Italian Renaissance Art – Chapter 2 01/17/ ?· Italian Renaissance Art – Chapter 2 01/17/2014 Trecento…

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  • ItalianRenaissanceArtChapter2 01/17/2014

    TrecentoPrecursors

    GiottodiBondone

    WascreditedwithhavingbroughtpaintingoutofthedarknessoftheMiddleAgesintothelightofanewdayRestoredadegreeofnaturalismFocusesmoreonthehumandramaofChristslife

    TheOgnissantiMadonna

    EnthronedMadonnaMadebyGiotto13051310TempuraonpanelGalleriadegliUffizi,FlorenceHighalteroftheOgnissanti(AllSaints)ChurchinFlorenceCubicThroneandfiguresfirmlysetonhorizontalsurfacesRetainsthegoldbackgroundandflathalosofByzantinestyle,andhisthroneiselegantlyGothicThegreaterforeshorteningofthearmsofthethronecomparedtotheversionsbyCimabueandDuccioalsoemphasizesthethreedimensionalityofGiottospictorialspace

  • Foreshortening=representingaforminperspectivesothatitappearstorecedethreedimensionallyonatwodimensionalsurfaceThespacebetweenherkneesisidentifiedasavoidbyfoldsrenderedinachiaroscuroThecurveofMaryswhitedraperyacrosshertorsoindicatesthatsheisnotcompletelyfrontal,butturnsslightlywithasuggestionofcontrappostoContrapposto=atwistatthewaistresultingfromashiftinthestanceofthehumanbodyGiottosChristcontinuestoprojectthemedievalimageofamiraculousinfantChristholdsascrollinhislefthandandblesseswithhisrightThisarrangementalludestothetransitionfromtheOldDispensation(oldtestament),symbolizedbythescrollofprophecy,totheNewDispensation(NewTestament),symbolizedbyChristskingshipAlsoreferstoChristssecondcomingandtheLastJudgmentThesavedwillbeonhisrightandthedamnedonhisleftChristbecomestheformalandiconographicfocusVasesofliliesandrosesLiliesaresymbolsoftheVirginspurityRoseswhichwerebelievedtohavegrownwithoutthronesintheGardenofEdenHerroleintheredemptionofEvessin

    FrescoPainting

    FrescoItalianforfreshThetechniqueusedforpaintingonwallsduringtheRenaissanceAdvancepreparation

  • SpeedofexecutionBuonfrescousedtodescribetheapplicationofpigmentsmixedinwatertodamplimeplasterArriccioamixtureoflimeandsandIntonacofineplasterSinopiepreliminarydrawingsonthearriccioAseccodryplasterSeccopaintingisnotasdurableasbuonfrescoandflakesoffthewall

    TheArenaChapel

    PaduaImportantcenteroftheClassicalrevivalThestudyofancienttextsaswellasthevisualartsGiotto13051310FrescosChristinthecentersurroundedbythefourevangelistFourOldTestamentprophets?EmphasizingGiottosdeparturefromthetypicalgoldbackgroundsofByzantinestyleIntherighttoprowarescenesfromthelivesofAnnaandJoachimand,attheleft,scenesfromtheVirginslifeQuatrefoilsusuallyaframeorarchitecturalfeatureintheshapeofafourleafclover

  • TheremainingnarrativesrepresentthelifeofChristTypologicallypairedwithanOldTestamentevenontheframetotheleftBelowthenarrativesarepersonificationsofthesevenvirtuesandvicesChristianiconographictraditionofplacingwhatisold,ornegative,ontheleftandwhatisnew,orpositiveontherightGodsummonstheangelsandentruststothearchangelGabrielhismissionofinformingMarythatshewillbethemotherofJesusTheAnnunciationGabrieltheneareroffigurativelightLightpouringintoherroomanallusiontoChristastheLightoftheWorldGabrielholdsthescrollofprophecyandMaryholdsabook,anapocryphaldetailindicationthattheangelsarrivalhasinterruptedherreadingCrossedarmsareferencetoherforeknowledgeofhersonsPassionandDeathBetrayalJudasacceptingabadofsilverWarnsofChristsdestinytodieontheCrossTheVisitationPrefiguresthebirthsofChristandJohntheBaptistTrompeloeileffectsimagesthatfooltheviewerintothinkingtheyarerealExpulsionofJoachimfromtheTemple13051310FrescoArenaChapel,PaduaJoachim,whoisagedandchildless,hasbroughtalambtotheTempleonJerusalemasanofferinginthehopesofhavingachildofhisown

  • JoachimsconflictedreactiontwistedposeThedejectionexperiencedbyJoachimatbingroughlyrejectedissymbolizedbythebluevoidattherightItisalsoametaphorfortheemptinesshefeelsinnothavingproducedchildren.HisrejectionisaccentuatedbythepresenceintheTempleofasecondpriestwhoisblessingamuchyoungermanFourtwistedcolumnsSolomonstempleTwoCorinthiancolumns,reflectingtherevivalofclassicalformTheNewDispensationTheirplacementframesJoachimsheadandreferstohisroleasprogenitoroftheNewDispensationbyvirtueofbeingMarysfatherThelambthemiracleofthebirthoftheVirginandthesacrificialnatureofChristsearthlymissionPresentationintheTempleGiotto13051310FrescoArenachapel,PaduaMary,theinfantChrist,andtheoldpriest,SimeonChristTheNewLambChristrejectsthepriestobservationofnormalchildbehaviorJosephcarriesthetraditionalofferingofpigeonsTheKissofJudasThehoodedfigureseeninbackviewforeshadowsChristsdeathbyassociationwiththehoodedexecutionersofmedievalEurope

  • ChristsmoralsuperiorityoverJudasisindicatedbyhishigherpositionLooksdownonJudasClubsraisedoverChristsheadTheaccentuatehisformalcentralityandhisvictimizationbythecrowdAlsoreferstothedeathofChristPrefiguredinthesacrificiallambcarriedbyJoachimTheLastJudgmentGiotto13051310FrescoArenaChapelentrancewall,PaduaTheSecondComingofChristattheendoftimeChristissurroundedbyamandorlafromwhichangelsblowtheLastTrumpMandorla=anovaloflightaroundthebodyofaholypersonThetwelveapostlesThetriplearchedwindowreplicatesthearrangementofaRomantriumphalarchAfreestandingstonearchconstructedinancientRometocommemoratevictoriesDirectlybelowChrist,twoangelssupporttheCrossseparatingthesavedfromthedamnedLittlesoulhidingbehindtheCross,attemptingtosneakawayfromhellandjointhesavedEnricoScrovegniDonor/patron

  • OnthesideofthesavedHandsamodelofthechapeltothreefiguresgenerallyidentifiedasGabriel,theVirginandCharityThedamnedtorturedbyredFireBluedevilsIceNeat,orderlyarrangementofthesavedvs.thepanicstrickendamnedaredisorderedSatanAtthebottomofhellAlargemonsterendlesslyswallowingandexpellingnudesoulsTheemphasisonhangingAformofdeaththatrequiresgravityConsistedwiththetraditionalviewofHellbeingatthedepthsoftheuniverseJudashangedhimselfandholdsthebagofsilverforwhichhebetrayed.AbovearesymbolsofthesunandmoonandtwoangelsrollinguptheskyStagehandsclosethecurtainattheendofaplayHopeGiotto13051310FrescoArenachapel,Padua

  • Theupwardmovementofthevirtuevs.thedownwardpullofthehangedvice(Despair)AccompaniedwithanangelwithacrownDespairGiotto13051310FrescoArenachapel,PaduaCorrespondingtothedispositionofthesavedvs.thedamnedByalittledemonflyingdownwardGrisaille=greyish,monochromaticpaintingfrequentlyusedtosimulatesculptureJusticeGiotto13051310FrescoArenachapel,PaduaGoodgovernmentAqueenenclosedbyaGothicthronethatseemstoopenitsarmsinagestureofwelcomeHoldsaNikeTheGreekgoddessofvictoryHoldsanavengingangelslayinganunidentified,damagedenemyTheeffectsofgoodgovernmentarepeace,dancingandunhinderedtravel

  • InjusticeGiotto13051310FrescoArenachapel,PaduaBadgovernmentAbeardedtyrantwhoneedsprotectionfromhisownsubjectsEnthronedinacrenellatedfortress,protectedbyrowsoftreeThewallsarecrackingunderthestrainoftyrannyTheeffectsofbadgovernmentarewarfare,rapeandplunder

    TheEmergenceOfHumanism

    FrancescoPetrarca13041374PetrarchThedrivingforceoftheemerginghumanistmovementinfourteenthcenturyItalyAradicaldeparturefromthemedievalviewthatthephysicalbodywasimpureandcorruptAriseinliteracyAchangeinthesocialstatusoftheartist

  • 01/17/2014

    SienesePaintingInTheFourteenthCentury

  • 01/17/2014

    SiennaTheNovetheNineMaintainedarelativelysecuregriponpoweruntil1335EncouragedextensiveartisticpatronageTorivalFlorenceintheartsaswellasineconomicsandpoliticsMainsourcesofpatronageThePalazzoPubblicoThecathedral

    DucciosMaesta

    13081311TempuraandgoldleafonpanelMuseodellOperadelDuomoSienaReflectsDucciosattempttoconveythreedimensionalspaceIconwise:MarywasthepatronThroneametaphorforMaryherselfandtheChurch,emphasizingtheaccessibilityofitsqueentothecitizensofSienaJohntheBaptistandJohntheEvangelist

  • 01/17/2014

    FrametheadultlifeofChristJohntheBaptistcarriesthelong,thincrossthatisoneofhisconventionalattributesJohntheEvangelistholdsabook,denotingtheGospelthatrecordsChristsministryNoliMeTangere13081311MuseodellOperadelDuomoSienaTheskyisgold,andChristsdraperyfolds,denotingtheotherworldlinessofhisresurrectedstateGoldaswellMaryisconveyedbymorenaturalisticchiaroscuroSheisstillofthehumanworldIncomparisontoGiottosNoliMeTangere13051310FrescoArenaChapel,PaduaThedramaticencounterbetweenChristandMaryMagdaleneAngelswhoareawareoftheencounterSoldierswhosleepareunseeing,ignoringandsinfulResidesinthehumanrelationshipbetweenChristandMaryMagdalene

    SimoneMartini

  • 01/17/2014

    12851344StillundertheinfluenceofDuccioMaesta1315FrescoPalazzoPubblico,SienaFrenchgothicinfluenceappearsinthesharplypointedarchesofthethroneaswellasinthebrocadeddraperies,erminesandchivalriccourtlinessoftheimageThewritteninscriptionsconsistoftwospokenbytheVirginandfourbythekneelingpatronsaintsofSienaintheforegroundCreateadiplomaticdialoguebetweentheQueenofHeavenandfourambassadorsfromtheearthlycityofSienaMessageofcivicharmonyAnnunciationTempuraandgoldleafonpanel1333GalleriadegliUffizi,FlorenceCommissionedforthealterofSaintAnsanointhecathedralReflectsFrenchGothicinfluenceVaseofliliesdenotingherpurityandpassionBranchZachariashasprophesiedthatamancalledtheBranchwouldbethesaviorofmankindTooled=marksthesurfaceofasculpturewiththeartiststoolsThedoveoftheHolySpiritEmbossed=atechniqueforcreatingmetalreliefAvegratiaplenadominustecumHail(Mary)fullofgrace,thelordiswiththee!ThemedievaltraditionthatMarywasimpregnatedthroughherearbuttheWordofGodChristiscalledtheWordofGodmadefleshThetransitionfromtheideaofChristtotherealityofChristinpaint

  • 01/17/2014

    AmbrogioLorenzetti:AllegoriesofGoodandBadGovernment

  • 01/17/2014

    13051348SienasPalazzoPubblicoSaladellaNove(HalloftheNine)FrescoEffectsofGoodGovernmentintheCityandtheCountryEmbodiesthehumanistviewsTheeconomicprosperitythatencouragespatronageoftheartsOpencountrythefirstexpansivepaintingTheshewolfnursingthetwins,RomulusandRemus,thelegendaryfoundersofRomeSymbolicallyprotectsthecityAlludestothetraditionofSienasdescentfromSenius,thesonofRemusThenoseoftheshewolfnearlytouchesthetoesoftheallegoricalfigureofSecuritas(Security)hoveringoverthetilledfieldsSecuritascarriesaninscriptionthatstatestheadvantagesofgoodgovernmentSecuritasholdsanexampleofthepunishmentawaitinganyonewhodisruptsthepeace,afigurehangingfromagallowsTheEffectsofBadGovernmentintheCityFlyingoverthebattlementsoftheunjustlygovernedcityatthefarleftandgazingonthedestroyedlandscapeisFear,araggedwomanindarkgreybrandishingaswordTheAllegoryofBadGovernmentTyrannyEnthronedinafortress

  • 01/17/2014

    SatanicphysiognomyFangsCrossedeyesHornsReflectstheperversioninherentintyrannicalruleTheblackgoatathisfeetalludestoChristsseparationofthefaithfulsheepfromthehereticgoatsintheGospelofMatthewAvarice,PrideandVaingloryCrueltyholdinganinfantstrangledbyasnakeTreasonacombinationofalambandscorpionFraudwithacudgel,batwingsandclawedfeetFrenzytheagitatedblackcentaurwithawolfsheadDiscordwhosawsherselfintwoWarcladinarmorJusticeistiedupandenslavedbelowTyrannyAmbrogiosscenescorrespondtothewilloftheVirginVisualtestimonytothegoodgovernmentofSienaandtotheNinesrepudiationoftheevilsoftyranny

    1348:TheBlackDeath

    PlaguebearingfleasBlackDeath13471350Contemporarytheoriesattributedittobadair,contagion,divineretribution,anomaliesinthebehavioroftheplanetsandtheAntichristAnembodimentofevilthatwoulddestroytheworldandcauseuniversaldestructionattheendoftimeBlackboils,rashesandlesions.SomeofthevictimscoughedbloodandbecamelikemadmenastheirbodieshadatoxicreactiontotheinfectionPhysicalcontactwiththesickwasavoidedandcorpseswerequicklyburnedSeizethedaymentalityoranattitudeofpenance,accompaniedbyfearandpanic

    TheImpactoftheBlackDeath

    Iconographyreflectedthedesperationandpanicresultingfromtheplague

  • 01/17/2014

    AndreadaFirenze:

  • 01/17/2014

    WayofSalvation

    AndreaBonaiutiAkaAndreadaFirenze(active13461379)CommissionedbyBuonamicoGuidalottiTheSpanishChapelTheWayofSalvation,akatheTriumphoftheChurchandtheDominicanOrderasaSaverofSouls13481355FrescoSantaMariaNovella,FlorenceDominicanOrderistherousetosalvationAwhitelambliesonathroneoneithersideofwhicharethefourapocalypticsymbolsEagleofJohnWingedoxofLukeWingedlionofMarkAngelofMatthewThepopescentralityandhigherplacementreflectDominicansupportofhissupremacyovertheemperorSheepandgoatsheseparatesthepurefromthedamnedBlackandwhitedogsguardwhitesheep

  • 01/17/2014

    SoulsinneedofwatchingoverDominicanesdogsofthelordDominicaniDominicansPeterMartyrandThomasAquinasaredebatingwithandconvertingJews,MuslimsandotherinfidelsatthelowerrightNavicellaTheshipwasametaphorforthestateoftheChurchandfortheChurchasStateindangeroustimesJustasChristrescuedPeterfromdrowninginthestormywaters,sohistriumphinthefrescobelowisalsothetriumphoftheChurchandoftheDominicanOrderdevotedtoit

    AndreadiCione(Orcagna)

    TheStrozziAltarpiece

    13541357TempuraonpanelStrozzichapel,SantaMariaNovella,FlorenceDepictsChristasbothJudgeandKingFlankedbyMaryasQueenandafrontalJohntheBaptistFoursaintsSaintMichaelstandsoverthedefeateddragonRepresentedasSatanCatherineofAlexandriaholdsthewheelonwhichshewasmartyred

  • 01/17/2014

    SaintLawrencewiththefrillofhisfierymartyrdomPaulwiththeswordofhismartyrdomandabookofhiswritingsSaintThomasAquinasIsgivenabookbyChristReinforcingthesaintsroleasadoctoroftheChurchandanauthorPeterWearingayellowrobeIsgivenlargegoldandsilverkeystotheKingdomofHeaven

    TheOrSanMicheleTabernacle

    13551359Marble,stoneinlayandglassOrSanMichele,FlorenceEncloseamiracleworkingimageoftheVirginSignedanddated1359TheoldsiteoftheChurchofSaintMichaelintheGardenPilaster=averticalrectangularstriphavingthesameelementsasacolumnLoggia=acoveredgalleryopenonatleastonesideBernardoDaddi13121348ActiveTrainedbyGiottoElaboratecrocketsonthethrone,thepatternedmaterialbehindtheVirgin,theweightlessqualityofChrist,andtherichgoldbackgroundCrockets=adecorative,leafshapedarchitecturalelementthatprojectsinaseriesfromgables,spires,orpinnaclesGothicThePresentationofChristInTheTemple13551359RelieffromthebaseoftheOrSanMicheleTabernacle,FlorenceOrcagnasdraperiesdefinetheunderlyingformsofthefiguresThelargescaleoftheheadsinproportiontothebodiesisaRomanesquefeatureandthequatrefoilonthefrontofthealterisaGothicformHerroleasamaternalsourceofnourishmentisconsistentwiththesettingofhermiraculousimage

    Trecento PrecursorsGiotto di BondoneWas credited with having brought painting out of the darkness of the Middle Ages into the light of a new dayRestored a degree of naturalismFocuses more on the human drama of Christs life

    The Ognissanti MadonnaEnthroned MadonnaMade by Giotto1305-1310Tempura on panelGalleria degli Uffizi, FlorenceHigh alter of the Ognissanti (All Saints) Church in FlorenceCubicThrone and figures firmly set on horizontal surfacesRetains the gold background and flat halos of Byzantine style, and his throne is elegantly GothicThe greater foreshortening of the arms of the throne compared to the versions by Cimabue and Duccio also emphasizes the three-dimensionality of Giottos pictorial spaceForeshortening = representing a form in perspective so that it appears to recede three-dimensionally on a two-dimensional surface

    The space between her knees is identified as a void by folds rendered in a chiaroscuroThe curve of Marys white drapery across her torso indicates that she is not completely frontal, but turns slightly with a suggestion of contrappostoContrapposto = a twist at the waist resulting from a shift in the stance of the human body

    Giottos Christ continues to project the medieval image of a miraculous infantChrist holds a scroll in his left hand and blesses with his rightTh...

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