italian renaissance politics: the 5 major states
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Slide 2 Italian Renaissance Politics: the 5 Major States Slide 3 5 Major States North Milan and Venice Central Florence & Papal States South Naples Numerous smaller minor states & Independent city-states* Lucca, Modena, Siena, Ferrara, Matua, Urbino Slide 4 Slide 5 North Italian Peninsula Duchy of Milan 1447 Francesco Sforza (a powerful condottieri) conquered Milan Became Duke; worked with conquered Visconti family to centralize the territory Devised efficient system of taxation that generated high revenue for the state Slide 6 Republic of Venice Maritime republic: huge commercial empire Governed by small oligarchy of merchant- aristocrats Expanded via conquest inland to protect food supply & overland trade routes This put them in opposition to Milan and Florence Slide 7 Central Italian Peninsula Republic of Florence Dominated region of Tuscany Ruled by oligarchy that manipulated the republican government 1434 Cosimo de Medici (1434-1464) took control of the oligarchy Medicis ran government under the guise of a republican government Lavish patronage! 2 nd most famous Medici was Lorenzo the Magnificent (1469-1492) Slide 8 Papal States Technically ruled by the Pope, however due to the Avignon Papacy, small areas such as Urbino, Bologna, and Ferrara essentially became independent territories Renaissance Popes worked hard to reassert their control over these territories Slide 9 Southern Italy Kingdom of Naples France and Aragon (later Spain) fought over control of this kingdom Aragon (Spain) will eventually acquire control and rule Backward monarchy Population of poverty-stricken peasants For the most part this area did not partake in the Renaissance Slide 10 Major City-States Mantua: Gonzaga lords Ferrara: dEste family Urbino: Montefeltro dynasty Some of these smaller states had females involved in court matters Battista Sforza (niece of Milans ruler and wife of Federigo da Montefeltro) Isabella dEste (daughter of Duke of Ferrara married to Francesco Gonzaga) called First Lady of the World Slide 11 Interaction, War, Diplomacy Balance of Power Territories practiced this ideology Designed to prevent aggrandizement of any one state at the expense of others Built on a system of alliances/friendships/deal-making Peace of Lodi (1454) Ended almost half a century of war Had almost 4o years of peace Milan, Florence, Naples versus Papal States & Venice Slide 12 New Monarchies in Northern Europe in full swing Will lead to outside interference in Italian affairs Italy becomes a battle ground for French-Spanish conflict Peace in Italy ended when Ludovico Sforza (Duke of Milan) invited the French to intervene in Italian politics King Charles III advanced through Italy with a 30,000 strong army French occupied Naples Other Italian states turned to the Spanish for help against the French Ferdinand of Aragon willingly helped Slide 13 After Charles VIII and Ferdinand were dead & gone, new rulers continued the fight Francis I of France Charles I of Spain (aka Charles V of HRE) Valois-Hapsburg wars have been, and will continue to be a major theme in our history course!!! 1527 Charles I (Charles V) goes so far as to even sack Rome itself Slide 14 Effects of Foreign Involvement Italian rulers could no longer sustain the glories of the Renaissance Italians developed a sense of national consciousness distinguishing themselves from foreigners Fierce loyalty to their own states, however, prevents any sort of Italian unification Modern diplomatic system created throughout these events Slide 15 Modern Diplomacy Use of ambassadors no longer a servant of all of Christendom Now an ambassador was used to ferret out important information about others Ambassadors represent their own state Residential ambassadors used (living in foreign states) Basic guidelines were developed on the rights of ambassadors during this era Slide 16 Niccolo Machiavelli the Prince 1469-1527 Served Florence after Medici family expelled from Florence (1494) Made many diplomatic trips to various states, France, and German States When the Medicis returned to power in 1512 Machiavelli was sent into exile It was in this forced retirement from politics that he wrote his famous book The Prince turn to page 349 & 350 for primary source material Slide 17 How we live is so different from how we ought to live that he who studies what ought to be done rather than what is done will learn the way to his downfall rather than to his preservation. Men are driven by two two principal impulses, either by love or by fear. it is much safer to be feared than loved because...love is preserved by the link of obligation which, owing to the baseness of men, is broken at every opportunity for their advantage; but fear preserves you by a dread of punishment which never fails. Slide 18 One can say this in general of men: they are ungrateful, disloyal, insincere and deceitful, timid of danger and avid of profit...Love is a bond of obligation that these miserable creatures break whenever it suits them to do so; but fear holds them fast by a dread of punishment that never passes. History is written by the victors. the ends justifies the means If an injury has to be done to a man it should be so severe that his vengeance need not be feared. Slide 19 Everyone sees what you appear to be, few experience what you really are. Therefore it is unnecessary for a prince to have all the good qualities I have enumerated, but it is very necessary to appear to have them. And I shall dare to say this also, that to have them and always to observe them is injurious, and that to appear to have them is useful; to appear merciful, faithful, humane, religious, upright, and to be so, but with a mind so framed that should you require not to be so, you may be able and know how to change to the opposite.