italy: birthplace of renaissance italy’s advantages renaissance- period (rebirth) from 1300-1600...

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  • Slide 1
  • Italy: Birthplace of Renaissance Italys Advantages Renaissance- period (rebirth) from 1300-1600 which witnessed a revival in art and in learning Educated ppl in Italy hoped to bring back the culture of classical Greece and Rome Italy had 3 advantages that made it the birthplace of the Renaissance: 1.Thriving Cities 2.Wealthy Merchant Class 3.Classical heritage of Greece and Rome
  • Slide 2
  • City-States During the Crusades, overseas trading created a commercial society where ideas could be traded The plague kills up to 60% in urban areas, allowing survivors to demand higher wages Little opportunity to expand business, so many people pursue different interests such as art and music Merchants and the Medici Wealthy merchant class develops in each Italian city-state Merchants didnt inherit their wealth, they earned it this leads to the belief that they deserved their power and wealth Florence switches from being ruled by a republican form of gvmt to a dictatorship under the banking Medici family
  • Slide 3
  • Looking to Greece and Rome Scholars looked down on the art and literature of the Middle Ages and focused on Classical Greece and Rome They studied the Roman ruins, and Latin manuscripts from various monasteries When the Seljuk Turks ransack Constantinople in 1453, Christian scholars fled to Rome with Greek manuscripts
  • Slide 4
  • Classical and Worldly Values Classics Lead to Humanism Study of classical texts led to humanism (focused on human potential and achievements) Emphasized study of the humanities (history, philosophy, literature, etc) Worldly Pleasures Humanists argue that you can enjoy life without offending God (didnt have to eat plan food and wear rough clothes) While most remained Catholic, the basic spirit of the Renaissance was secular
  • Slide 5
  • Patrons of the Arts Church leaders spend large amounts of money on beautifying Rome Those who supported the artists became patrons of the arts Renaissance Man Renaissance writers introduce idea that men should master every area of study Baldassare Castigliones The Courtier suggests that young men should be charming, witty, well-educated in classics, be able to dance, sing, play music, and write poetry. In addition he should be a skilled rider, wrestler, and swordsman
  • Slide 6
  • Renaissance Woman According to The Courtier, women should also be charming and know the classics Expected to inspire art, not create it More educated than medieval women, but not involved in politics Few women, like Isabelle dEste, had power. She married a ruler of a city-state, and even won his release when he was captured in war
  • Slide 7
  • Renaissance Revolutionizes Art Renaissance painters used perspective to show three dimensions on a flat surface Realistic Painting and Sculpture Michelangelo and Donatello paint and sculpt realistically to show individual characteristics Leonardo, Renaissance Man Was a true Renaissance man (studied muscles and veins from leaves to understand how to paint them) Painted the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper
  • Slide 8
  • Raphael Advances Realism Studied the works of Leonardo and Michelangelo Filled the walls of Pope Julius IIs library with paintings (School of Athens) Anguissola and Gentileschi Renaissance society generally restricted womens roles, but some women became notable painters Sofonisba Anguissola gains an international reputation for her works, and Artemisia Gentileschi painted with her father to gain prominence
  • Slide 9
  • Renaissance Writers Change Literature Petrarch and Boccaccio Francesco Petrarch known as the father of Renaissance humanism. He was also a great poet who wrote in Latin and Italian Wrote 14 line sonnets that included tragedy and comedy Machiavelli Advises Rulers The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli dissects the imperfect nature of humans not concerned with what was morally right, but what was politically effective Argued that a prince must sometimes mislead people and lie to his opponents to maintain control and power
  • Slide 10
  • Vittoria Colonna Born into a noble family, and marries Marquis of Pescara. As he is away on military campaigns, Vittoria writes her husband 14 line sonnets about how she misses him ..toward the end of the 15 th century, Renaissance ideas were spreading out of Italy and into the rest of Europe.
  • Slide 11
  • Northern Renaissance By the 15 th century, Renaissance ideas had spread to England, France, Germany, and Flanders (Netherlands) Northern Renaissance Begins After the Hundred Years War ended in 1453, the merchant class gained enough wealth to be able to sponsor artists Unlike in Italy, which was split up between city-states, France and England were united under strong monarchies whose monarchs also enjoyed Renaissance art
  • Slide 12
  • Artistic Ideas Spread 1494 a French king claimed the throne of Naples, Italy and launched an invasion through North Italy. As the war continued, many artists fled Italy in search of safety and ended up spreading Renaissance ideas Northern European artists who studied in Italy also carried back Renaissance culture with them. German Painters Albrecht Durer traveled to Italy in 1494 to study art When he returned home to Germany and produced woodcuts and engravings displaying Renaissance technique Durers works influenced Hans Holbein Holbein specialized in painting portraits Hans migrated to England to paint King Henry VIII and his family toward the end of his career
  • Slide 13
  • Flemish Painters Jan van Eyck used oil-based paints The oil paint allowed artists to create a variety of base colors by applying layer upon layer of paint In 1550 Pieter Bruegel brings Flemish art to its climax through his depictions of everyday peasant life (weddings, dances, and harvests) seemed like a real portrayal of life Northern Writers Try to Reform Society Humanists criticize the Church for failing to inspire people to live a Christian life push for Christian humanism Focus of this mvmt was the reform of society Wanted to reform education to include women
  • Slide 14
  • Christian Humanists Bests known humanists were Desiderius Erasmus of Holland and Thomas More of England In 1509, Erasmus wrote The Praise of Folly, which poked fun at greedy merchants, heartsick lovers, conflicted scholars, and pompous priests Erasmus believed in Christianity of the heart, not of ceremony believed reading the Bible was necessary to improve society Thomas More wrote Utopia, which depicts a place where there was little greed and need for money was minute
  • Slide 15
  • Womens Reforms The few families who could afford to educate their children only sent their sons Christine de Pizan, a highly educated woman, spoke out about this She was the first European woman to speak out about the different treatment of boys and girls
  • Slide 16
  • Elizabethan Age The Renaissance spread to England around the mid 16 th century, and was named after Queen Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) William Shakespeare Most famous writer of Elizabethan Age was Shakespeare His works displayed a masterful command of the English language and a deep understanding of human beings His most famous works are Macbeth, Hamlet, Othello, Romeo and Juliet, and King Lear
  • Slide 17
  • Painting Spreads Renaissance Ideas Chinese invent block printing, in which a printer carved latters on a block and then painted them, which was then used to print on paper Gutenberg Improves the Printing Press Block printing came to Europe, but was too slow to publish books at the demand Europeans were requesting them Around 1440, Johann Gutenberg (German) invents the printing press The printing press made publication of books easier and cheaper In 1455, Gutenberg printed a complete Bible Gutenberg Bible Books become more common, and literacy among the lower classes increased
  • Slide 18
  • Legacy of the Renaissance European Renaissance marked a break from the medieval- period ideals that were focused on the Church Belief in the dignity of the individual led to democratic ideas Impact of the printing press continued to be huge Changes in the Arts Art drew on styles from classical Greece and Rome Paintings/sculptures were more realistic and lifelike Arts praised individual achievements
  • Slide 19
  • Changes in Society Printing changed society by making more information available for cheap to the masses Published accounts of new discoveries, maps, and charts led to further exploration Published legal proceedings made the laws more concrete Humanists changed the view of how Christians should live their lives
  • Slide 20
  • Luther Leads the Reformation In response to the criticism the Church received, one man leads the Church to rebellion Causes of the Reformation Ppl thought the Church leaders were corrupt Lower level clergy could barely read, let alone teach Some lower level clergy broke priestly vows (drank, married, or gambled) Early Causes for Reform Reformers such as John Wycliffe and Jan Hus paved the way for Christian humanists such as Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More to suggest reform to the Church
  • Slide 21
  • Luther Challenges the Church All he intended to do was be a good Christian, not necessarily lead a religious revolution 95 Theses In 1517, Luther takes a public stance against a friar named Johann Tetzel who sells indulgences to rebuild St. Peters Cathedral in Rome The 95 Theses were statements that attacked the pard

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