut na zklad pedelho vsledku (automatizace). Spolupracovnic byla tvrci Ada Augusta z Lovelace. H. Hollerith (1880) pstroj na stn lidu, kter pouval drn ttky. Pozdji se tento mu stal zakladatelem firmy IBM Pot se ji objevuj prvn potae (vvoj probh pedevm v Nmecku a USA, je urychlen II. sv. vlkou): potae nult generace 1940; Potae ped II. svtovou vlkou; zaloeny pedevm na vojensk bzi; relov potae zkladem je rel (elektrick spna), rozmach pota v Nmecku. K. Zuse (1941) pota Zuse Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4 Howard H. Aiken (1943) pota ASSC MARK 1 pozdji i u ns SAPO (samoinn pota) prvn generace pota 1950; zkladem je elektronka (objevitel Lee De Forest); velice rozmrn, pkon dov 100 kW, obsluha 20-50 lid, programovn vhradn ve strojovm kdu, 10 tis. operac /s Pensylvnsk univerzita (1946) ENIAC do roku 55 byl vyuvn v armd John von Neumann s Von Neumannovou koncepc potae 40. lta 20. stolet umstn programu do stejn pamti jako data, po zaveden programu a dat nebylo mono po sputn vpot s potaem dle manipulovat (diskrtn reim prce), uplatovala se dvojkov soustava. Von Neumann oddlil vstup od vstupu, hlavnmi stmi potae byly aritmetick jednotka, vnitn pam a adi, kter ovldal pam a pedval vpoetn koly aritmetick jednotce. pota EDVAC, pota MANIAK (1951) pouit k vvoji vodkov bomby prvn sriov elektronick pota (1956) UNIVAC u ns pota EPOS (1963) a v Rusku pota URAL potae druh generace 1958..; zkladem potae je tranzistor (objevitel John Barden) a polovodiov diody; men velikost, vznik programovacch jazyk (Fortran, Algol, Cobol), objevuj se zde ji prvn operan systmy, pkon 2 kW, obsluha 10-20 lid, 500 tis. operac /s; prvn vnj pamti feritov, psov, bubnov National Eliot 803 IBM 1401 MINSK u ns EPOS 2 a pozdji ZPA 601 a 602 potae tet generace 1964..; zkladem je integrovan obvod (mal, stedn, vysok, velmi vysok integrace - podle potu logickch len diod, tranzistor apd.) = vce rznch zazen na jedn desce CHIP (pouzdro obsahujc jeden nebo vce integrovanch obvod defakto samotn pota 5</p> <p>schopnost dit obsaen v prakch, kalkulakch atd.); pkon dov 0,5 kW, obsluha 2-5 lid; pouvn magnetopskovch nebo diskovch pamt, 5 mil. operac /s, objevila se polovodiov pam IBM Systm 360 Siemens 4004 v rmci RVHP to byl pota JSMEP u ns pak Tesla 200 a 300 vznik Assembleru a zrove velk rozmach pota Apple a Commodore potae ti a plt generace 1972 - 1981; dn revolun pnos, objeven terminl obrazovka, klvesnice; 10 mil. operac /s IBM XT, IBM AT, pozdji IBM PS/2 r. 1988, dodvan s operanm systmem OS/2 Sinclair ZX 81, Spectrum Commodore 64, Amiga ATARI potae tvrt generace 1981 - dneek; miniaturn prvky, 100 mil. operaci /s, prosazovn optickho zznamu, hlavn slovo maj osobn potae pouit mikroprocesor od r. 1981 vvoj ady 80..86: 1982 80286 umouje 16 MB pamti 1984 AT podpora pevnch disk 1986 adaptr EGA (pedtm CGA, ernobl monitory) 16 barev, 256 KB pamti nsleduje adaptr SEGA umouje rozlien 640x480 1988 80386 32 bitov pota, a 4 GB pamti, 2 typy sbrnic 1987 adaptr VGA (pozdji SVGA) 1990 80486 spojen procesor 80386 a 80387, lep verze obsahuj matematick koprocesor 1993...</p>