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Environmental Geology of the Islamabad-Rawalpindi Area, Northern PakistanBy Iqbal M. Sheikh, Geological Survey of Pakistan Mustafa K. Pasha, Geological Survey of Pakistan Van S. Williams, U.S. Geological Survey S. Qamer Raza, Geological Survey of Pakistan Kanwar S.A. Khan, Geological Survey of PakistanChapter G of

Regional Studies of the Potwar Plateau Area, Northern PakistanEdited by Peter D. Warwick and Bruce R. Wardlaw

Prepared in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Pakistan, under the auspices of the U.S. Agency for International Development, U.S. Department of State, and the Government of Pakistan

Bulletin 2078G

U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey

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ContentsAbstract ........................................................................................................................................................G1 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................1 Acknowledgments ................................................................................................................................3 Climate .............................................................................................................................................................3 Hydrology ........................................................................................................................................................3 Landforms........................................................................................................................................................3 General Terrain......................................................................................................................................3 Descriptive Outline of Landforms .......................................................................................................8 Depositional Landforms ..............................................................................................................8 Erosional Landforms ..................................................................................................................10 Geology ..........................................................................................................................................................10 Descriptive Outline of Rock Units ....................................................................................................10 Surghar Group (Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous) ...............................................................12 Makarwal Group (Paleocene) .................................................................................................12 Cherat Group (Lower Eocene) .................................................................................................12 Rawalpindi Group (Miocene) ...................................................................................................12 Siwalik Group (Neogene and Pleistocene(?)) .......................................................................13 Surficial Units (Pleistocene and Holocene) ..........................................................................13 Geologic History ..................................................................................................................................14 Geologic Structure..............................................................................................................................15 Hazara Fault Zone ......................................................................................................................15 Piedmont Fold Belt .....................................................................................................................17 Soan Syncline .............................................................................................................................17 Geologic Hazards .........................................................................................................................................17 Seismic Risk .........................................................................................................................................17 Flooding ................................................................................................................................................20 Debris Flows ........................................................................................................................................20 General Engineering Characteristics .......................................................................................................20 Waste Disposal ............................................................................................................................................22 Urban Mineral Resources ..........................................................................................................................24 Aggregate.............................................................................................................................................24 Sand ......................................................................................................................................................26 Brick Clay .............................................................................................................................................27 References Cited..........................................................................................................................................27

Plate[Plate is in pocket] G1. Environmental geology of the Islamabad-Rawalpindi study area, northern Pakistan.

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FiguresG1. Map showing the location of the Islamabad-Rawalpindi study area and selected regional features .......................................................................................................G2 G2. Map showing the location of cultural and geographic places in the IslamabadRawalpindi study area mentioned in the report ......................................................................2 G3. Diagram showing the sources of geologic mapping data .....................................................8 G4. Diagrams showing temperature and precipitation data for Islamabad ..............................9 G5. Generalized composite stratigraphic section of consolidated rocks in the Islamabad-Rawalpindi study area ...........................................................................................11 G6. Map showing earthquake magnitudes between January 26, 1977, and April 30, 1978, and potentially active faults in the Islamabad-Rawalpindi study area ...............................................................................................................................................16 G7G9. Geologic cross sections in the Islamabad-Rawalpindi study area: G7. Cross section AA ...........................................................................................................18 G8. Enlargement of the north end (AA) of cross section AA....................................19 G9. Cross section BB ............................................................................................................20 G10. Logs of the Capital Development Authority hydrologic test holes around Islamabad.....................................................................................................................................21

TablesG1. Geology and geomorphology of environmental map units shown on plate G1 ...............G4 G2. Engineering properties, hazards, and hydrology of environmental map units shown on plate G1 ........................................................................................................................5 G3. Resources and land-use considerations of environmental map units shown on plate G1...........................................................................................................................................7 G4. Physical properties of geologic materials in the Islamabad-Rawalpindi study area ...............................................................................................................................................23 G5. Estimated reserves of aggregate in the Islamabad-Rawalpindi study area.....................25 G6. Number of brick kilns operating in major clay-mining areas in or near the Islamabad-Rawalpindi study area ...........................................................................................27

Environmental Geology of the Islamabad-Rawalpindi Area, Northern PakistanBy Iqbal M. Sheikh, Mustafa K. Pasha, Van S. Williams, S. Qamer Raza, and Kanwar S.A. Khan

AbstractIslamabad, the capital of Pakistan, is a planned city constructed since about 1960 at the foot of the Margala Hills just north of the old city of Rawalpindi. Rapid growth of both Islamabad and Rawalpindi to a combined population near 1.3 million has made ever-increasing demands on natural resources and caused adverse effects on the environment. To maintain the quality of the capital, municipal authorities need information on the physical environment to guide future development. Major environmental concerns are (1) availability of building materials, (2) environmental degradation from extraction and processing of building materials, (3) availability of surface and ground water, (4) pollution of water by waste disposal, (5) geologic hazards, and (6) engineering characteristics of soil and rock. This report summarizes information on the environmental geology of the Islamabad area that has been collected by a cooperative project of the Geological Survey of Pakistan and the U.S. Geological Survey, supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development. Many of the interpretations