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Israeli Intelligence Community 2009Source: From Wikipedia. The Israeli Intelligence Community (Hebrew: ) is the designation given to the complex of organizations responsible for intelligence collection, dissemination, and research for the State of Israel.
Current Members of the Israeli Intelligence CommunityAman: the supreme military intelligence branch of the Israeli Defense Forces. Air Intelligence Directorate: the intelligence unit of the Israeli Air Force. Naval Intelligence Department: the intelligence unit of the Israeli Sea Corps. Intelligence Corps: the main intelligence collection and analysis of the IDF. Field Intelligence Corps: the intelligence unit of GOC Army Headquarters. The intelligence units of the four Regional Commands (Central, Northern, Southern, Home Front). Mossad: the agency responsible primarily for overseas intelligence work. Shin Bet ("Shabak"): the organization responsible for internal security, including in the Israeli-occupied territories. The intelligence branch of the Israeli Police. The Centre for Political Research: the intelligence branch of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Former Members Nativ. The organization responsible for bringing Jews from Soviet Bloc countries, a later manifestation of the Mossad. Le'aliyah Bet. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, it was moved out of the intelligence community and became a department within the Prime Minister's office. Lekem. The agency responsible for obtaining and securing secret technology. It was dissolved, and its director, Rafi Eitan, resigned over the exposure of Jonathan Pollard, who was convicted of spying on its behalf. Parliamentary Supervision over the Intelligence Community is undertaken by the Subcommittee for Intelligence and Secret Services, a subcommittee of the Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee, which supervises the entire Israeli Security Forces. Structure and Organization: The issue regarding the suitable structure of the IIC, and questions as to dividing responsibilities and jurisdictions between Aman, Shabak, and Mossad, as well as the format of work for the three in relation to Prime Ministers and Ministers, all of these became
agenda issues many times in the past. Various commissions and individual inspectors were appointed throughout the years, whether due to traumatic experiences or as a matter of routine, in order to examine the issues and propose recommendations. These were: The Yadin-Sherf Commission. (1963) The Agranat Commission. (1973-74) The Zamir Commission. (1974) The Commissions of Aluf Aharon Yariv. (1984, 1986) The Reports of Aluf Refael Vardi. (1990s) The Commission to investigate the intelligence network following the War in Iraq. (2004) The government was tasked with the matter on a number of occasions and arrived at various decisions. The State Comptroller made the issue his agenda and submitted to the Knesset his findings and conclusions. In 1994, the Subcommittee for Intelligence also examined the questions and brought its recommendations before the Prime Minister. The division of labour among the intelligence arms, Aman, Shabak, and Mossad, in the current structure of the IIC, is usually established upon a geographical basis. There are interfacing and overlapping segments, often rather wide, among the organizations. The level of coordination and inter-regional cooperation has suffered in the past from fundamental shortcomings, which has hindered the effectiveness of intelligence work on several fronts. The organizations repressed the necessity for the mutual sharing of intelligence information and in synchronizing some activities. There are still open-ended issues remaining to be discussed, including disputed ones, as to the division of jurisdictions and inter-regional sectoral boundaries. In a document known as the "Magna Carta," the heads of the three services continue their attempt to arrive at agreements regarding these. The Intelligence Subcommittee follows this discourse and examines the steps required to practically settle key areas of dispute. If needed, the Subcommittee could become actively involved in the matter so as to ensure appropriate and reasonable standards for overall intelligence work in Israel. The Role of Aman - The historical development of the IIC destined Aman with a range of activities and tasks that are conventionally outside the realm of military intelligence in the West, such as the responsibility for intelligence research in political matters and other markedly nonmilitary affairs. This largely followed from the reliance by the State of Israel during its first years on the IDF as an anchor and mechanism to fulfill national tasks, it being a system with organizational capacities, resources, and available human resources. As such, Aman has assumed functions which ordinarily would be handled by other intelligence agencies. Accordingly, some critics say, there is a need to reexamine the position and placement assumed by intelligence bodies within the current structure, and transferring certain strategic and political areas and non-military ones, from Aman to a civilian intelligence authority. Reforms - The Commission to investigate the intelligence network following the War in Iraq maintained that, notwithstanding the historical consolidation behind the current IIC structure, and despite the advantages gained by Aman's Research Department and Unit 8200 during many years of service, it is finally time to restructure the IIC in accordance with a proper work
distribution, professional designation, as well as a correct constitutional and legal frame of reference. The Commission recommended on reforming the current IIC structure, ending up with three or four independent intelligence services, alongside the National Security Council, with the distinction between them being based upon the respective spheres of responsibility of each service: Aman (IDF): Its jurisdiction is to consist primarily of "military intelligence" - alerting the political leadership and the security arms to the possibility of war and estimating the means of the enemy, and identifying prospective targets during a war or a limited military conflict. Mossad: Charged with, in addition to foiling attacks, a strategic-political emphasis, which includes evaluating the stability of regimes, and engaging in industrial-scientifictechnological and nuclear -related intelligence as well as against global terrorism. Shabak: Is tasked with the security of the State, its citizens, and organs, against Palestinian and other forms of terrorism, and against internal subversion. National Security Council: Its function is to evaluate global conditions according to overall intelligence, and preparing national and security responses. SIGINT: This proposed service would supply all the other services with SIGINT intelligence.
The SpymastersEfraim Halevy (Hebrew:Mossad Directors below Reference Page 23. ). See
, born Isser Halperin on 1912, died 18 February 2003) was spymaster of the intelligence and the security services of Israel and the Director of the Mossad (1952 - 1963). Childhood and Youth Isser Harel was born in Vitebsk, Russia (now Belarus) to a large, wealthy family. The exact date of his birth was not passed on to him because the book of Gemara in which the date was recorded was lost in the migrations of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and World War I. The family had a vinegar factory in Vitebsk. It was a gift of his maternal grandfather, who had a concession to make vinegar in large parts of Tsarist Russia. Young Isser was five years old when the revolution broke out and Vitebsk passed several times between the Whites and the Reds. On one occasion he saw Leon Trotsky give a speech in the town. Isser and his family fell on hard times when the Soviet regime confiscated their property. In 1922 the family emigrated from the Soviet Union to Dvinsk in independent Latvia. On the way, Soviet soldiers stole their suitcases, which contained the rest of their possessions. In Dvinsk, Isser began his formal studies, completed primary school, and began secondary school. As he grew,
Isser Harel (Hebrew:
a Jewish national consciousness grew within him and he joined a Zionist youth organization. When he was 16, Isser began preparations to immigrate to Israel. During this preparatory year he worked in agriculture with the aspiration to join a kibbutz. With the outbreak of the 1929 Hebron massacre, his friends decided to move up their immigration date in order to reinforce the Jewish settlement in Palestine. Documents were prepared for the 17-year-old Isser stating that he was 18 and eligible for a British visa. At the beginning of 1930 he immigrated to Israel. He crossed Europe from north to south to board a ship in Genoa, carrying a pistol that he concealed in a loaf of bread. He had one child, a daughter, from his first marriage. She currently works for the Shabak (General Security Service) in Israel. She did not serve in the Israeli Defense Forces but instead in the National Work Program which is an alternative for women who do not or cannot serve the mandatory 18 months in the I.D.F. On September 22, 1952, Harel became head of the Mossad. Harel became the first man to be given the Hebrew title of HaMemuneh (the responsible one), a reference to his unique position as the head of both Israeli civilian intelligence services, Mossad and Shabak. Harel was the head investigator in the 15 year manhunt for Adolf Eichmann. The hunt ended in May 1960, when the Mossad covertly kidnapped Eichmann from Argentina to Israel. Eichmann was the man responsible for technical coordination of the Final Solution in WWII, which resulted in the systematic murder of 6,000,000 Jewish people. Harel documented his 15 year investigation in "The House on Garibaldi Street". He was replaced as head of Mossad after it became known that