Islamic Movements

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a discussion of Islamic movements and their ideological natre


<p>IslamicatIslamic Movements fromaPhilippine Perspective</p> <p>Roque Yusuf Morales,PhD (hons)anICASPhilspublications Copyright2013 allrightsreserved</p> <p>Table of Contents 1. A Contextual reading of the development of Islamic Intellectual Thought 2. The Evolution of the concept of Hukumah Islamiyyah from the perception of the Balik Islam : 68 movement in the Philippines Philosophical reflections 3. Muslim Filipinos in the Context of Shiism: Then, Now and Its Expectations. 4. The Significance of Shiism from 82 Pre-Hispanic Alawi to Modern Day Ithna Ashari in the Philippines and Its Historical Relevance 5. Propaganda and propagation in the 113 Salafi Manhaj 6.Other books of Prof Morales Author's Foreword : 28 1</p> <p>Today's Islamic movements has manifested themselves in many ways, the Arab spring and winter, the Central Asian awakenings, the South Asian Radicalism, among others. The Philippine context is no different from the others, being in a multicultural pluralist society where a plurality of ideologies and religious persuasions exist, as such one can see the variety of Islamic though in the Philippines. This collection of essays aims to address part of understanding the Islamic sea of thought in our part of the Muslim Ummah Roque Yusuf Morales,PhD (hons) Bulacan, Philippines,2013</p> <p>A Contextual reading of the development of Islamic Intellectual Thought: The understanding of todays world is that the development of Islamic consciousness begins with the revelation of the first verses of the holy Quran. This however in the view of Islamic intellectuals to be a contrary persepective. Islam from the very start was a reformation</p> <p>movement which was a response to the context of Arab society which was enmeshed in Jahiliyyah (ignorance). It was in the view of the mutakalimun as an affirmation and finalization of previous revelations and prophecies in different faith traditions.</p> <p>Like any faith tradition Islam presents a much vibrant intellectual tradition that continues to share its civilizational contributions to the world The aim of this essay does not aim to present a linear presentation as in any linear presentation one may not be able to see parallel strands of constructs. This prepsentation aims to show a non-linear Islamic progressed. Although there may be several periods of contextual narration development to show how intellectual development</p> <p>intellectual development in the Hijirah millenia (in my count there are around 14 major periods), let us focus primarilly on seven periods which I have classified to allow us an easy understanding into system.</p> <p>Basically let us look into the following periods: Nabawi Khulafa rashidoon Amawi Era Abbasi Era Post Abbasi Colonial Period Post Colonial and post modernitry The Nabawi period is best charachterized as the stage Islamic period where of the crucial were of and the pivotal This Quran points was in the thought hammered.</p> <p>Revelation</p> <p>(Ayyame</p> <p>nuzoole Quran). The makkan period (the time wherein the prophet peace be upon him, was till in Makka), revelation of the Quran was primarilly focused with God. The Madina period coincided with the elucidation on Man and his relationship</p> <p>stablishment of the Madinatul Nabawi in Yathrib (the old name of Madina), wherein revelation transactions strongly of man stressed as well in as themes in and law, in relations issues</p> <p>governance and statehood. This was also the as the period where by this the Quranic one who</p> <p>revelations carries called (nusus)</p> <p>were</p> <p>personified</p> <p>message, Ahdith</p> <p>Prophet</p> <p>Muhammad;s or and Sunnah other</p> <p>actions, words and approval constituted what was (narrations) Islamic law (traditions) which was the second primary text from wherein disciplines were derived from. Both the Makkiya (saw) of and Madaniya or by (surahs) by words the were the or</p> <p>immediately Prophet illustation</p> <p>interpreted either an event.</p> <p>explained actions, was</p> <p>This</p> <p>primal</p> <p>purpose of the prophetic hadith/ sunna to render a clear and manifest understanding of</p> <p>Quranic</p> <p>revelations</p> <p>excemplified</p> <p>by</p> <p>what</p> <p>the</p> <p>prophet of Islam lived as a person. What is wonderful from the Islamic faith</p> <p>tradition that despite divergence and multiplicity in beliefs and philosophical formulations of the different schools of though is that all converge on the primal discourse Islamic of Quran is and Sunna a which shows that ethos primarilly</p> <p>mosaic than rather a monolithic structure. The Khulafa rashidoon era is the period wherein active expansion and proseletization made leaps and bounds many that islam soon and became that the a nation Quranic having tongues</p> <p>recitation and transmission of Sunnah required a sceintific process of transmission and that both the Family of the Prophet, affectionately known as the Ahlul on the a Bayt set basis (as) of of and the Companions were of to these agreed become principles that</p> <p>transmission</p> <p>knowledge also known as Ijaza (permission), the first formulation of a diploma for authority to narrate knowledge. This was the period wherein the Quran was published as a standard format or text and sent to all corners of the islamic world. This was the of that period where was that the laid major spring by forth centers forth the the of later, Mawalid</p> <p>foundations Intellectual al-magreb</p> <p>learning</p> <p>would</p> <p>occupied</p> <p>dynasty, Al-Misr that was occupied later by the Faitimids, Byzantium and Fars which were later occupied by the Seljuqs and the Safavids as well as other areas in Transoxiana. Expansion in the eyes of the Companions was</p> <p>more of sharing the light of Islam as well as looking for places to settle and this was the primal vigor that each Companion (sahaba) had that led them even into the far corners of</p> <p>China. The Amawi period marked the start of the era of dynasties wherein Muawiyah seized the throne from Imam Hassan bn Ali. This marked the era where the politics of marginalization gave rise to varying strands of intellectual materielle. This period was quite significant in the sense that a huge chunk of intelletuals and scholars who didnt agree with the political dispensation at that to time the began the formation of of their own intellectual circles outside the courts which led flowering different intellectual millieu. The Alawi branch of knowledge, especially led by Ali Ibn al-Hussain also known as Zainul Abideen, propagated (formation the the and concept this of tarbiyah parallel bi dua intellectual instruction through strands</p> <p>supplications)</p> <p>created</p> <p>of the</p> <p>spiritual sufi</p> <p>and</p> <p>intellectual orders</p> <p>masters as a</p> <p>who</p> <p>used for</p> <p>(mystical)</p> <p>center</p> <p>Islamic discourse. The Amawi period was a politically bloody period and many scholars rendered their traditions through the Batini (esoteric) methodologies. The Abbasi period is what we call a period of contradictions. It was a period that was led by those time. The Abbassid Period was marked with the who pulled down the Amawi dynasty, initiated an intellectual period but at the same</p> <p>following significant points : The period of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (as)</p> <p>and son Imam Jaafar as-Sadiq from the Ahlul Bayt (as) who built the first Islamic university in their houses wherein many respective teachers</p> <p>of</p> <p>many</p> <p>Sunni</p> <p>Mutakalimun,</p> <p>Muhadithun</p> <p>,</p> <p>mufassirun among others Imam Zuhri, Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik can to study and learn. The period of the establishment of Baytul Hikma during the rule of Harun ar-Rasyid which led to the wholesale importation, translation, publication of all known books of knowledge from the known world as well as their dissimination into the known world. Works of Aristotle and other greek masters were retransmitted to the world through this route. The caliph employed many translators and</p> <p>lithographers for their masspread production of translations and books. Both points ushered the period of scholars</p> <p>where knowledge was systematically classified and organized and that this period allowed a level of discourse where both the marginalized and</p> <p>trhe ones under state patronage were able to deliver public discourses on the dissemination of knowledge. The rise which of arrival to we of the Mughal horde led to the</p> <p>collapse of the Abbaside caliphate, which gave several may simultanoeus call post regional dynasties The and and abbasid of period. power to see</p> <p>Collapse of the Abbassid dynasty led to the rise several regional where centers knowledge people flocked</p> <p>learn , among them where the areas of Magreeb which was controlled by the Mawalids represented by their legalist the and formalist who were intellectual al-Azhar traditions, Fatimids</p> <p>representing the batini (esoteric traditions) as well as their counterparts in Yeman and central Asia, who represented the more metaphysical intellectual discourse in Islam only to be equaled by the scholars in Safavi Persia who also carries a peripathetic and gnostic intellectual tradition.</p> <p>The Seljuqs became patrons of Sunni islam which culminated in the creation of the Uthmaniyyah Khilafah which was the patron of Muslims until its dissolution by Kemal Ataturk. The post Abbasid period also marks the period where intellectual exchanges with the world took place : at Andalus, at Byzantium and at Egypt wherein both traditions and civilizartions have immensely benefited from each other. Islamic civilization, seeing the need to critique and enhance its traditions while the west benefitting from the intellectual disciplines and traditions that Islam has brought with it. The colonialist period begins with the crusades and the beginning This led of to colonialist the expansion of europe. intellectual slowdown</p> <p>since state institutions were focused more on</p> <p>the defensive and Muslim states became colonial vassals of the west. The focus of intellectuals during this period was the attempt to return to the pristine purity and strength of Islam. The discourses of this period were primarilly either centered as a on Political and towards nationalist western discourses response</p> <p>colonialism, or theological critiques towards the west of Christianity. The notable characteristics of this period was that Key intellectual figures were also part of nationalist, Islamist The Most recent period, political movements. is Post-colonial postmodernist by to the establishment migration of of</p> <p>characterized which led</p> <p>Muslim states, some with democratic spaces other dictatorial mass Muslims to first world countries.</p> <p>Massive</p> <p>conversion figures between discourses</p> <p>to as in</p> <p>Islam well as islamic</p> <p>of the</p> <p>leading rise of ,</p> <p>intellectual alternative primarilly</p> <p>Studies</p> <p>orientalists,</p> <p>university</p> <p>based</p> <p>scholars, thinkers and classical scholars. Among the discourses famous in this period were the Muslim Gharbzadegi intellectual (westoxification) development, the the discourse, Clash of of which viewed western influence as a poison to civilizations which manifested the western fear of non-western ideologies, Dialogue civilizations as well as Islamic pluralism. These need and basis and for other the discourses and of a the renewed and</p> <p>interest of islam after 9-11, shows the immense development that post in as a rational be intellectual critical and of discourse yet would espoused context, primal primary the the</p> <p>elucidated Islam</p> <p>modernist in</p> <p>never</p> <p>forgetting</p> <p>elucidated</p> <p>textual hadith.</p> <p>sources:</p> <p>The</p> <p>Quran</p> <p>and the</p> <p>Prophetic</p> <p>Below is a timeline of the history of Islam. Major events are in bold. c. 570 CE CE c. 610-2 Muhammad preaches in Mecca. 2 CE Hijira - Muhammad and followers flee 622 CE 624 CE 625 to Medina. Islamic calendar (AH, Anno Hegirae) begins. Muslims successfully attack Meccan caravans at Badr. Muslims are defeated by Meccans at Uhud. Birth of Muhammad.</p> <p>c. 610 Muhammad receives first vision in a cave near Mecca.</p> <p>Muslims capture Mecca. Ka'ba is 630 cleansed, pilgrimage rites are Islamicized, tribes of Arabia vow allegiance to Muhammad 632 Death of Muhammad. Abu Bakr chosen as caliph. allegiance to Islam Muslim conquests (Futuhat) begin. Muslim armies take the Fertile Crescent 633-4 (Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia), 2 North African coast, parts of Persian and Byzantine Empires c. 650 656 657 Caliph Uthman has the Qur'an written down. Uthman is murdered; Ali becomes fourth caliph. Battle of Siffin. Mu'awiya, governor of Syria, claims the caliphate.</p> <p>632-3 Wars of ridda (apostasy) restore 3 633</p> <p>659</p> <p>Arbitration at Adruh is opposed by Ali's supporters. Ali is murdered; Mu'awiya becomes caliph. Beginning of Umayyad Caliphate (661-750). Death of Husayn marks beginning of</p> <p>661</p> <p>680</p> <p>the Shi'at Ali ("party of Ali") or Shi'a sect. Reign of Abd al-Malik. Centralization of</p> <p>685-70 administration - Arabic becomes official 5 late 600s 00s 710 732 written language (instead of Greek and Persian) and Arab coinage is established. Ruling classes in East and West Africa convert to Islam. form Arab armies enter Spain from North Africa. Muslim empire reaches its furthes</p> <p>700-8 Groups of ascetics and mystics begin to</p> <p>extent. Battle of Tours prevents further advance northwards. 747 750 754 Revolt defeats the Umayyads. Abu l'Abbas becomes caliph in Iraq Baghdad (Madinat al-Salam, "city of peace") becomes the new capital of the Abbasid empire. 755 Abd ar-Rahman founds an Umayyad Dynasty in Cordoba, Spain. Division within Shi'ites - majority are 765 the modern Imamiyya (Twelvers) who co-exist with Abbasid caliphs; minority are more extreme Isma'iliyaa (Seveners). 786-80 9 800s Reign of Harun ar-Rashid, best known through the stories of The Thousand and One Nights. Written collections of Hadith (sayings of the Prophet) are compiled. Sicily comes under Muslim rule.</p> <p>Reign of Ma'mun. Theological 813-3 3 controversy over whether the Qur'an is created or uncreated and eternal. Center for translation of texts from Greek to Arabic founded in Baghdad. 869-88 Uprisings of black slaves (Zanj) are 3 908 928 eventually defeated. First Fatimid caliph in Tunisia. Umayyad Abd ar-Rahman III declares himself caliph in Cordoba. Muhammad al-Mahdi, the twelfth imam, 940 disappears. Twelvers still await the future return of the "Hidden Imam." 945 969 The Buyids (Persian) invade Baghdad and take power from caliph. Fatimids gain power in Egypt and attack Palestine, Syria, and Arabia. Cairo (Al-Qahira, "the victorious city") is founded.</p> <p>980-10 Life of Avicenna, Iranian physician and 37 21 late 900s 1030 1055 Aristotelian philosopher. forms basis of esoteric Druze religion. West Africa begins to convert to Islam Umayyad caliphate in Cordoba defeated by the Christian Reconquista. Seljuk Turks take Baghdad; Abbasids now only nominal rulers. Reconquista takes more of Spain, Sicily 1000s falls to the Normans, Crusader kingdoms are briefly established in Palestine and Syria. 1071 1090 Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantines at Battle of Manzikert. Hasan-i Sabbah...</p>